Boogie-woogie is a musical genre that became popular during the late 1920s, but developed in African American communities in the 1870s. It was eventually extended from piano, to piano duo and trio, big band and western music, while the blues traditionally expresses a variety of emotions, boogie-woogie is mainly associated with dancing. The lyrics of one of the earliest hits, Pinetops Boogie Woogie, consist entirely of instructions to dancers and when I tell you to get it, I want you to Boogie Woogie. It is characterized by a regular bass figure, which is transposed following the chord changes. Boogie-woogie is not strictly a solo style, it can accompany singers and be featured in orchestras. It is sometimes called eight to the bar, as much of it is written in common time time using eighth notes, the chord progressions are typically based on I - IV - V - I. For the most part, boogie-woogie tunes are blues, although the style has been applied to popular songs such as Swanee River. Jeremy Denk, for example, describes the movement using terms like proto-jazz.
The origin of the term boogie-woogie is unknown, according to Websters Third New International Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary states that the word is a reduplication of boogie, which was used for rent parties as early as 1913. John Tennison, a San Antonio psychiatrist and musicologist, among them are four African terms, including the Hausa word Boog and the Mandingo word Booga, both of which mean to beat, as in beating a drum. There is the West African word Bogi, which means to dance, the meanings of these terms are consistent with the percussiveness and uninhibited behaviors historically associated with boogie-woogie music. The African origin of these terms is consistent with evidence that the music originated among newly emancipated African-Americans, in sheet music literature prior to 1900, there are at least three examples of the word boogie in music titles in the archives of the Library of Congress. In 1901, Hoogie Boogie appeared in the title of published sheet music, the first use of Boogie in a recording title appears to be a blue cylinder recording made by Edison of the American Quartet performing That Syncopated Boogie Boo in 1913.
Boogie next occurs in the title of Wilbur Sweatmans April 1917 recording of Boogie Rag, however none of these sheet music or audio recording examples contain the musical elements that would identify them as boogie-woogie. The 1919 recordings of Weary Blues by the Louisiana Five contained the same boogie-woogie bass figure as appears in the 1915 Weary Blues sheet music by Artie Matthews, Tennison has recognized these 1919 recordings as the earliest sound recordings which contain a boogie-woogie bass figure. Blind Lemon Jefferson used the term Booga Rooga to refer to a bass figure that he used in Match Box Blues. Jefferson may have heard the term from Huddie Lead Belly Ledbetter and he said it influenced his guitar-playing. Lead Belly said he heard boogie-woogie piano in the Fannin Street district of Shreveport, additional citations place the origins of boogie-woogie in the Piney Woods of northeast Texas
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
Ball of Fire
Ball of Fire is a 1941 American screwball comedy film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Gary Cooper and Barbara Stanwyck. This Samuel Goldwyn Productions film concerns a group of professors laboring to write an encyclopedia, the supporting cast includes Oskar Homolka, S. Z. Sakall, Henry Travers, Richard Haydn, Dana Andrews, and Dan Duryea. In 1948, the plot was recycled for a film, A Song Is Born. The film is known as The Professor and the Burlesque Queen. In 2016, the film was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the United States Library of Congress, a group of bachelor professors have lived together for some years in a New York City residence, compiling an encyclopedia of all human knowledge. The youngest, Professor Bertram Potts, is a grammarian who is researching modern American slang, the professors are accustomed to working in relative seclusion at a leisurely pace with a prim housekeeper named Miss Bragg keeping watch over them. Their impatient financial backer Miss Totten suddenly demands that they finish their work soon, venturing out to do some independent research, Bertram becomes interested in the slang vocabulary of saucy nightclub performer Sugarpuss OShea.
She is reluctant to assist him in his research until she needs a place to hide from the police, Sugarpuss takes refuge in the house where the professors live and work, despite Bertrams objections and their housekeepers threat to leave because of her. In the meantime, Lilac decides to marry her, but only because as his wife she would not be able to testify against him, the professors soon become enamored of her femininity, and she begins to grow fond of them. She teaches them to conga and demonstrates to Bertram the meaning of the phrase yum yum and she becomes attracted to Bertram, who reciprocates with a vengeance by proposing marriage to her. She avoids giving an answer to the proposal, and agrees to Lilacs plan to have the professors drive her to New Jersey to marry Lilac. Bertram, unaware of Sugarpuss love for him, prepares to resume his research, sadder but wiser, the professors eventually outwit Lilac and his henchmen and rescue Sugarpuss. She decides she is not good enough for Bertram, but his application of yum yum convinces her to change her mind.
