Historical period drama
The term, historical period drama refers to a work set in an earlier time period, usually used in the context of film and television. It is an informal term that can apply to several genres and is often heard in the context of historical fiction and romances, adventure films. A period piece may be as long and general as the ages or as limited as one decade, for example. Historical drama film stories are based upon events and famous people. A period film is a film that attempts to depict a specific time period. Examples include movies like Cinderella Man, Schindler’s List, Les Misérables or Lincoln, the most common type of period piece is the historical period piece, both on stage and in movies. This category includes Robin Hood, Barry Lyndon, The Young Victoria, films that are set in the 1930s and 1940s, such as Last Man Standing, can be placed in this category. Other examples include Marie Antoinette, Middle march, and Pride, many highly successful television series have been known as period pieces.
Notable examples include The Tudors, Mad Men, Boardwalk Empire, Call the Midwife, Downton Abbey, Deadwood, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, and Little House on the Prairie
Epic film is a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, and spectacle. The usage of the term has shifted over time, sometimes designating a film genre, like epics in the classical literary sense it is often focused on a heroic character. An epics ambitious nature helps to set it apart from other types of such as the period piece or adventure film. The most common subjects of epic films are royalty, and important figures from various periods in world history, the term epic originally came from the poetic genre exemplified by such works as the Iliad, Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Odyssey. In classical literature, epics are considered works focused on deeds or journeys of heroes upon which the fate of a number of people depend. Similarly, films described as epic typically take a historical character, common subjects of epics are royalty, great military leaders, or leading personalities from various periods in world history. Such films usually have a setting, although fantasy or science fiction settings have become common in recent decades.
The central conflict of the film is seen as having far-reaching effects. The main characters actions are often central to the resolution of the societal conflict, in its classification of films by genre, the American Film Institute limits the genre to historical films such as Ben-Hur. However, film scholars such as Constantine Santas are willing to extend the label to science-fiction films such as 2001, A Space Odyssey and Star Wars. Stylistically, films classed as epic usually employ spectacular settings and specially designed costumes, often accompanied by a musical score. Epics are usually among the most expensive of films to produce and they often use on-location filming, authentic period costumes, and action scenes on a massive scale. Biographical films may be less lavish versions of this genre, many writers may refer to any film that is long as an epic, making the definition epic a matter of dispute, and raise questions as to whether it is a genre at all. As Roger Ebert put it, in his Great Movies article on Lawrence of Arabia, what you realize watching Lawrence of Arabia is that the word epic refers not to the cost or the elaborate production, but to the size of the ideas and vision.
Werner Herzogs Aguirre, The Wrath of God didnt cost as much as the catering in Pearl Harbor, but it is an epic, the comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail had the joking tagline Makes Ben Hur look like an epic. This boom period of international co-productions is generally considered to have ended with Cleopatra, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Epic films continue to be produced, although since the development of CGI they typically use computer effects instead of an actual cast of thousands. Since the 1950s, such films have regularly been shot with an aspect ratio for a more immersive. Epic films were recognized in a montage at the 2006 Academy Awards, War epics are generally focused on specific battles in a war, P. O. W camps or the personal consequences of living in an invaded/occupied country
AllMovie is an online guide service website with information about films, television programs, and screen actors. As of 2013, AllMovie. com and the AllMovie consumer brand are owned by All Media Network, AllMovie was founded by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine, who founded AllMusic and AllGame. The AllMovie database was licensed to tens of thousands of distributors and retailers for point-of-sale systems, the AllMovie database is comprehensive, including basic product information and production credits, plot synopsis, professional reviews, relational links and more. AllMovie data was accessed on the web at the AllMovie. com website and it was available via the AMG LASSO media recognition service, which can automatically recognize DVDs. In late 2007, Macrovision acquired AMG for a reported $72 million, the AMG consumer facing web properties AllMusic. com, AllMovie. com and AllGame. com were sold by Rovi in August 2013 to All Media Network, LLC. The buyers include the founders of SideReel and Ackrell Capital investor Mike Ackrell.
