Coat of arms of Kłodzko
The coat of arms of Kłodzko shows a white Bohemian Lion on a red field with a golden crown and a double tail. The coat of arms comes from the dynasty of Czech kings Premyslids. Residents of Kłodzko given by the ruler of the Bohemia Přemysl Otakar II of municipal rights, decided to go to the Prague court, to ask the king for granting the coat of arms, the most important determinant of urban in the Middle Ages; the king, after adoption of the inhabitants of the delegation, agreed to give Kłodzko a coat of arms, which represented the lion's crown. During the transport of stone sculptures of the image of a lion to Kłodzko, an accident occurred when the statue fell out of the cart and broke in a place where the lion's tail was. Therefore, the messenger once again went to Prague, where he received a new sculpture with arms, with the difference that the sculptor, as a safety measure, made the lion with two tails; this time on the way back, nothing happened, the disc arrived safely to Kłodzko. In fact, the Kladsko/Kłodzko coat of arms was granted to the city by King Ottokar II sometime during his reign.
The precise date and circumstances are not known, because the royal foundation charter has not survived. The figure of a silver lion with two tails refers to the heraldic symbol of the Kingdom of Bohemia, to which all the Kłodzko Land belonged from the 10th century until 1742–1748; the earliest image of a lion is preserved on the municipal seal originating in the third quarter of the 13th century. A similar coat of arms is borne by the second biggest town in this region – Bystrzyca Kłodzka
Kasper Niesiecki known as Kacper Niesiecki, was a Polish heraldist, lexicographer, writer and preacher. Niesiecki was born in Greater Poland to a burgher family. In 1699 he began training as a Jesuit in Kraków. From 1701 to 1704 he studied philosophy in Lublin. In 1707 Niesiecki started his studies in theology at the Jagiellonian University, graduating in 1711, he undertook further study in Lutsk, Bydgoszcz and Kalisz. Between 1715 and 1723 Niesiecki worked as a preacher in Masovia, Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and Ruthenia, he taught rhetoric in Bydgoszcz and Chojnice, ethics and mathematics in Kalisz. From 1724 he lived in the monastery of Krasnystaw, where he engaged in his life's work, compiling the Herbarz Polski. Niesiecki died there on 9 July 1744; the first volume of Herbarz Polski was published in 1728 in Lwów. Niesiecki wanted to write it in Latin, but his patron, Marianna from Potocki-Tarłowa, specified that it was to be published in Polish; because Niesiecki tried to not use unverified sources and legends, he was opposed by the szlachta.
He continued with the work. After the fourth volume was published attacks by the nobles increased. Work on the fifth volume was interrupted by his death. In the opinion of historians, the work of Niesiecki obeys all world-standards of genealogy. In the 19th century the armorial was expanded by several authors and published by Jan Nepomucen de Bobrowicz in Leipzig. Herbarz Polski full title: "Korona Polska przy złotey wolnosci starożytnemi Rycerstwa Polskiego y Wielkiego Xięstwa Litewskiego kleynotami naywyższymi Honorami Heroicznym, Męstwem y odwagą, Wytworną Nauką a naypierwey Cnotą, nauką Pobożnością, y Swiątobliwością ozdobiona Potomnym zaś wiekom na zaszczyt y nieśmiertelną sławę Pamiętnych w tey Oyczyźnie Synow podana TOM... Przez X. Kaspra Niesieckego Societatis Jesu", Lviv, 1738. "Korona Polska..." vol. 1 "Korona Polska..." vol. 2 "Korona Polska..." vol. 3 "Korona Polska..." vol. 4 edition expanded by other authors: Herbarz Polski... vol. 4-10, published by Jan Nepomucen de Bobrowicz, Leipzig, 1841 Herbarz Polski... - some volumes Polish literature Polish heraldry Coats of arms pictures from Herbarz Polski
Józef Karol Lubomirski
Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski was a Polish noble. He was owner of Dubno, Wiśnicz, Tarnów and Zesław, Koniuszy of the Crown since 1683, Court Marshals of the Crown since 1692, Grand Marshal of the Crown in 1702, Starost of Sandomierz and Zator
Tadeusz Gajl is a Lithuanian-born Polish artist and graphic designer, notable for his contemporary illustrations on the coats of arms borne by the historical nobility of Poland. After graduating from the Academy of Fine Arts in Łódź in 1966, he worked as a design specialist for the textile industry in Walim and in Białystok. Between 1975 and the martial law in Poland of 1981 he worked as head of graphics for the "Kontrasty" monthly, editor-in-chief and graphics for the weekly "Plus". In 1990 he was one of the co-founders of "Tygodnik Białostocki", a Białystok-based local weekly, he has authored the graphical and artistic finish of numerous books of various Polish publishing houses. Since 1983 Gajl became interested in Polish heraldry. For two of his books detailing the coats of arms of the nobility in the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth he prepared more than 4500 illustrations; because his illustrative work are not represented true to the original, but used over the internet and by foreign publications, his coats of arms illustrations are referred to in Polish by the nomenclature herbami gajlowskimi.