Martha Tilton provided Barbara Stanwycks singing voice for the song Drum Boogie and bandleader Gene Krupa performed the song onscreen with his band. In an unusual twist, he played it on a matchbox with matches for drumsticks. Krupa band member and historically significant trumpeter Roy Eldridge received a brief on-camera spot during Drum Boogie, at one point the professors perform an a cappella version of the 1869 song Sweet Genevieve. The script was written by Charles Brackett, Thomas Monroe, and Billy Wilder from a story written by Wilder while he was still in Europe. The professors themselves were based on the dwarfs from Walt Disneys animated film Snow White, Hawks was happy to let Wilder study his directing on the set and Wilder thereafter directed his own films
David Roy Eldridge, commonly known as Roy Eldridge, and nicknamed Little Jazz, was an American jazz trumpet player. Eldridge began playing the piano at the age of five, he claims to have been able to play coherent blues licks at even this young age. The young Eldridge looked up to his brother, Joe Eldridge, particularly because of Joes diverse musical talents on the violin, alto saxophone. Roy took up the drums at the age of six, taking lessons, Joe recognized his brothers natural talent on the bugle, which Roy played in a local church band, and tried to convince Roy to play the valved trumpet. When Roy began to play drums in his brothers band, Joe soon convinced him to pick up the trumpet, but Roy made little effort to gain proficiency on the instrument at first. From an early age, Roy lacked proficiency at sight-reading, a gap in his education that would affect him for much of his early career. Eldridge led and played in a number of bands during his early years and he absorbed the influence of saxophonists Benny Carter and Coleman Hawkins, setting himself the task of learning Hawkinss 1926 solo on The Stampede in developing an equivalent trumpet style.
Eldridge left home after being expelled from school in ninth grade, joining a traveling show at the age of sixteen, the show soon folded, however. He was picked up by the Greater Sheesley Carnival, Eldridge continued playing with similar traveling groups until returning home to Pittsburgh at the age of 17. At the age of 20, Eldridge led a band in Pittsburgh, billed as Roy Elliott and his Palais Royal Orchestra, many of the members of Webbs band, annoyed by the leaders lack of dedication, left to form a practically identical group with Eldridge as bandleader. The ensemble was short-lived, and Eldridge soon moved to Milwaukee, Eldridge moved to New York in November 1930, playing in various bands in the early 1930s, including a number of Harlem dance bands with Cecil Scott, Elmer Snowden, Charlie Johnson, and Teddy Hill. At this time, Eldridge was making records and radio broadcasts under his own name and he laid down his first recorded solos with Teddy Hill in 1935, which gained almost immediate popularity.
For a brief time, he led his own band at the reputed Famous Door nightclub. In October 1935, Eldridge joined Fletcher Hendersons Orchestra, playing lead trumpet, until he left the group in early September 1936, Eldridge was Hendersons featured soloist, his talent highlighted by such numbers as Christopher Columbus and Blue Lou. His rhythmic power to swing a band was a trademark of the jazz of the time. It has been said that from the mid-Thirties onwards, he had superseded Louis Armstrong as the exemplar of modern hot trumpet playing, in the fall of 1936, Eldridge moved to Chicago to form an octet with older brother Joe Eldridge playing saxophone and arranging. The ensemble boasted nightly broadcasts and made recordings that featured his extended solos, including After Youve Gone, fed up with the racism he had encountered in the music industry, quit playing in 1938 to study radio engineering. He was back to playing in 1939, when he formed a band that gained a residency at New Yorks Arcadia Ballroom
Ancestry. com LLC is a privately held Internet company based in Lehi, United States. The largest for-profit genealogy company in the world, it operates a network of genealogical and historical record websites focused on the United States, as of June 2014, the company provided access to approximately 16 billion historical records and had over 2 million paying subscribers. User-generated content tallies to more than 70 million family trees, and subscribers have added more than 200 million photographs, scanned documents, and written stories. Ancestrys brands include Ancestry, AncestryDNA, AncestryHealth, AncestryProGenealogists, Archives. com, Family Tree Maker, Find a Grave, Fold3, Newspapers. com, and Rootsweb. Under its subsidiaries, Ancestry. com operates foreign sites that provide access to services and these include Australia, China, Brazil, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and several other countries in Europe and Asia. In 1990, Paul B. Allen and Dan Taggart, two Brigham Young University graduates, founded Infobases and began offering Latter-day Saints publications on floppy disks, in 1988, Allen had worked at Folio Corporation, founded by his brother Curt and his brother-in-law Brad Pelo.