All Media Network offices are located in San Francisco, AllMusic AllGame SideReel All Media Network Official website
Christophe Guy Denis Lambert, known as Christopher Lambert, is a French actor. He may be best known for his role as Connor MacLeod in Highlander and subsequent movie franchise series of the same name. He is known for his roles as Tarzan in Greystoke, The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, Lambert was born in Great Neck, New York. His father was a French diplomat at the United Nations, Lambert was raised in Geneva from infancy and moved to Paris in his teens. That same year, he played his first lead role in a French film by appearing opposite Catherine Deneuve in Paroles et musique. In 1985, Lambert played the lead in Luc Bessons Subway. Highlander, in which he starred as Connor MacLeod, was an international success, Lambert appeared as MacLeod in the music video for Queens Princes of the Universe. To Kill a Priest, in which he played a character based on Jerzy Popiełuszko, was received by critics but was a financial failure. Lacking a recent box-office success, Lambert agreed to appear in the first Highlander sequel, Highlander II, The Quickening, which was poorly received.
During the 1990s, Lambert starred in action and science fiction such as Knight Moves, Fortress and Mean Guns. His filmography included low-budget films such as Adrenalin, Fear the Rush, some of his films had only a direct-to-video release. In the course of that decade, Lambert occasionally appeared in French films such as Max et Jérémie, in 1995, he played the role of the thunder god Raiden in a movie adaptation of the popular video game series Mortal Kombat. Lambert was interested in reprising his character in the sequel, Mortal Kombat, but he was committed to his role in Beowulf, and the role was given to James Remar. Lambert is active as a producer and has produced French films such as Patrick Braoudés Génial, mes parents divorcent. In 2001, he played the role of Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix in the France-Canada production Druids. In 2009, Lambert was a lead in Claire Denis White Material, Lambert had a role in the Marvel Comics film Ghost Rider, Spirit of Vengeance in 2012. He underwent sword training for three months and shaved his head, shortly afterwards, he appeared as Marcel Janvier in 6 episodes of NCIS, Los Angeles.
Lambert was married to Diane Lane from October 1988 to 1994 and they have a daughter, Eleanor Jasmine
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database
Max von Sydow
Max von Sydow is a Swedish actor who became a French citizen in 2002. He has appeared in films in many languages, including Swedish, Danish, English, Italian. He received the Royal Foundation of Swedens Cultural Award in 1954, was made a Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres in 2005, Sydow has appeared in well over a hundred films and TV shows. In 2016, Sydow joined the cast of HBOs hit series Game of Thrones, Max von Sydow was born Carl Adolf von Sydow in Lund, to a wealthy family. His father, Carl Wilhelm von Sydow, was an ethnologist and professor of Irish and his mother, Baroness Maria Margareta Greta, was a schoolteacher. Some of his ancestry is German, his family’s origin is in Pomerania, now a region mostly in Poland, formerly part of Prussia, the particle von means of and usually indicates aristocratic descent. Sydow was brought up as a Lutheran and became an agnostic and he attended Lund Cathedral School, where he learned German and English, starting at the age of nine. At school he and some friends founded a theatrical company.
He completed his service before studying at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. During his time at Dramaten, he made his debuts in Alf Sjöbergs films Only a Mother and Miss Julie. In 1955, Sydow moved to Malmö, where he met his mentor and his first work with Bergman occurred on stage at the Malmö Municipal Theatre, and he would go on to work with Bergman on films such as The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries and The Virgin Spring. In The Seventh Seal, Sydow is the knight who plays a game with Death. The chess scenes and the film were international breakthroughs for actor and director alike and it was in these films that Sydow honed and perfected his craft. Max von Sydow came to dominate the screen as he did the stage, critical recognition came as early as 1954 when he was awarded the Royal Foundation Culture Award. He worked profusely on both stage and screen while in Scandinavia, resisting the calls from the United States to go to Hollywood. As his talents were soon in demand in other American productions, von Sydow, from 1965, he became a regular on the American screen while maintaining a presence in his native Sweden.
