Fear of Music
Fear of Music is the third studio album by American rock band Talking Heads, released on August 3, 1979 by Sire Records. It was recorded at locations in New York City during April and May 1979 and was produced by the quartet and Brian Eno; the album reached number 21 on the Billboard 200 and number 33 on the UK Albums Chart, spawned the singles "Life During Wartime", "I Zimbra", "Cities". Fear of Music received favourable reviews from critics. Praise centred on frontman David Byrne's lyrical performances; the album is considered one of the best Talking Heads releases, has featured in several publications' lists of the best albums of all time. Talking Heads' second album More Songs About Buildings and Food, released in 1978, expanded the band's sonic palette; the record included a hit single, a cover of Al Green's "Take Me to the River", which gained the quartet commercial exposure. In March 1979, the band members played the song on nationwide U. S. music show American Bandstand. In the days after the performance, they decided they did not want to be regarded as "a singles machine".
Talking Heads entered a New York City studio without a producer in the spring of 1979 and practiced demo tracks. Musically, the band wanted to expand on the "subtly disguised" disco rhythms present in More Songs About Buildings and Food by making them more prominent in the mixes of new songs; the recording plans were shelved after the quartet was not pleased with the results during the sessions. A decision was taken to rehearse in drummer Chris Frantz's and bassist Tina Weymouth's loft, where the band members played before they signed to a record label in the mid-1970s. Eno, who produced their previous full-length release, was called to help. On April 22 and May 6, 1979, a Record Plant van manned by a sound engineering crew parked outside Frantz's and Weymouth's house and ran cables through their loft window. On these two days, Talking Heads recorded the basic tracks with Eno. Instead of incorporating characters in society like in More Songs About Buildings and Food, Byrne decided to place them alone in dystopian situations.
Weymouth was skeptical of Byrne's decisions, but the frontman managed to persuade her. She has explained that Byrne's sense of rhythm is "insane but fantastic" and that he was key to the band's recording drive during the home sessions; as songs evolved, playing instrumental sections became easier for the band members. Eno was instrumental in shaping their sound and recording confidence and worked on electronic treatments of tracks once they were all crafted. After completing Fear of Music, Talking Heads embarked on their first Pacific region tour in June 1979 and played concerts in New Zealand, Australia and Hawaii; the album was released worldwide on August 3. The LP sleeve was designed by band member Jerry Harrison, it is black and embossed with a pattern that resembles the appearance and texture of diamond plate metal flooring. The rest of the artwork was crafted by Byrne and includes heat-sensitive photography created by Jimmy Garcia with the help of Doctor Philip Strax. Harrison suggested the "ludicrous" title to the band.
According to Weymouth, it was accepted because it "fit" with the album's themes and the fact that the quartet was under a lot of stress and pressure when making it. A U. S. tour to showcase the new material was completed during August 1979. At the time, Byrne told Rolling Stone, "We're in a funny position, it wouldn't please us to make music that's impossible to listen to, but we don't want to compromise for the sake of popularity." The band shared the headliner slots with Van Morrison and The Chieftains at the Edinburgh Festival in September and embarked on a promotional European tour until the end of the year. Fear of Music was certified Gold by Recording Industry Association of America on September 17, 1985 after more than 500,000 copies were sold in the U. S. Fear of Music is built on an eclectic mix of disco rhythms, cinematic soundscapes, conventional rock music elements. Album opener "I Zimbra" is an African-influenced disco track and includes background chanting from assistant recording engineer Julie Last.
The album begins with "I Zimbra", whose lyrics are based on a nonsensical poem by Dadaist writer Hugo Ball. The sound of lyrics, together with the tribal sound of the song, enhanced by guest star virtuoso guitarist Robert Fripp, gave it an "ethnic" style. "Cities" details a search for the perfect urban settlement to live in and was borne out of Talking Heads' preferences for urban homes in Manhattan. "Paper" compares a love affair with a simple piece of paper. In "Life During Wartime", Byrne cast himself an "unheroic urban guerrilla", who renounced parties, survived on basic supplies like peanut butter, heard rumours about weapons shipments and impromptu graveyards; the character is only connected to the imminent collapse of his civilization. Byrne considered the persona "believable and plausible". "Air" is a protest song against the atmosphere, an idea Byrne does not consider "a joke". Inspired by The Threepenny Opera, the lyricist wanted to create a melancholic and touching track about a person who feels so depressed that breathing feels painful.