Infobases chose to use the Folio infobase technology, which Allen was familiar with, Infobases first products were floppy disks and compact disks sold from the back seat of the founders car. In 1994, Infobases was named among Inc. magazines 500 fastest-growing companies and their first offering on CD was the LDS Collectors Edition, released in April 1995, selling for $299.95, which was offered in an online version in August 1995. Ancestry officially went online with the launched Ancestry. com in 1996, with its roots as a genealogy newsletter started in 1983 by John Sittner, and became an established publishing company in 1984. Ancestry was relaunched as a magazine in January 1994, and went online in 1996, on January 1,1997, Infobases parent company, Western Standard Publishing, purchased Ancestry, Inc. publisher of Ancestry magazine and genealogy books. Western Standard Publishings CEO was Joe Cannon, one of the owners of Geneva Steel. In July 1997, Allen and Taggart purchased Western Standards interest in Ancestry, at the time, Brad Pelo was president and CEO of Infobases, and president of Western Standard.
Less than six months earlier, he had been president of Folio Corporation, in March 1997, Folio was sold to Open Market for $45 million. The first public evidence of the change in ownership of Ancestry Magazine came with the July/August 1997 issue and that issues masthead included the first use of the Ancestry. com web address. More growth for Infobases occurred in July 1997, when Ancestry, Inc. purchased Bookcraft, Infobases had published many of Bookcrafts books as part of its LDS Collectors Library. Pelo announced that Ancestrys product line would be expanded in both CDs and online. Alan Ashton, an investor in Infobases and founder of WordPerfect, was its chairman of the board. Allen and Taggart began running Ancestry, Inc. independently from Infobases in July 1997, included in the sale were the rights to Infobases LDS Collectors Library on CD
Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer often referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction and intonation, Fitzgeralds rendition of the nursery rhyme A-Tisket, A-Tasket helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. Taking over the band after Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start a career that would last effectively the rest of her life. With Verve she recorded some of her more noted works. These partnerships produced recognizable songs like Dream a Little Dream of Me, Cheek to Cheek, Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall, in 1993, Fitzgerald capped off her sixty-year career with her last public performance. Three years later, she died at the age of 79, Fitzgerald was born on April 25,1917, in Newport News, the daughter of William Fitzgerald and Temperance Tempie Fitzgerald. Her parents were unmarried but lived together for at least two and a years after she was born. Initially living in a room, her mother and Da Silva soon found jobs.
Her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923, by 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to nearby School Street, a predominantly poor Italian area. She began her education at the age of six and proved to be an outstanding student. Fitzgerald had been passionate about dancing from third grade, being a fan of Earl Snakehips Tucker in particular and her family were Methodists and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, and she regularly attended worship services, Bible study, and Sunday school. The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in music making. During this period Fitzgerald listened to recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby. Fitzgerald idolized the Boswell Sisters lead singer Connee Boswell, saying, My mother brought home one of her records, in 1932, her mother died from serious injuries she received in a car accident when Fitzgerald was 15 years of age. This left her at first in the care of her stepfather but before the end of April 1933, following these traumas, Fitzgerald began skipping school and letting her grades suffer.