He is the author of modern emblems adopted by, among others, the city of Białystok and Podlaskie Voivodship. Polish heraldry Ornatowski.com: https://web.archive.org/web/20060507135335/http://www.ornatowski.com/index/herbyszlacheckie_g.htm Wyszukiwarka herbów szlachty polskiej: http://gajl.wielcy.pl/
Coat of arms of Gdańsk
The coat of arms of the city of Gdańsk, in its current form, dates back to 1410 and Banderia Prutenorum. The coat of arms is similar to the flag of Gdańsk, it depicts two silver crosses above which hovers a golden crown. The greater arms has two lions as supporters and Gdańsk motto; the coat of arms in its current form was given by Casimir IV Jagiellon on May 25, 1457. Adopted in 2010. Coat of arms of Gdańsk was used by several noble families of Russia, including Counts Sheremetevs and Konovnitsyns. In case of the Sheremetev and Konovnitsyn coat of arms, it refers to the legendary origin of the family from the leader of one of the Prussian tribes. A similar design is used by Oliwa. Republic of Danzig used same symbols. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig adopted its arms, defined in the Constitution. Both pattée and common crosses were used. Danzig Cross Banderia Prutenorum Banderia Prutenorum oder die Fahnen des Deutschen Ordens und seiner Verbündeten, welche in Schlachten und Gefechten des 15.
Jahrhunderts eine Beute der Polen wurden / Abb. F. A. Vossberg. — Berlin, 1849. Media related to Coats of arms of Gdańsk at Wikimedia Commons
A heraldic clan, in Poland, comprised all the noble bearers of the same coat-of-arms. The members of a heraldic clan were not linked by consanguinity; the concept of heraldic clan was unique to Polish heraldry. The Polish word "herb" derives from the German "Erbe", "inheritance" or "heritage", denotes a coat of arms or family crest. Unrelated families could be inducted into the same crest and thus become co-armorials sharing the same "herb". Bearers of the same coat-of-arms were variously called "herbowni", "współherbowni", or "klejnotni", from "klejnot", "jewel"; the numbers of such individual families reached several dozen. The heraldic-family tradition constitutes one of the hypotheses about the origins of the Polish nobility: the unique feature of Polish heraldry being the practice of inducting unrelated families into the same coat-of-arms, sometimes with minor variations of tincture. In time, all those families were integrated into the szlachta; the number of families within a particular "heraldic family" varied over time and could be affected by heraldic adoption.
Entire noble classes from other nations, for example from Lithuania, were incorporated by adoption—granted an indygenat—into the Polish nobility and its heraldic system. Removal from the heraldic system was possible, by vituperatio nobilitatis, a legal procedure for revocation of nobility. Polish nobility, the szlachta, originated in the Middle Ages from chivalric heraldic clans which provided military support or resources to king, duke, or overlord. Over the centuries, membership in the nobility was extended to those who served their localities or towns as deputies or senators at sejmiks or sejms or as judges and other civic officials. Members of the nobility could be further rewarded with honorary functions at the royal court. Polish family crests have their individual names stemming from the heraldic clan's ancient seat or battle cry; the battle-cry derivation of many Polish heraldic family names has given rise to the now outdated term "proclamatio arms", referring to the names' hortatory nature.
From the 17th to the 20th centuries, belonging to a distinguished house and a shared armorial lineage mattered to members of the szlachta. That is why most modern Polish armorials are arranged by clan names, rather than by their respective family crests, as was the case with 16th-century armorials. After the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th c. adherence to a herb, family crest, became more ceremonial and symbolic than real. This was due to the nobility becoming impoverished and inactive in power structures in the 19th c; the few exceptions were among members of some grand Polish magnate families who were able to achieve influence with the occupying powers, or with Napoleon and his successors or with the Pope and received such foreign titles as "Prince", "Count", or "Baron" while keeping their original Polish herb. More than the Scottish clan model, the German Wappengemeinschaft, "armorial association" is closer to the Polish concept of the "herb", thus the Polish szlachta and its heraldic system may be considered more akin to the Germanic sippia or the Scandinavian ætt.