The album was well received by reviewers. Jon Pareles, writing in Rolling Stone, was impressed with its "unswerving rhythms" and Byrne's lyrical evocations. Like its black, corrugated packaging, the album is foreboding, inescapably urban and obsessed with texture." With the song "Mind", Byrne introduces his first use of double-tracking of vocals on an album. John Rockwell of The
Mourvèdre is a red wine grape variety, grown in many regions around the world including the Rhône and Provence regions of France, the Valencia and Jumilla denominaciones de origen of Spain, as well as the Balearic Islands and Washington State and the Australian regions of South Australia and New South Wales, as well as South Africa. In addition to making red varietal wines, Mourvèdre is a prominent component in "GSM" blends; the variety is used to make rosé and port-style fortified wines. Mourvèdre tends to produce tannic wines; the style of wine produced from the grapes varies according to where it is produced, but according to wine expert Jancis Robinson Mourvèdre wines have wild game, or earthy notes to them, with soft red fruit flavors. According to wine expert Oz Clarke, young Mourvèdre can come across as faulted due to the reductive, sulfur notes and "farmyard-y" flavors that some wines can exhibit before those flavors mellow with age; the variety can be a difficult grape to grow, preferring "its face in the hot sun and its feet in the water" meaning that it needs warm weather, a low leaf-to-fruit ratio but adequate water or irrigation to produce intensely flavored fruit, not overly jammy or herbaceous.
The vines' susceptibility to many viticultural hazards such as powdery and downy mildew as well as overly vigorous foliage can present additional problems for vine growers. Most wine historians agree that Mourvèdre is to be Spanish in origin, though its exact history is difficult to pinpoint; the variety was introduced to Valencia by the Phoenicians around 500 BC. The French-adapted name Mourvèdre came from Murviedro near Valencia while the Spanish name Mataró is thought to have come from Mataró, Catalonia near the modern-day city of Barcelona. Despite this close association with Murviedro and Mataró, the grape became known in Spain as Monastrell for reasons that are still unknown though Oz Clarke speculates that a "neutral" name may have been chosen so as not to offend the local pride of both regions. Mourvèdre had a well-established presence in Roussillon region of France by at least the 16th century when still part of Spain where it spread eastwards towards Provence and the Rhone. There it had a well established foothold until the phylloxera epidemic of the mid to late 19th century decimated plantings.
As the French and other European wine regions recovered from the phylloxera scourge by grafting Vitis vinifera varieties to American rootstock, it was discovered that Mourvèdre vines did not take well to the grafting and many vineyards were replanted with other varieties. Mourvèdre arrived in California in the 1860s as part of the Pellier collection; the variety, known as Mataro, was used for bulk produced jug wines. In the late 20th century, interest in Mourvèdre as a premium grape variety picked up as the Rhone Rangers began seeking out old vine plantings of the variety in Contra Costa County vineyards. In the 1990s, critically acclaimed bottlings from Bonny Doon Vineyard and Cline Cellars Winery promoted demand in the variety and by the mid-2000s, plantings of Mourvèdre in California had risen to 260 ha. In Australia, the variety has had a long history in the country with plantings dating back to the mid-19th century. In the 1980s, many of these old vine plantings were uprooted in a government sponsored vine pulling scheme but some still survive and are producing today.
While the variety was used as an anonymous blending grape in fortified wines, the variety saw a rise in interest in the 1990s as producers started receiving acclaim for GSM blends. With a slight increase in planting there were more than 1000 ha of Mataro in Australia by the mid-2000s, it has been put forward by Ampelographists that Mourvèdre may be the parent to the esteemed grape Mavrud, or that at least Mavrud is a clone of Mourvèdre, imported into Bulgaria by the Romans. According to ampelographer Pierre Galet Mourvèdre thrives in warm climates as the variety has a tendency to both bud and ripen late. While the variety can recover well from late spring frost due to the late budding, it can be temperature sensitive throughout its growing season with low winter temperatures affecting its dormancy. Though the grape can adapt to a variety of vineyard soil types, the most ideal sites are warm, south facing slopes with shallow, clay soils that can retain the necessary moisture to keep the vines "feet" wet without letting it grow its foliage too vigorously.