During this period she worked at times as a lookout at a bordello, Ella Fitzgerald never talked publicly about this time in her life. When the authorities caught up with her, she was first placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale, in the Bronx. However, when the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls in Hudson, New York, eventually she escaped and for a time she was homeless
Tokyo Takarazuka Theater
Tokyo Takarazuka Theater is another home for Takarazuka Creative Arts at Tokyo. It served as the second round performing theater for the Revues performing cycle, the original theater was built in 1934 and was demolished in 1998. The current theater was built in 2001 and it has 1,229 seats on the first level and 840 on the second. This theater was taken over by the American GHQ after the war victory over Japan in 1945 and re-named the Ernie Pyle Theater from 1945-55
Anita ODay was an American jazz singer widely admired for her sense of rhythm and dynamics, and her early big band appearances that shattered the traditional image of the girl singer. Refusing to pander to any female stereotype, ODay presented herself as a hip jazz musician, wearing a band jacket and she changed her surname from Colton to ODay, pig Latin for dough, slang for money. ODay, along with Mel Tormé, is grouped with the West Coast cool school of jazz. Like Tormé, ODay had some training in jazz drums, her longest musical collaboration was with jazz drummer John Poole, while maintaining a central core of hard swing, ODays skills in improvisation of rhythm and melody put her squarely among the pioneers of bebop. She cited Martha Raye as the influence on her vocal style, expressing admiration for Mildred Bailey, Ella Fitzgerald. She always maintained that the accidental excision of her uvula during a childhood left her incapable of vibrato. That botched operation, she claimed, forced her to develop a more percussive style based on short notes and rhythmic drive.
Anita Belle Colton was born to Irish parents and Gladys M. Colton in Kansas City, Colton took the first chance to leave her unhappy home when, at age 14, she became a contestant in the popular Walk-a-thons as a dancer. She toured with the Walk-a-thons circuits for two years, occasionally being called upon to sing, in 1934, she began touring the Midwest as a marathon dance contestant and singing The Lady in Red for tips. In 1936, she left the endurance contests, determined to become a professional singer. She started out as a girl in such Uptown venues as the Celebrity Club and the Vanity Fair, found work as a singer and waitress at the Ball of Fire, the Vialago. At the Vialago, ODay met the drummer Don Carter, who introduced her to music theory, they wed in 1937. Her first big break came in 1938 when Down Beat editor Carl Cons hired her to work at his new club at 222 North State Street, the Off-Beat, which became a popular hangout for musicians. Also performing at the Off-Beat was the Max Miller Quartet, which backed ODay for the first ten days of her stay there, the call from Krupa came in early 1941.
Of the 34 sides she recorded with Krupa, it was Let Me Off Uptown, a novelty duet with Roy Eldridge and that same year, Down Beat named ODay New Star of the Year. In 1942 she appeared with the Krupa band in two soundies, singing Thanks for the Boogie Ride and Let Me Off Uptown, the same year Down Beat magazine readers voted her into the top five big band singers. ODay came in fourth, with Helen OConnell first, Helen Forrest second, Billie Holiday third, ODay married golf pro and jazz fan Carl Hoff in 1942. When Krupas band broke up after he was arrested for possession of cannabis in 1943, ODay joined Woody Herman for a gig at the Hollywood Palladium
Barbara Stanwyck was an American actress and dancer. She was a film and television star, known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional with a strong, realistic screen presence, deMille, Fritz Lang, and Frank Capra. After a short but notable career as an actress in the late 1920s, she made 85 films in 38 years in Hollywood. Orphaned at the age of four and partially raised in foster homes and she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress four times, for Stella Dallas, Ball of Fire, Double Indemnity and Sorry, Wrong Number. For her television work she won three Emmy Awards, for The Barbara Stanwyck Show, The Big Valley and The Thorn Birds, the Thorn Birds won her a Golden Globe. She received an Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony and she was the recipient of honorary lifetime awards from the American Film Institute, the Film Society of Lincoln Center, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and the Screen Actors Guild. Stanwyck received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960, Barbara Stanwyck was born Ruby Catherine Stevens on July 16,1907, in Brooklyn, New York.
She was the child of Byron E. and Catherine Ann Stevens. Her father was a native of Massachusetts and her mother was an immigrant from Nova Scotia, Ruby was of English and Scottish ancestry, by her father and mother, respectively. When Ruby was four, her mother died of complications from a miscarriage after a drunken stranger accidentally knocked her off a moving streetcar, two weeks after the funeral, Byron Stevens joined a work crew digging the Panama Canal and was never seen again. Ruby and her brother, were raised by their elder sister Mildred, when Mildred got a job as a showgirl and Byron were placed in a series of foster homes, from which young Ruby often ran away. Ruby toured with Mildred during the summers of 1916 and 1917, watching the movies of Pearl White, whom Ruby idolized, influenced her drive to be a performer. At the age of 14 she dropped out of school, to take a job wrapping packages at a department store in Brooklyn, Ruby never attended high school, although early biographical thumbnail sketches had her attending Brooklyns famous Erasmus Hall High School.