List of szlachta List of Polish titled nobility Polish name Polish heraldry
Elżbieta Helena Sieniawska née Lubomirska was a Polish noblewoman, Grand Hetmaness of the Crown and renowned patron of arts. As an influential woman politician in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the reign of Augustus II the Strong she was embroiled in the Great Northern War and in the Rákóczi's War for Independence, she was considered the most powerful woman in the Commonwealth and called the uncrowned Queen of Poland. Elżbieta was the only child of Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski by his first wife Zofia Opalińska, her father, a neostoic known as the Polish Solomon, had a great influence on her education and politics. After her father's death she inherited many of his estates, including Puławy, Łubnice, Czerniaków and many other properties in Warsaw, she was educated in the Visitationist Sisters boarding-school in Warsaw and in 1680 she was admitted at the court as a lady-in-waiting of Queen Marie Casimire. In 1687, she married Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski, Grand Hetman of the Crown, despite her husband's demands she stayed in Warsaw, where she got involved in a famed romance with Jan Stanisław Jabłonowski.
She was reconciled with her husband, but soon after, her affair with Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski became well known. Her financial independence caused conflict with her husband and she was forced to defend her property and income from his interference; the hetmaness achieved equilibrium within their marriage, sometimes underlined her leadership role in their intimate relations addressing Sieniawski as My dear Maiden in her letters. Monsieur de Mongrillon, secretary of the French Embassy in the period 1694-1698, recalled in his memoirs: she is a true Amazon She smokes like a man, it is said that the Tatar ambassador who came to Poland with peace overtures came to smoke by her bed and she smoked with him. The hetmaness was "a lady of great wisdom and shrewdness" and she was deployed by her husband on diplomatic missions and obligations that he could not cope with. Otwinowski called her "a great owner of such shrewdness that she had meetings with the whole of Europe". Others called her "a great ruler and the First Lady of the Republic" and Augustus II had her portrait amid the effigies of distinguished women.
After John III Sobieski's death she supported the French candidature of François Louis, Prince of Conti for the Polish throne and became a leader of his party. When she became disillusioned with his candidature, she affiliated with Augustus II. After Queen Marie Casimire's departure to Rome, she administered her widow dowry in Warsaw. Between 1701 and 1703, due to incitement of the French diplomacy, she was involved in the anti-Habsburg insurrection in Hungary, which she financially and politically supported; the rebellion's leader Francis II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania, became her lover. In the Sieniawskis' estate in Berezhany, Rákóczi issued a proclamation To all Hungarians considered as the beginning of the uprising, their discreet romance flourished in the turbulent years of war. He wrote a madrigal in French dedicated to the hetmaness and his love letters are interesting examples of epistolography; when in 1704, Jakub and Konstanty Sobieskis were kidnapped and imprisoned in Saxony, Aleksander resigned from the rivalry for the crown, afraid of revenge from his former lover.
In 1706, after Augustus II's abdication, she engaged in the negotiations to reach an agreement between the tsar Peter I of Russia and king Charles XII of Sweden. During the negotiations she met with King Leszczyński's envoy. Sieniawska was met with the king himself, she was released after a month due to French mediation. After Augustus' abdication Sieniawska's husband become one of the most significant players in the struggle for Polish crown, he was considered as one of the leaders of the Sandomierz Confederation, starting from 1707 he negotiated with the Tsar Peter I his own candidature to the throne. But his wife opposed his candidacy and threatened him with divorce, she did however support the candidature of her lover Francis Rákóczi as the most appropriate in a difficult political situation of the Serenissima. With a support of a French diplomat Jean Victor de Besenval she was involved in peace mediations. After the declaration of interregnum in the Commonwealth in July 1707 an agreement was reached and on 8 August 1707 the Lublin Council was appointed.
Because of robberies and other abuses by Russian troops, Sejm began to enforce the Sieniawska's protegee. When those plans failed, she endeavoured to legalise Leszczyński's election and to remove all foreign troops from the country. In her politics, she aimed to reduce the Russian influences in the Commonwealth, she was an unscrupulous politician participating in political affairs on a large scale, establishing secret contacts with different camps and conducting various personal intrigues – Charles XII of Sweden referred to her as "that most accursed woman". Since 1709, she fostered Konstanty's candidature to the throne, though she was against the Wettin restoration, she could accommodate to Augustus II being in possession of the Polish crown. To the baptism of her only daughter in 1711 in Jarosław she invited the powerful of the age. Among the godparents were Tsar Peter I, King Augustus II and prince Rákóczi, accompanied by about 15000 soldiers; the tsar Peter I was attracted by her unusual intelligence and it is believed that she became his mistress.
During his stay in Jaworów in May 1711, according to the French ambassador Sieur Baluze, they talked endlessly and built a boat tog