The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, to a lesser extent that of England and of Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally, they derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. The Covenanters are so named for the series of bands or covenants by which the adherents bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole form of religion of their country; the first "godly band" of the Lords of the Congregation and their followers is dated December 1557. Based on the Scots Confession of Faith of 1560, this document denounced the Pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms, it was adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, signed by King James VI and his household, enjoined on persons of all ranks and classes, was subscribed to again in 1590 and 1596.
In 1637, Scotland was in a state of turmoil. King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, met with a reverse in their efforts to impose a new liturgy on the Scots; the new liturgy had been devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, including Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. Andrews, but a riot against its use was orchestrated in St Giles' Cathedral, ostensibly started by Jenny Geddes. Fearing further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald Johnston to revive the Negative Confession of 1581 in a form suited to the times. Together with the cooperation of Alexander Henderson, this National Covenant was finalized in early 1638. Additional matter intended to suit the document to the special circumstances of the time was added a recital of the acts of parliament against "superstitious and papistical rites" and an elaborate oath to maintain the reformed religion; the Covenant was adopted and signed by a large gathering in the kirkyard of Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, on 28 February 1638, after which copies were sent throughout the country for signing.
The subscribers engaged by oath to maintain religion in the form that it existed in 1580, to reject all innovations introduced since that time, while professing loyalty to the king. It did not reject episcopacy but in effect undermined it; the year 1638 marked an apex of events for the Covenanters, for it was the time of broad confrontations with the established church supported by the monarchy. Confrontations occurred in several parts of Scotland, such as the one with the Bishops of Aberdeen by a high level assembly of Covenanters staging their operations from Muchalls Castle; the General Assembly of 1638 was composed of ardent Covenanters, in 1640 the Covenant was adopted by the Scottish parliament, its subscription being made a requirement for all citizens. Before this date, the Covenanters were referred to as Supplicants, but from about this time the former designation began to prevail; the Covenanters raised an army to resist Charles I's religious reforms, defeated him in the Bishops' Wars.
The crisis that this caused to the Stuart monarchy helped bring about the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the English Civil War, the Scottish Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. For the following ten years of civil war in Britain, the Covenanters were the de facto government of Scotland. In 1642, they sent an army to Ulster in Ireland to protect the Scottish settlers there from the Irish Catholic rebels who had attacked them in the Irish Rebellion of 1641; the Scottish army remained in Ireland until the end of the civil wars, but was confined to its garrison around Carrickfergus after its defeat at the Battle of Benburb in 1646. A further Covenanter military intervention began in 1643; the leaders of the English Parliament, worsted in the English Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots, promised on condition that the Scottish system of church government would be adopted in England. Following considerable debate, a document called the Solemn Covenant was drawn up; this was in effect a treaty between England and Scotland which called for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland and the reformation of religion in England and Ireland "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches", the extirpation of popery and prelacy.
It did not explicitly mention Presbyterianism and included some ambiguous formulations that left the door open to Independency. It was subscribed to by many in both kingdoms and in Ireland, was approved by the English Parliament, with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines; this agreement meant that the Covenanters sent another army south to England to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the First English Civil War. The Scottish armies in England were instrumental in bringing about the victory of the English Parliament over the king. In turn, this sparked the outbreak of civil war in Scotland in 1644–47, as Scottish Royalist opponents of the Covenanters took up arms against them. Royalism was most common among Scottish Roman Catholics and Episcopalians, who were opposed to the Covenanters' imposition of their religious settlement on the country; the Covenanters' enemies, led by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and aided by an Irish expeditionary force and Highland clans led by Alasdair Mac Col
Dragoons were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility, but dismounted to fight on foot. From the early 18th century onward, dragoons were also employed as conventional cavalry, trained for combat with swords from horseback. Dragoon regiments were established in most European armies during the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the name is derived from a type of firearm, called a "dragon", a handgun version of a blunderbuss, carried by dragoons of the French Army. The title has been retained in modern times by a number of ceremonial mounted regiments; the establishment of dragoons evolved from the practice of sometimes transporting infantry by horse when speed of movement was needed. In 1552 Prince Alexander of Parma mounted several companies of infantry on pack horses to achieve surprise. Another early instance was ordered by Louis of Nassau in 1572 during operations near Mons in Hainaut, when 500 infantry were transported this way, it is suggested the first dragoons were raised by the Marshal de Brissac in 1600.