Soon afterward, she took a job filing cards at the Brooklyn telephone office for a wage of $14 a week and she disliked both jobs, her real goal was to enter show business, even as her sister Mildred discouraged the idea. She took a job cutting dress patterns for Vogue magazine and her next job was as a typist for the Jerome H. Remick Music Company, a job she reportedly enjoyed. However, her ambition was to work in show business. In 1923, a few months before her 16th birthday, Ruby auditioned for a place in the chorus at the Strand Roof, a night club over the Strand Theatre in Times Square. A few months later, she obtained a job as a dancer in the 1922 and 1923 seasons of the Ziegfeld Follies, I just wanted to survive and eat and have a nice coat, Stanwyck said
Open access refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access and free of many restrictions on use. These additional usage rights are granted through the use of various specific Creative Commons licenses. There are multiple ways authors can provide access to their work. One way is to publish it and self-archive it in a repository where it can be accessed for free, such as their institutional repository and this is known as green open access. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when an output in a repository may be made open access. Several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus, SciELO and Redalyc. A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in such a way that makes their research output immediately available from the publisher. This is known as open access, and within the sciences this often takes the form of publishing an article in either an open access journal.
Pure open access journals do not charge fees, and may have one of a variety of business models. Many, however, do charge an article processing fee, widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, and prompted both the green open access way and the creation of open access journals. Conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, some non-open access journals provide open access after an embargo period of 6–12 months or longer. The Budapest statement defined open access as follows, There are many degrees, despite these statements emerging in the 2000s, the idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term open access was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s, the Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994. Gratis OA refers to online access, and libre OA refers to free online access plus some additional re-use rights.
The Budapest and Berlin definitions had corresponded only to libre OA, the re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses, these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors. Open access itself began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet, the momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or free to build upon. The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers, Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to
Martha Tilton was an American popular singer during Americas swing era and traditional pop period. She is best known for her 1939 recording of And the Angels Sing with Benny Goodman, Tilton was born in Corpus Christi, Texas. Her family moved to Edna, when she was three months old and they relocated to Los Angeles when she was seven years old. While attending Fairfax High School in Los Angeles, she was singing on a radio station when she was heard by an agent who signed her. She dropped out of school in the grade to join Hal Graysons band. After singing with the quartet Three Hits and a Miss, she joined the Myer Alexander Chorus on Benny Goodmans radio show, Goodman hired Tilton as a vocalist with his band in August 1937. She was with Goodman in January 1938, when the band gave the first jazz performance at Carnegie Hall and she continued to appear as Goodmans star vocalist until the end of 1939. Tilton had a success from 1942-49 as one of the first artists to record for Capitol Records. Her first recording for Capitol was Moon Dreams, Capitol 138, with Orchestra and The Mellowaires, composed by Johnny Mercer, Moon Dreams would be recorded by Glenn Miller in 1944 and by Miles Davis in 1950.
After she left Capitol, Tilton recorded for labels, including Coral. Reviewing the two-CD set, The Liltin Miss Tilton, critic Don Heckman wrote, but swing-era fans wont have any doubts, remembering her for a rocking version of Loch Lomond at Benny Goodmans 1938 Carnegie Hall concert. In 1941, Tilton sang on Fibber McGee and Molly and starred on Campana Serenade, a contemporary newspaper article called Tiltons role on Fibber McGee and Molly a milestone in her personal history. Marthas biggest transcontinental since her days as soloist with Benny Goodman, in the early 1940s, she sang on Ransom Shermans program on CBS. Massey and Tilton starred in Alka-Seltzer Time, a 15-minute radio series broadcast weekdays on both CBS and Mutual, sponsored by Alka-Seltzer, this show began in 1949 as Curt Massey Time with a title change to highlight the sponsors product by 1952. Prior to that, Tilton had co-starred on The Jack Smith Show, by 1953, the series was heard simultaneously on Mutual and that same day on CBS.
Ads described the show as informal song sessions by vocalists Massey and Tilton, the two Texan singers performed with Country Washburne and His Orchestra, featuring Charles LaVere on piano. The series ended November 6,1953, however and Tilton continued to appear together during the late 1950s on such shows as Guest Star and Stars for Defense. They teamed to record an album, We Sing the Old Songs and her movies include Sunny, Strictly in the Groove, Swing Hostess, Inc. and The Benny Goodman Story
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker