Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
Guildford is a large town in Surrey, England, 27 miles southwest of London on the A3 trunk road midway between the capital and Portsmouth. The town has a population of about 80,000 and is the seat of the wider Borough of Guildford which had an estimated 146,100 inhabitants in 2015. Guildford has Saxon roots and historians attribute its location to the existence of a gap in the North Downs where the River Wey was forded by the Harrow Way. By AD 978 it was home to an early English Royal Mint. With the building of the Wey Navigation and the Basingstoke Canal, Guildford was connected to a network of waterways that aided its prosperity. In the 20th century, the University of Surrey and Guildford Cathedral, an Anglican cathedral, were added. Due to recent development running north from Guildford, linking to the Woking area, Guildford now forms the southwestern tip of the Greater London Built-up Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics; the root of the first part may be the word'gold' rather than Guild, a society or meeting of tradesmen: the only known 10th-century record uses Guldeford and in the 11th century Geldeford.
Local historians with an interest in toponyms cite the lack of gold in the region's sedimentary rocks and have suggested that the mention of'gold' may refer to golden flowers found by the ford itself, or the golden sand. Rural Celtic Bronze Age pieces have been found in the town; some of the tiles built into Guildford Castle may be Roman, a Roman villa has been found on Broad Street Common at the end of Roman Farm Road just west of Guildford's Park Barn neighbourhood. It is proven by archaeology and contemporary accounts that Guildford was established as a small town by Saxon settlers shortly after Roman authority had been removed from Britain; the settlement was most expanded because of the Harrow Way crosses the River Wey by a ford at this point. Alfred the Great referred to the town in his will. Guildford was the location of the Royal Mint from 978 until part-way through the reign of William the Conqueror. Guildford Castle is of Norman design, its situation overlooks the pass through the hills taken by the Pilgrims' Way, once overlooked the ancient ford across the Wey, thus giving a key point of military control of this long distance way across the country..
Guildford appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Geldeford and Gildeford, a holding of William the Conqueror. The King held the 75 hagae in which lived 175 homagers and the town rendered £32. Stoke, a suburb within today's Guildford, appears in the Book as Stoch and was held by William, its Domesday assets were: 1 church, 2 mills worth 5s, 16 ploughlands with two Lord's plough teams and 20 mens plough teams, 16 acres of meadow, woodland worth 40 hogs. Stoke was listed as being in the King's park, with a rendering of £15. William the Conqueror had the castle built in the classic Norman style. A major purpose of Norman castle building was to overawe the conquered population, it had £26 spent on it in 1173 under the regency of the young Henry II. As the threat of invasion and insurrection declined, the castle's status was demoted to that of a royal hunting lodge: Guildford was, at that time, at the edge of Windsor Great Park, it was visited on several occasions by King John, Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry III.
In 1611 the castle was granted to Francis Carter whose grandson's initials EC and the year 1699 were above the entrance way. The surviving parts of the castle were restored in Victorian times and again in 2004. In 1995, a chamber was discovered in the High Street, considered to be the remains of the 12th-century Guildford Synagogue. While this remains a matter of contention, it is to be the oldest remaining synagogue in Western Europe. Guildford elected two members of the Unreformed House of Commons. From the 14th century to the 18th century the borough corporation prospered with the wool trade. In the 14th century the Guildhall was constructed and still stands today as a noticeable landmark of Guildford; the north end was extended in 1589 and the Council Chamber was added in 1683. In 1683 a projecting clock was made for the front of the building: it can be seen throughout the High Street; the town's Royal Grammar School was built in 1509 and became Royal gaining the patronage of Edward VI in 1552.