According to old German literature, dragoons were invented by Count Ernst von Mansfeld, one of the greatest German military commanders, in the early 1620s. There are other instances of mounted infantry predating this; however Mansfeld, who had learned his profession in Hungary and the Netherlands used horses to make his foot troops more mobile, creating what was called an "armée volante". The name derives from an early weapon, a short wheellock called a dragon, because the first dragoons raised in France had their carbine's muzzle decorated with a dragon's head; the practice comes from a time when all gunpowder weapons had distinctive names, including the culverin, falcon, etc. It is sometimes claimed a galloping infantryman with his loose coat and the burning match resembled a dragon, it has been suggested that the name derives from the German "tragen" or the Dutch "dragen", both being the verb "to carry" in their respective languages. Howard Reid claims that the role descend from the Latin Draconarius.
Dragoon is used as a verb to mean to subjugate or persecute by the imposition of troops. The term dates from 1689, at a time when dragoons were being used by the French monarchy to persecute Protestants by forcing Protestants to lodge a dragoon in their house to watch over them, at the householder's expense. Early dragoons were not organized in squadrons or troops as were cavalry, but in companies like the infantry: their officers and non-commissioned officers bore infantry ranks. Dragoon regiments used drummers, not buglers; the flexibility of mounted infantry made dragoons a useful arm when employed for what would now be termed "internal security" against smugglers or civil unrest, on line of communication security duties. During the English Civil War dragoons were used for a variety of tasks: providing outposts, holding defiles or bridges in the front or rear of the main army, lining hedges or holding enclosures, providing dismounted musketeers to support regular cavalry.. In the closing stages of the Battle of Naseby Okey's Dragoons, who had started the action as dismounted musketeers, got on their horses and charged the first time this was done.
Supplied with inferior horses and more basic equipment, the dragoon regiments were cheaper to recruit and maintain than the expensive regiments of cavalry. When in the 17th century Gustav II Adolf introduced dragoons into the Swedish Army, he provided them with a sabre, an axe and a matchlock musket, utilizing them as "labourers on horseback". Many of the European armies henceforth imitated this all-purpose set of weaponry. A non-military use of dragoons was the 1681 Dragonnades, a policy instituted by Louis XIV to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or re-converting to Catholicism by billeting ill-disciplined dragoons in Protestant households. While other categories of infantry and cavalry were used, the mobility and available numbers of the dragoon regiments made them suitable for repressive work of this nature over a wide area. In the Spanish Army, Pedro de la Puente organized a body of dragoons in Innsbruck in 1635. In 1640, a tercio of a thousand dragoons armed with the arquebus was created in Spain.
By the end of the 17th century, the Spanish Army had three tercios of dragoons in Spain, plus three in the Netherlands and three more in Milan. In 1704, the Spanish dragoons were reorganised into regiments by Philip V, as were the rest of the tercios. Towards the end of 1776, George Washington realized the need for a mounted branch of the American military. In January 1777 four regiments of light dragoons were raised. Short term enlistments were abandoned and the dragoons joined for three years, or "the war", they participated in most of the major engagements of the American War of Independence, including the Battles of White Plains, Princeton, Germantown, Saratoga and Monmouth, as well as the Yorktown campaign. Dragoons were at a disadvantage when engaged against true cavalry, sought to improve their horsemanship and social status. By the Seven Years' War the primary role of dragoons in most European armies had progressed from that of mounted infantry to that of heavy cavalry. Earlier dragoon responsibilities for scouting and picket duty had passed to hussars and similar light cavalry corps in the French, Austrian and other armies.