In 1969, he appeared in John Hustons The Kremlin Letter, though often typecast as a villain, he was rewarded in the United States with two Golden Globe nominations, for Hawaii in 1966 and The Exorcist in 1973. In the mid-1970s, Sydow moved to Rome and began to appear in a number of Italian films, becoming friendly with another screen legend, Marcello Mastroianni
Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer is an Austrian actor, film director, and professor at the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna. Brandauer was born as Klaus Georg Steng in Bad Aussee, Austria and he is the son of Maria Brandauer and Georg Steng, a civil servant. He subsequently took his mothers name as part of his professional name. Brandauer began acting on stage in 1962, after working in national theatre and television, he made his film debut in English in 1972, in Ingo Premingers Saltzburg Connection. In 1975 he played in Derrick – in Season 2, Episode 8 called Pfandhaus and his starring and award-winning role in István Szabós Mephisto playing a self-absorbed actor, launched his international career. Following his role in Mephisto, Brandauer appeared as Maximillian Largo in Never Say Never Again, roger Ebert said of his performance, For one thing, theres more of a human element in the movie, and it comes from Klaus Maria Brandauer, as Largo. Brandauer is an actor, and he chooses not to play the villain as a cliché.
Instead, he brings a certain poignancy and charm to Largo, and since Connery always has been a particularly human James Bond, the emotional stakes are more convincing this time. He starred in Out of Africa, opposite Meryl Streep and Robert Redford, for which he was nominated for an Oscar and won a Golden Globe, in 1987, he was the Head of the Jury at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1988 he appeared in Hanussen opposite Erland Josephson and Ildikó Bánsági, Brandauer was originally cast as Marko Ramius in The Hunt for Red October. That role eventually went to Oscar nominee Sean Connery, who played James Bond to Brandauers Largo in Never Say Never Again and he co-starred with Connery again in The Russia House. Brandauer directed his first film in 1989, Georg Elser – Einer aus Deutschland and his other film roles have been in The Lightship, Streets of Gold, Burning Secret, The Russia House, White Fang, Becoming Colette, Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, and Everymans Feast. In 1989 he participated in the great film for the bicentennial of the French Revolution by the French television channel TF1, La Révolution française.
In August 2006, Brandauers much-awaited production of The Threepenny Opera gained a mixed reception, Brandauer has at least a working knowledge of five languages, Italian, Hungarian and French and has acted in each. His first wife was Karin Katharina Müller, an Austrian film and television director and screenwriter, from 1963 until her death in 1992, aged 47, both were teenagers when they married, in 1963. Brandauer married Natalie Krenn in 2007
The Arverni were a Celtic tribe. The tribe was located in what is today the French Auvergne region, one of the most powerful tribes in ancient Gaul, the Arverni opposed the Romans on several occasions. Their most important stronghold was Gergovia, near the commune of Clermont-Ferrand. The Arverni are known to have had the most powerful tribal hegemony in Gaul during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC under their kings and his son Bituitus. But when Arvern king Bituitus was defeated by the Romans of Quintus and Gnaeus Ahenobarbus in 121 BC, their ascendancy passed to the Aedui and Sequani. No further Arvernian kings are mentioned in the record between 121 BC and 52 BC, and they may have adopted a constitutional oligarchy at this time. However, there were at least two attempts to re-establish rulership by Celtillos and Vercingetorix. The King Luernios was mentioned in writing by the Greek ethnographer Posidonius, Luernios was known to have scattered gold and silver coins to his followers while riding in his chariot.
Under Luernios, the Arverni were at the head of a formidable Gallic military hegemony which stretched from the Rhine to the Atlantic coast and they joined Bellovesus migrations towards Italy, together with the Aeduii, Aulerci and Senones. The Arverni played an important role in the Gallic Wars of Julius Caesar from 58 BC to 51 BC, at first the Arvenian nobles tried to avoid confronting Caesar during his early incursions. They executed the leader Celtillus, evidently for trying to gain sovereignty over all the Gauls, in 52 BC, Celtillus son Vercingetorix rallied his supporters to fight the Romans, but was expelled from Gergovia by the nobles, including his uncle Gobanitio. He raised an army in the country, and returned to the city where he ejected his opponents and was declared king. This accomplished, Vercingetorix forged an alliance with at least 15 Gallic tribes and he led the majority of the Gauls and won the Gergovia battle against Julius Caesar and his cavalry did marvels in pursuing the Roman troops.
After Julius Caesar saved half of his legions and received food from other Gauls, Vercingetorix was defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Alesia, after several months where the legions built 14 ranges of military equipment to block the Gallic soldiers. After several weeks of support from the western Gallic people with huge troops coming to support Vercingetorix, when the western Gallic people decided to depart, Vercingetorix took the decision to surrender to save the people of Alesia. The Arverni territories and over 75% of the Gauls were subsequently incorporated into the Roman imperium, Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, conquered King Bituitus Alba Fucens, town where Bituitus was held after capture
Jean-Pierre Rives is a French former rugby union player and visual artist. A cult figure in France, according to the BBC, he came to epitomise the teams spirit and ultra-committed and he won 59 caps for France –34 of them as captain – and was inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame. After retiring from the sport, Rives concentrated entirely on his art and he is both a painter and a sculptor, and exhibiting regularly at prominent public venues all over the globe. Rives was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor and the National Order of Merit by the government of France, Jean-Pierre Rives was born on 31 December 1952 in Saint-Simon, a suburb of Toulouse, in the Haute-Garonne department of southwestern France. He grew up with his brother Philippe in the family of Jo, Jean-Pierre started drawing and painting in primary school – a passion that would stay with him throughout his whole life. Rives began playing rugby for his club in 1974. Jean-Pierre Rives was instrumental in helping France to the Grand Slam in 1977 and was installed as French captain during the 1978 season and he played for TOEC, Beaumont and Stade Toulousain, in 1981 left Toulouse to join Racing Club de France.
During Rives rugby career, the essence of his game was to be close to the ball. He was dubbed the Casque dor due to his long and wild blond hair, roger Couderc, a celebrated French media personality, came up with this nickname that stuck with Rives throughout his entire career. It was his hair, along with his bravery, which brought him the nickname Asterix. Rives captained France in 34 games, a record at the time. Rives captained the first French side to beat the All Blacks in New Zealand and was elected Frances Player of the Year in 1977,1979 and 1981 and he played for a World XV on 9 August 1980 against Argentina in Buenos Aires, losing 36–22. Rives would have his career ended by a succession of injuries in 1984. His final match for France came in that years Five Nations defeat to Scotland at Murrayfield, in 2000, a documentary feature film entitled LEmpreinte des champions, Jean-Pierre Rives was released and made headlines. The reviews were positive, but there were detractors as well. The loudest criticism came from Libération, which found the documentary to be evocative of a hagiography about a member of the Politburo, courage, generosity, moral strength, humility – its all there, lamented the left leaning French daily.
Jean-Pierre Rives was influential in Frances bid to host the 2007 Rugby World Cup, one of his sculptures is now a part of the French rugby calendar, after he was asked in 2007 to design the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy. The trophy is awarded annually to the winner of the Six Nations match between France and Italy, in 2007, Roselyne Bachelot, the French Minister of Health, inaugurated a new Sports Center in Courbevoie, a suburb of Paris
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe, he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesars Gallic Wars. Vercingetorix came to power after his designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC. He immediately established an alliance with other Gallic tribes, took command and combined all forces and he won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousands Romans and allies died and Caesars Roman legions withdrew. However, Caesar had been able to exploit Gaulish internal division to easily subjugate the country, at the Battle of Alesia, the Romans besieged and defeated his forces. In order to save as many of his men as possible he gave himself to the Romans and he was held prisoner for five years. In 46 BC, as part of Caesars triumph, Vercingetorix was paraded through the streets of Rome, Vercingetorix is primarily known through Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War. To this day, Vercingetorix is considered a hero in Auvergne.
The generally accepted view is that Vercingetorix derives from the Gaulish ver-, cingeto-, in his Life of Caesar, Plutarch renders the name as Vergentorix. He made use of the factionalism among the Gallic elites, favoring certain noblemen over others with political support, the revolt that Vercingetorix came to lead began in early 52 BC while Caesar was raising troops in Cisalpine Gaul. Undeterred, Vercingetorix raised an army of the poor, took Gergovia and was hailed as king and he made alliances with other tribes, and having been unanimously given supreme command of their armies, imposed his authority through harsh discipline and the taking of hostages. He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, and undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land. Vercingetorix scorched much of the land marching north with his army from Gergovia in an attempt to deprive Caesar of the resources and safe haven of the towns, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum, a Gallic settlement directly in Caesars path, was spared.
Due to the strong protests, naturally defendable terrain, and apparently strong man-made reinforcing defenses. Upon reaching Avaricum however, the Romans laid siege and eventually captured the capital, the next major battle was at Gergovia, capital city of the Arverni and Vercingetorix. During that battle and his warriors crushed Caesars legions and allies, Vercingetorix decided to follow Caesar but suffered heavy losses during a cavalry battle and he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia. In the Battle of Alesia, Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it, the relief came in insufficient numbers, estimates range from 80,000 to 250,000 soldiers. Vercingetorix, the leader, was cut off from them on the inside. However, the attacks did reveal a point in the fortifications and the combined forces on the inside
Avaricum was an oppidum in ancient Gaul, near what is now the city of Bourges. Avaricum, situated in the lands of the Bituriges, was the largest and best-fortified town within their territory, the terrain favored the oppidum, as it was flanked by a river and marshland, with only a single narrow entrance. By the time of the Roman conquest in 52 BC the city according to Julius Caesar had a population of 40,000 people, aware that he had already been bested three times, decided to change tactics. Calling together a council of the tribes in rebellion against Rome, he convinced them to adopt Fabian strategy, never offering combat with Caesars forces, and denying them supplies. All the towns within range of Caesars foraging parties were destroyed, the land stripped bare, Avaricum was spared this fate since the Bituriges argued the town was impossible to take, and Vercingetorix agreed to make the town an exception. The shortage of grain was so acute that the men ate meat, Caesar personally made the rounds amongst his men, telling them that if the scarcity of food was too much, he would lift the siege and withdraw.
His soldiers protested, refusing to end a siege in disgrace when they still had to avenge the innocent Romans murdered by the Gauls, contented by this, Caesar designed and began engineering an impressive siege apparatus. Starting from high ground, he built a terrace of sorts. Two flanking walls were made, along with two towers to be advanced fully made, another wall was built between the flanking walls to connect them and open the front for the battle. As construction on Caesars siege terrace continued, Vercingetorix moved his cavalry into a closer to Caesars. Having discovered this, Caesar countered, marching in the dead of night and this drew Vercingetorix back to his main camp, rushing to its aid. After twenty-five grueling days of construction, and contending with Gallic raids and attempts to set the whole siege terrace on fire, Caesars apparatus was completed. Caesar ordered the advanced, and much to his good fortune. Taking advantage of lack of discipline, Caesar stealthily moved his soldiers into the towers and the wall.
The walls fell quickly, and the surviving Gauls retreated to the center of town, forming a wedge formation, however, no Roman legionary descended from the walls, simply stood at their ease, watching the Gauls. Panic struck the Gallic defenders, and they all fled for wherever they thought there was an avenue of escape, Caesars legions were in no mood to spare any of the forty thousand Gauls within Avaricum, especially after twenty five days of short rations and great frustration. Only eight hundred managed to escape the massacre that followed, Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War vii