In the years around 1550, a pupil at the school was John Derrick who in life became a Queen's Coroner for the county of Surrey. In 1597, Derrick made a legal deposition that contains the earliest definite reference to cricket being played anywhere in the world. In 1619 George Abbot founded the Hospital of the Holy Trinity, now known as Abbot's Hospital, one of the finest sets of almshouses in the country, it is sited at the top end of the High Street, opposite Holy Trinity church. The brick-built, three-storey entrance tower faces the church. On each corner of the tower there is an octagonal turret rising an extra floor, with lead ogee domes. One of the greatest boosts to Guildford's prosperity came in 1653 with the completion, after many wrangles, of the Wey Navigation; this allowed Guildford businesses to access the Thames at Weybridge by boat, predated the major canal building program in Britain by more than a century. In 1764 the navigation was extended as far as Godal
PNC Field is a 10,000-seat minor league baseball stadium, located in Moosic, Pennsylvania in the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre metropolitan area, built in 1989 and rebuilt in 2013. The stadium is home to the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders, the Triple-A affiliate of the New York Yankees; the stadium hosts high school sports games. It hosts the PIAA District II baseball district championship games for high school baseball, it hosts high school football games such as the Railriders Bowl for Scranton/Wilkes-Barre area high school football teams, sponsored by the Railriders. PNC Field was known as Lackawanna County Stadium from 1989 to 2006; the stadium opened on April 26, 1989 and was built as a "mini version" of the Phillies' Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia. The artificial turf surfaced; the upper level seats of the stadium were orange and the lower level seats were green. They have bleacher seats at the stadium. Many amateur sports competitions were held there, as well as regional band competitions, ice skating, car shows.
On July 12, 1995, the stadium hosted the Triple-A All-Star Game. The American League affiliate stars shutout their National League opponents, 9–0, in front of 10,965 fans. Future major leaguers to appear in the game included Derek Jeter, Jeromy Burnitz, Jason Isringhausen, manager Grady Little. In 2007, the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre franchise signed a Player Development Contract with the New York Yankees, ending an 18-year agreement with the Philadelphia Phillies; this new contract called for the conversion of the playing surface to natural grass. The stadium still plays host to several amateur baseball competitions throughout the season. In February, 2010, the SWB Yankees announced that they have reached an agreement with PNC Bank to renew the naming rights to the stadium. Terms of the deal were not released. PNC Field is to host the 2017 Triple-A Baseball National Championship Game at the end of the season, where the winner of the Pacific Coast League faces the winner of the International League.
At a public hearing on November 8, 2010, officials from Lackawanna County, Mandalay Baseball Properties and the Lackawanna County Multipurpose Stadium Authority held a public hearing to discuss the potential sale of the SWB Yankees and possible renovation of PNC Field. The following day, the club announced plans to pursue a $40 million renovation to the stadium which would alter the current layout of PNC Field; the $43.3 million renovation project would be a reconstruction of the stadium as it consisted of altering the layout of the stadium, thus it would receive a new structure. The reconstruction consisted of demolishing the upper deck, press box and concourse while keeping the seating bowl and ticket office; the new structure would make the stadium an all walk around ballpark. The renovation began on April 27, 2012 beginning with the removal of seats in the stadium's upper deck; the architect of the renovation was EwingCole while the general contractor was Inc.. The renovation/reconstruction of PNC Field was completed in time for opening day 2013.
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South Orange, New Jersey
South Orange the Township of South Orange Village, is a suburban township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the village's population was 16,198, reflecting a decline of 766 from the 16,964 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 574 from the 16,390 counted in the 1990 Census. Seton Hall University is located in the township. "The time and circumstances under which the name South Orange originated will never be known," wrote historian William H. Shaw in 1884, "and we are obliged to fall back on a tradition, that Mr. Nathan Squier first used the name in an advertisement offering wood for sale" in 1795. Other sources attribute the derivation for all of The Oranges to Prince of Orange. Of the 565 municipalities in New Jersey, South Orange Village is one of only four with a village type of government. South Orange Village dates back to May 1869, when it was formed within South Orange Township. On March 4, 1904, the Village of South Orange was created by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and separated from South Orange Township.
In 1978, the village's name was changed by referendum to "The Township of South Orange Village", becoming the first of more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. What is now South Orange was part of a territory purchased from the Lenape Native Americans in 1666 by Robert Treat, who founded Newark that year on the banks of the Passaic River; the unsettled areas north and west of Newark were at first referred to as the uplands. South Orange was called the Chestnut Hills for a time. There are two claimants to the first English settlement in present-day South Orange. In 1677 brothers Joseph and Thomas Brown began clearing land for a farm in the area northwest of the junction of two old trails that are now South Orange Avenue and Ridgewood Road. A survey made in 1686 states, "note this Land hath a House on it, built by Joseph Brown and Thomas Brown, either of them having an equal share of it" located at the present southwest corner of Tillou Road and Ridgewood Road.
Minutes of a Newark town meeting of September 27, 1680, record that "Nathaniel Wheeler, Edward Riggs, Joseph Riggs, have a Grant to take up Land upon the Chesnut Hill by Rahway River near the Stone House". The phrasing shows that a stone house existed near the property. Joseph Riggs had a house just south of the Browns' house, at the northwest corner of South Orange Avenue and Ridgewood Road, according to a road survey of 1705; the same road survey locates Edward Riggs's residence near Millburn and Nathaniel Wheeler's residence in modern West Orange at the corner of Valley Road and Main Street. Wheeler's property in South Orange extended east of the Rahway River including the site of an old house now known as the "Stone House", standing on the north side of South Orange Avenue just to the west of Grove Park. By 1756 or earlier this property was owned by Samuel Pierson. A survey of adjoining property in 1767 mentions "Pierson's house" forming accidentally the earliest documentation of a house on the property, which may be much older.
Bethuel Pierson, son of Samuel, lived in this house and when he inherited it in 1773/74 he was said to live "at the mountain plantation by a certain brook called Stone House Brook." Sometime during his ownership "Bethuel Pierson had a stone addition added to his dwelling-house, which he caused to be dedicated by religious ceremonies". This would appear to be the stone-walled portion of the "Stone House". Stone House Brook runs west along the north side of the east-west road, past the "Stone House" and joining the Rahway River at about the location of the Brown and Riggs houses noted; the oldest parts of the Pierson house are the oldest surviving structure in South Orange. A deed of 1800 locates a property as being in "the Township of Newark, in the Parish of Orange, at a place called South Orange", marking the end of the name Chestnut Hills. Orange had been named after the ruler of William of Orange. Most of modern South Orange became part of Orange Township in 1806, part of Clinton Township in 1834, part of South Orange Township in 1861.
Gordon's Gazetteer circa 1830 describes the settlement as having "about 30 dwellings, a tavern and store, a paper mill and Presbyterian church". A country resort called the Orange Mountain House was established in 1847 on Ridgewood Road in present-day West Orange, where guests could enjoy the "water cure" from natural spring water and walk in the grounds that extended up the slope of South Mountain; the hotel burned down in 1890. The only remnants today are the names of Mountain Station and the Mountain House Road leading west from it to the site of the hotel. South Orange could be reached by the Morris and Essex Railroad which opened in 1837 between Newark and Morristown; as of 1869, the M&E became part of the main line of the Delaware and Western Railroad which ran from Hoboken to Buffalo with through trains to Chicago. The Montrose neighborhood was developed after the Civil War, its large houses on generous lots attracted wealthy families from Newark and New York City during the decades from 1870 to 1900.
The Orange Lawn Tennis Club was founded in 1880 at a location in Montrose, in 1886 it was the location of the first US national tennis championships. The club moved to larger grounds on Ridgewood Road in 1916. Major tournament events were held at the club throughout the grass court era, into the mid-1980s professional
Annapolis is the capital of the U. S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles south of Baltimore and about 30 miles east of Washington, D. C. Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census. This city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States; the city and state capitol was the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia.
Over 220 years the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696. A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone; the settlers moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was named "Town at Proctor's," "Town at the Severn," and "Anne Arundel's Towne". In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn, Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall as fifth Proprietary Governor.
Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II as King in England. In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson, moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland, to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain. Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.17th-century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, a major center of the Atlantic slave trade. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green in 1745. Water trades such as oyster-packing and sailmaking became the city's chief industries.
Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have replaced the seafood industry in the city. Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag; the flag is different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.
In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, still in force. On April 24, 1861, the midshipmen of the Naval Academy relocated their base in Annapolis and were temporarily housed in Newport, Rhode Island until October 1865. In 1861, the first of three camps that were built for holding paroled soldiers was created on the campus of St. John's College; the second location of Camp Parole would
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Milford is a city within Coastal Connecticut and New Haven County, between Bridgeport and New Haven, United States. The population was estimated to be 52,536 in a July 2016 estimate; the city includes the borough of Woodmont. Milford is part of NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area; the land which today comprises Milford and West Haven was purchased on February 1, 1639 from Ansantawae, chief of the local Paugussets by English settlers affiliated with the contemporary New Haven Colony. The area was known as "Wepawaug", after the small river which runs through the town, which has given its name to several streets in both Milford and Orange. A grist mill was first built over the Wepawaug River in 1640. During the Revolutionary War the Milford section of the Boston Post Road, a vital route connecting Boston, New York and other major coastal cities, was blockaded by Continental forces, Fort Trumbull was constructed to protect the town; the site of the blockade is commemorated by the Liberty Rock monument.
By 1822, the town had grown large enough that residents in the northern and eastern sections of Milford chartered their own independent course as the town of Orange. During the next century and a half, the remaining section of Milford was known for shipbuilding and oystering, although a small subset of industrial facilities developed in town. During this time, Milford became known as a beach resort for residents of New Haven and Bridgeport. In 1899, the "Memorial Bridge" was built at the site of the last mill over the Wepawaug after it was closed in 1894. "The stone bridge is simple in design, its broad copings surmounted with rough hewn blocks of granite, bearing the names of the first settlers. There are ten blocks on twenty on the north coping. At each end of the former is a stone four feet wide by five and a half high." It is located. In 1903, the southeastern portion of the town was incorporated as the Borough of Woodmont. In 1959, the town of Milford including the Borough of Woodmont was incorporated as the City of Milford.
Milford was one of the early settlements in south central Connecticut and, over time, gave rise to several new towns that broke off and incorporated separately. The following is a list of towns created from parts of Milford. Woodbridge in 1784 Bethany, created from Woodbridge in 1832 Orange in 1822 West Haven, created from Orange in 1921 Starting in 1902, Quaker Oats oatmeal boxes came with a coupon redeemable for the legal deed to a tiny lot in Milford; the lots, sometimes as small as 10 feet by 10 feet, were carved out of a 15-acre tract in a never-built subdivision called "Liberty Park". A small number of children residents living near Milford, collected the deeds and started paying the small property taxes on the "oatmeal lots"; the developer of the prospective subdivision hoped the landowners would hire him to build homes on the lots, although several lots would need to be combined before building could start. Since the subdivision into small lots predated Milford's planning and zoning regulations, the deeds were legal, although they created a large amount of paperwork for town tax collectors, who couldn't find the property owners and received no tax revenue from the lots.
In the mid-1970s, when the town wanted to develop the area, town officials put an end to the oatmeal lots in a "general foreclosure" that avoided the enormous expense of individual foreclosures by condemning nearly all of the property in one legal filing. One of the streets in the Liberty Park subdivision plans, Shelland Street, was built in the late 1990s as an access road to the Milford Power Company; the site is home to the BIC Corporation's lighter factory at 565 Bic Drive. In a separate land giveaway in 1955 tied to the Sergeant Preston of the Yukon television show, Quaker Oats offered in its Puffed Wheat and Puffed Rice cereal boxes genuine deeds to land in the Klondike. In the post-World War II period, Milford—like many Connecticut towns—underwent significant suburbanization. Interstate 95 was routed through town, the Milford section was completed in 1958; the 1960s and 1970s witnessed the construction of the Connecticut Post Mall, one of the state's largest shopping malls, the extensive commercial development of the town's stretch of the Boston Post Road.
One notable small business located on the Boston Post Road during the 1970s was SCELBI Computer Consulting, credited by many as being the world's first personal-computer manufacturer. Starting in 1975, the city began hosting the Milford Oyster Festival, which has since become established as an annual Milford tradition, held "rain or shine"; the city became host to several headquarters of multinational corporations, including the Schick Shaving company, Doctor's Associates, Inc. owners of the Subway chain of fast-food restaurants. The US operations of BIC were headquartered in Milford, but in March 2008 moved most of its operations to Shelton. Milford Hospital has developed into an important health care resource for the area, it has become home of smaller national corporations such as K-Mart and Orchid Medical. According to the 2010 US census Demographic Profile Data, there were 51,271 people living in 21,017 housing units of which 13,534 were counted as family households; the population density was 2,341/sq mi.
The average density of housing units was 1,017.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of Milford was 93.55% White, 1.91% African Ame