In addition to a warm climate, Mourvèdre does best in a dry climate with sufficient wind to protect it from the viticultural hazards of powdery mildew and downy mildew. The grape clusters of Mourvèdre are compact, enhancing its susceptibility to mildew, with small thick-skinned berries that are high in both color and flavor phenolics tannins. Though the variety ripens late, it has the potential to ripen to high Brix sugar levels which can translate into a high alcohol level during fermentation; the vine can be vigorous, producing abundant foliage that can shade the grape clusters, affecting canopy management decisions for growers. In Australia and California, many of the oldest plantings of Mourvèdre are bush trained as the vines grows well vertically but the variety can be grown under many different kinds of vine training systems; the harvest window for the grape tends to be short once it reaches peak ripeness, with acidity falling and the grapes soon desiccating and developing "prune-y" flavor
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
The Machines We Are
The Machines We Are is the second full-length studio album released by Dead and Divine. It was released on August 4, 2009; the video for "Neon Jesus" was released in September 2009. "The Sugar Sickness" - 3:49 "Creature" - 4:10 "Chemical Valley" - 2:43 "Neon Jesus" - 3:13 "D. R. U. G. S." - 2:44 "For Your Health" - 1:36 "Teeth" - 3:40 "Mechanical Orchestra" - 3:28 "Lovely Bones" - 5:22 "Cassandra Syndrome" - 9:21 Vocals: Matt Tobin Guitars: Chris Le-Masters Drums: Kyle Anderson Bass: Kellan Lindsay Produced by Eric Ratz & Garth Richardson Engineered and Mixed by Eric Ratz Editor: Dajaun Martineau Tech: Alan "Yeti" Riches Layout and design by Sons of Nero
A demon is a supernatural and malevolent being prevalent in religion, literature, fiction and folklore. The original Greek word daimon does not carry negative connotations; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. Daimōn most came from the Greek verb daiesthai.
The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. To distinguish the classical Greek concept from its Christian interpretation, the former is anglicized as either daemon or daimon rather than demon; the original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον, ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root. The Greek terms do not have any connotations of malevolence. In fact, εὐδαιμονία eudaimonia, means happiness. By the early Roman Empire, cult statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike, as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans, Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, as something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into malevolent'demons', the troupe of Satan..... Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan statuary as a seat of the demons' presence.
It was no longer beautiful, it was infested." The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was inherited by the Koine text of the New Testament; the Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a demon derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" came to include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity; the supposed existence of demons remains an important concept in many modern religions and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared due to their alleged power to possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition, a demon is a useful metaphor for certain inner psychological processes, though some may regard it as an objectively real phenomenon; some scholars believe that large portions of the demonology of Judaism, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a form of Zoroastrianism, were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
Both deities and demons can act as intermediaries to deliver messages to humans. Thus they share some resemblance to the Greek daimonion; the exact definition of "demon" in Egyptology posed a major problem for modern scholarship, since the borders between a deity and a demon are sometimes blurred and the ancient Egyptian language lacks a term for the modern English "demon". However, magical writings indicate that ancient Egyptians acknowledged the existence of malevolent demons by highlighting the demon names with red ink. Demons in this culture appeared to be subordinative and related to a specific deity, yet they may have acted independent from the divine will; the existence of demons can be related beyond the created world. But this negative connotation cannot be denied in light of the magical texts; the role of demons in relation to the human world remains ambivalent and depends on context. Ancient Egyptian demons can be divided into two classes: "guardians" and "wanderers." "Guardians" are tied to a specific place.
Demons protecting the underworld may prevent human souls from entering paradise. Only by knowing right charms is the deceased able to enter the Halls of Osiris. Here, the aggressive nature of the guardian demons is motivated by the need to protect their abodes and not by their evil essence. Accordingly, demons guarded the gates to the netherworld. During the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the guardians shifted towards the role of Genius loci and they were the focus of local and private cults; the "wanderers" are associated with possession, mental illness and plagues. Many of them serve as executioners for the major deities, such as Ra or Osiris, when ordered to punish humans on earth or in the netherworld. Wanderers can be agents of chaos, arising from the world beyond creation to bring about misfortune and suffering without any divine instructions, led only by evil motivations; the influences of the wanderers can be warded off and kept at the borders on the human world by the use of magic, but they can never be destroyed.
A sub-category of "wanderers" are nightmare demons, which were believed to ca
Flatbush Zombies are an American hip hop group from the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York City, formed in 2010. The group is composed of rappers Meechy Darko, Zombie Juice and Erick Arc Elliott, with Elliott serving as their regular record producer; the trio are part of the East Coast hip hop movement known as "Beast Coast", which consists of fellow Brooklyn-based rap groups The Underachievers and Pro Era. Flatbush Zombies have collaborated with various artists, including RZA, ASAP Mob, Z-Breezy, Jim Jones, Juicy J, Danny Brown, Action Bronson, Mr. Muthafuckin eXquire, Anthony Flammia among others, they have performed at music festivals such as The Hudson Project, JMBLYA, Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, Pemberton Music Festival, Afropunk Festival, Olly Mac Sesh, Paid Dues, North Coast Music Festival, SXSW, Rolling Loud in Miami, Wireless in London. The group has grown in popularity through two mixtapes and several music videos, leading to their debut studio album, 3001: A Laced Odyssey, in 2016.
Friends since grade school, all three members were born and raised in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York City. Erick and Meechy Darko are of Jamaican descent. One of the first things Dimitri Simms, Antonio Lewis and Erick Elliott bonded over was the Japanese anime Dragon Ball Z and wrestling. During their teenage years, they began experimenting with psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin mushrooms and LSD. Zombie Juice, along with fellow Flatbush native Issa Gold of The Underachievers started looking into the indigo lifestyle. Meechy Darko said the first time doing mushrooms his ego died and had a sort of rebirth of conscience. Erick Arc Elliott, making his own solo music, decided to bring the group together musically around 2010, their first club performance took place at 307 in Waterloo. The group's popularity grew after releasing the "Thug Waffle" video on YouTube. In the year, Flatbush Zombies released their debut mixtape, titled D. R. U. G. S. Which stands for "Death and Reincarnation Under God's Supervision.
In 2012, Flatbush Zombies were featured on the song "Just Blowin' in the Wind" with Wu Tang Clan's RZA for the soundtrack to RZA's film The Man with the Iron Fists. "In 2013, the group collaborated with fellow Brooklyn rap group The Underachievers, on the single "No Religion". On July 29, 2013, Flatbush Zombies released a YouTube video announcing their second mixtape, BetterOffDEAD, released at 9:11 PM on September 11, 2013. Along with "MRAZ," the singles "Palm Trees" and "222", are included on the nineteen track mixtape BetterOffDEAD. Though Elliott is the main producer, Harry Fraud and Obey City provide production on the mixtape. Danny Brown and Action Bronson appear on the tracks "Drug Parade" and "Club Soda" respectively; the mixtape was met with critical acclaim. It would end up being ranked at number 17 on XXL's list of the best mixtapes of 2013. A remixed version of My Team Supreme featuring Bodega Bamz was featured in NBA Live 15. Flatbush Zombies released the video for "MRAZ", a track off the group's mixtape BetterOffDEAD.
On February 13, 2014, Flatbush Zombies released a new song, "LiT". Flatbush Zombies revealed to XXL that their extended play, It's All a Matter of Perspective, had been scrapped. Instead the group told XXL to "expect an album this year."In September 2014, it was announced that Flatbush Zombies would be touring with fellow Brooklyn-based rap group The Underachievers, they would be collectively known as Clockwork Indigo. The two groups subsequently released a collaborative song titled "Butterfly Effect," followed by an EP titled Clockwork Indigo, on October 17, 2014, they claim that they came up with the idea of forming Clockwork Indigo, from a "strange LSD trip while watching A Clockwork Orange". During the Clockwork Indigo concert tour, the group collectively wore white clothing as did Alex's gang in the film A Clockwork Orange. On March 15, 2015, Flatbush Zombies released a new single on SoundCloud titled "Red Eye to Paris" featuring UK Grime artist Skepta. On September 11, 2015 at 9:11 pm EST, the group released a new single and charged music video on YouTube titled "Blacktivist".
On January 11, 2016, the group released the single "Glorious Thugs". On the same day, the group announced that their debut album titled 3001: A Laced Odyssey, would be released March 11, 2016. On February 5, 2016, they released the first single from 3001: A Laced Odyssey titled "Bounce", followed by the official music video on February 8. On March 10, 2016, Flatbush Zombies released the second single from the album, titled "This Is It"; the following day, they released the album. 3001: A Laced Odyssey received positive reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 80, based on 7 reviews; the album sold 28,000 copies in the first week. On February 23, 2018, Flatbush Zombies released the first single off of their second studio album, Vacation in Hell; the project was released on April 2018, under Glorious Dead Recordings. The album spawned a worldwide tour, See You In Hell Tour, that started off on April 14 at the 2018 Coachella Music Festival and ended on June 16.
In promotion for the album, the trio appeared on the nationally syndicated talk show The Breakfast Club as well as performing freestyles for Funk Flex on his radio show. The members of Flatbush Zombies have named Onyx, Tupac Shakur, Tech N9ne, OutKast, The Notorious B. I. G. Snoop Dogg, R. Kelly, Jimi Hendrix, Jay-Z, Busta Rhymes, Too $hort, Mac Dre, Bone Thugs-N-Harmony, Eazy-E, Coldplay, Etta James, Rick James, Slick Rick, Wu-Tang Clan, a
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales. It accomplishes this task by impaling the target animal and securing it with barb or toggling claws, allowing the fishermen to use a rope or chain attached to the butt of the projectile to catch the animal. A harpoon can be used as a weapon. In the 1990s, harpoon points, known as the Semliki harpoons or the Katanda harpoons, were found in the Katanda region in Zaire; as the earliest known harpoons, these weapons were made and used 90,000 years ago, most to spear catfishes. In Japan, spearfishing with poles was widespread in palaeolithic times during the Solutrean and Magdalenian periods. Cosquer Cave in Southern France contains cave art over 16,000 years old, including drawings of seals which appear to have been harpooned. There are references to harpoons in ancient literature, though, in most cases, the descriptions do not go into detail. An early example can be found in the Bible in Job 41:7: "Can you fill its hide with harpoons or its head with fishing spears?"
The Greek historian Polybius, in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head. Copper harpoons were known to the seafaring Harappans well into antiquity. Early hunters in India include the Mincopie people, aboriginal inhabitants of India's Andaman and Nicobar islands, who have used harpoons with long cords for fishing since early times; the two flue harpoon was the primary weapon used in whaling around the world, but it tended to penetrate no deeper than the soft outer layer of blubber. Thus it was possible for the whale to escape by struggling or swimming away forcefully enough to pull the shallowly embedded barbs out backwards; this flaw was corrected in the early nineteenth century with the creation of the one flue harpoon. In the Arctic, the indigenous people used the more advanced toggling harpoon design. In the mid-19th century, the toggling harpoon was adapted by Lewis Temple; the Temple toggle was used, came to dominate whaling. In his famous novel Moby-Dick, Herman Melville explained the reason for the harpoon's effectiveness: In most land animals there are certain valves or flood gates in many of their veins, whereby when wounded, the blood is in some degree at least shut off in certain directions.
Not so with the whale. Yet so vast is the quantity of blood in him, so distant and numerous its interior fountains, that he will keep thus bleeding and bleeding for a considerable period, he describes another device, at times a necessary addition to harpoons: All whale-boats carry certain curious contrivances invented by the Nantucket Indians, called druggs. Two thick squares of wood of equal size are stoutly clenched together, so that they cross each other's grain at right angles, it is chiefly among gallied whales. For more whales are close round you than you can chase at one time, but sperm whales are not every day encountered. And if you cannot kill them all at once, you must wing them, so that they can be afterwards killed at your leisure. Hence it is; the first use of explosives in the hunting of whales was made by the British South Sea Company in 1737, after some years of declining catches. A large fleet was armed with cannon-fired harpoons. Although the weaponry was successful in killing the whales, most of the catch sank before being retrieved.
However, the system was still used, underwent successive improvements at the hands of various inventors over the next century, including Abraham Stagholt in the 1770s and George Manby in the early 19th century. William Congreve, who invented some of the first rockets for British Army use, designed a rocket-propelled whaling harpoon in the 1820s; the shell was designed to impale the whale with the harpoon. The weapon was in turn attached by a line to the boat, the hope was that the explosion would generate enough gas within the whale to keep it afloat for retrieval. Expeditions were sent out to try this new technology; these early devices, called bomb lances, became used for the hunting of humpbacks and right whales. A notable user of these early explosive harpoons was the American Thomas Welcome Roys in 1865, who set up a shore station in Seydisfjördur, Iceland. A slump in oil prices after the American Civil War forced their endeavor into bankruptcy in 1867. An early version of the explosive harpoon was designed by Jacob Nicolai Walsøe, a Norwegian painter and inventor.
His 1851 application was rejected by the interior ministry on the grounds that he had received public funding for his experiments. In 1867, a Danish fi