In the Imperial Russian Army, due to the availability of the Cossack troops, the dragoons were retained in their original role for much longer. An exception t
South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary authorities of Scotland. It contains some of Greater Glasgow's suburbs, it contains many towns and villages. It shares borders with Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire, North Lanarkshire, the Scottish Borders and West Lothian, it includes part of the historic county of Lanarkshire. South Lanarkshire Council has its headquarters in Hamilton, has 16,000 employees, a budget of £1bn; the large and varied geographical territory takes in rural and upland areas, market towns such as Lanark and Carluke, the urban burghs of Rutherglen and East Kilbride, Scotland's first new town. There are 20 council wards in South Lanarkshire, each serving a population ranging from 12,000 to 19,000 and each ward represented on the council by 3 or 4 elected councillors using single transferable vote. South Lanarkshire operates a cabinet style system, with key decisions being taken by the Executive Committee, under the leadership of the Council Leader, approved by the council, led by the provost.
South Lanarkshire shares borders with the unitary authorities of Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire, City of Glasgow, North Lanarkshire, West Lothian and Scottish Borders. The area was formed in 1996 from the areas of Clydesdale and East Kilbride districts, some outer areas of Glasgow District; the Council Headquarters building, on Almada Street, was built as the Lanark County Buildings in 1963, designed by Lanark council architect D G Bannerman. The 16 storey, 165 foot tower is the largest in Hamilton, is a visible landmark across this part of the Clyde Valley; the modernist design was influenced by the United Nations building in New York. Glass curtain walls cover the north and south facades, with the narrow east and west sides being blank white walls. At the front of the building is the circular council chamber, a plaza with water features, it is known by locals as the "County Buildings". Bothwell Castle Calderglen Country Park, East Kilbride Chatelherault Country Park, near Hamilton, including Cadzow Castle Clyde Valley Craignethan Castle David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre Dollan Aqua Centre, East Kilbride Falls of Clyde Hamilton Mausoleum James Hamilton Heritage Park, East Kilbride John Hastie Museum, Strathaven Lanark Loch Little Sparta, near Dunsyre near Lanark Low Parks Museum, Hamilton New Lanark, a World Heritage Site Rutherglen Town Hall and medieval church tower Sites of the Battle of Drumclog and the Battle of Bothwell Bridge Strathaven Castle Wilsontown Ironworks South Lanarkshire College University of the West of Scotland Routes To Work South South Lanarkshire Council homepage South Lanarkshire at Curlie
Battle of Drumclog
The Battle of Drumclog was fought on 1 June 1679, between a group of Covenanters and the forces of John Graham of Claverhouse, at Drumclog, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. Following the assassination of Archbishop James Sharp on Magus Muir, the Declaration of Rutherglen, the Covenanters were on the verge of open rebellion. A large conventicle was planned to take place at Loudoun Hill, on the boundary of Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, in defiance of government persecution of the Covenanters. On the morning of Sunday 1 June, the Rev. Thomas Douglas broke off his sermon with the words "Ye have got the theory, now for the practice", when it was reported that the dragoons of Claverhouse were heading to the area. Claverhouse, better known to his enemies as'Bluidy Clavers', had been appointed captain, with a mission to disperse conventicles in south west Scotland. A group of around 200 armed Covenanters moved east, to a boggy moor near the farm of Drumclog. With about 40 mounted men, armed with muskets and pitchforks, the Covenanter force was no rabble.
Commanded by Robert Hamilton, the army took up a strong position behind a bog, or'stank'. Claverhouse's force arrived, but were unable to engage the enemy directly due to the ground conditions. For some time groups of skirmishers exchanged fire across the stank, Claverhouse felt he was gaining the upper hand. However, he was still unable to get his troops close to the Covenanters without becoming bogged down. At this point, the Covenanters decided to press the attack. William Cleland led a force around the stank, advanced rapidly. Despite heavy fire from the government troops, the attack was successful; the line of Claverhouse's force broke, the dragoons were soon routed from the battlefield, leaving 36 dead. The victory was a huge success for the rebellious Covenanters. Just three weeks Claverhouse, under the leadership of the Duke of Monmouth, helped to crush the rebellion at the Battle of Bothwell Brig. A somewhat fanciful account of the battle written by Thomas Brownlee of the Covenanter army, was published in 1822.
Claverhouse himself left a frank account of the battle. A fictionalised version appears in Sir Walter Scott's novel Old Mortality; the battle is remembered in a Child Ballad Loudoun Hill, or Drumclog. The Battle of Drumclog is celebrated by some in Scotland as a victory for religious freedom. In 1839 a monument was erected on the site of the battle, in 1859 a school house was erected nearby; the battlefield has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009. The Boston Church in Duns, in the Scottish Borders, had a bell named in memory of the battle; the church was demolished in the 1950s. In 1905 the Darvel and Strathaven Railway opened, with a station at Drumclog, 1.2 mi south west of the battle site. By 1912 the village which had grown up here required a church, the Drumclog Memorial Kirk was constructed. Inside the kirk, located on the A71 Edinburgh to Kilmarnock road, is a stained glass window depicting the Covenanters, a painting of the Covenanters' army standard.
The kirk holds an annual memorial service on the first Sunday in June, at the Drumclog Monument. The Covenanters' flag from this battle at Drumclog now resides in a museum in Scotland. Under a Scottish thistle the flag says, "For Reformation of Religion In Church And State According To The Word Of God And Our Sworn Covenants." River Irvine - Death on the River Irvine. Picturesque Scotland: Drumclog Drumclog Memorial Kirk Historic Environment Scotland. "Battle of Drumclog"
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants. Mires arise because of incomplete decomposition of organic matter, due to waterlogging and subsequent anoxia. Like coral reefs, mires are unusual landforms in that they derive from biological rather than physical processes, can take on characteristic shapes and surface patterning. There are four types of mire: bog, fen and swamp. A bog is a mire that due to its location relative to the surrounding landscape obtains most of its water from rainfall, while a fen is located on a slope, flat, or depression and gets most of its water from soil- or groundwater, thus while a bog is always acidic and nutrient-poor, a fen may be acidic, neutral, or alkaline, either nutrient-poor or nutrient-rich. Although marshes are wetlands within which vegetation is rooted in mineral soil, some marshes form shallow peat deposits: these should be considered mires. Swamps are characterized by their forest canopy and, like fens, are of higher pH and nutrient availability than bogs.
Some bogs and fens can support limited tree growth on hummocks. For botanists and ecologists, the term peatland is a more general term for any terrain dominated by peat to a depth of at least 30 cm if it has been drained. Mires are a kind of "...living relic... living skin on an ancient body" in which successive layers of regular plant growth and decay are preserved stratigraphically with a quality of preservation unknown in other wetland environments. Mires, although at their greatest extent at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, are found around the globe. Mires occur wherever conditions are right for peat accumulation: where organic matter is waterlogged; the distribution of mires therefore depends on topography, parent material and time. The type of mire - bog, fen or swamp - depends on each of these factors. In polar regions, mires are shallow, because of the slow rate of accumulation of dead organic matter, contain permafrost. Large swathes of Canada, northern Europe and northern Russia are covered by boreal mires.
In temperate areas mires are more scattered due to historical drainage and peat extraction, but can cover large areas as blanket bog where precipitation is high. In the sub-tropics, mires are restricted to the wettest areas. In the tropics, mires can again be extensive underlying tropical rainforest. Mires are in rapid decline globally due to drainage for agriculture and forestry, for peat harvesting. For example, more than 50% of original European mire area, more than 300000 km2, has been lost. Mires have unusual chemistry, which influences inter alia their biota and the chemistry of the water outflow. Peat has high cation-exchange capacity due to its high organic matter content: cations such as Ca2+ are preferentially adsorbed onto the peat in exchange for H+ ions. Water passing through peat declines in nutrients and in pH; therefore mires are nutrient-poor and acidic unless the inflow of groundwater is high. Mires elevate the ground surface above the original topography. Mires can reach considerable heights above the underlying mineral soil or bedrock: peat depths of above 10m have been recorded in temperate regions, above 25m in tropical regions.
When the absolute decay rate in the catotelm matches the rate of input of new peat into the catotelm, the mire will stop growing in height. A simplistic calculation, using typical values for a Sphagnum bog of 1mm new peat added per year and 0.0001 proportion of the catotelm decaying per year, gives a maximum height of 10m. More advanced analyses incorporate expectable nonlinear rates of catotelm decay. All types of mires share the common characteristic of being saturated with water at least seasonally with forming peat while having its own set of vegetation and organisms. Mires influence carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere such that when the water table rises, such as during a rainstorm, the peat and its microbes are submerged under water and inhibits the access to oxygen, giving opportunity for anaerobic microorganisms to flourish. Carbon dioxide is released when the water table shrinks, such as during a drought, as this supplies the aerobic microbes with oxygen to decompose the peat, subsequently releasing carbon dioxide.
Levels of methane, CH4 varies with the water table position and somewhat with temperature. Methanogens are responsible for producing methane via decomposition of the peat which increases as the water table rises and oxygen levels are depleted. Increased temperatures in the soil contributes to increased seasonal methane flux, though at a lower intensity, it is shown that the methane increased by as much as 300% seasonal from increased precipitation and temperature of the soil. Mires are important reservoirs of climatic information to the past because they are sensitive to changes in the environment and can reveal levels of isotopes, macrofossils, metals from the atmosphere, pollen. For example, carbon-14 dating can reveal the age of the peat; the dredging and destruction of a mire will release the carbon dioxide that could reveal irreplaceable information about the past climatic conditions. It is known that a plethora of microorganisms inhabit mires due to the regular supply of
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. It may be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure." The term has traditionally referred to terrestrial environments, though growing attention is being placed on marine wilderness. Recent maps of wilderness suggest it covers one quarter of Earth's terrestrial surface, but is being degraded by human activity. Less wilderness remains in the ocean, with only 13.2% free from intense human activity. Some governments establish them by law or administrative acts in land tracts that have not been modified by human action in great measure; the main feature of them is that human motorized activity is restricted. These actions seek not only to preserve what exists, but to promote and advance a natural expression and development. Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, conservation preserves, National Forests, National Parks and in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
These areas are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation and recreation. Wilderness is valued for cultural, spiritual and aesthetic reasons; some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for creativity. They may preserve historic genetic traits and provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult to recreate in zoos, arboretums or laboratories; the word wilderness derives from the notion of "wildness"—in other words, that, not controlled by humans. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference. The WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions: they must be biologically intact and protected; the World Conservation Union classifies wilderness at Ia and Ib.
Activities on the margins of specific wilderness areas, such as fire suppression and the interruption of animal migration affect the interior of wildernesses. In wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated wilderness, including the United States, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. Many new parks are being planned and passed by various Parliaments and Legislatures at the urging of dedicated individuals around the globe who believe that "in the end, inspired people empowered by effective legislation will ensure that the spirit and services of wilderness will thrive and permeate our society, preserving a world that we are proud to hand over to those who come after us." Looked at through the lens of the visual arts and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty; the tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.
Artists in the tradition of Shan shui, learned to depict mountains and rivers "from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird." In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature."For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to the Babylonian Empire and Chinese Empire. Ashoka, the Great Mauryan King, defined the first laws in the world to protect flora and fauna in Edicts of Ashoka around 3rd Century B. C. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas, they were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to protect wilderness. In order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.
Similar measures were introduced in other European countries. The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 19th century. British artists John Constable and J. M. W. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that, paintings had been of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, viewed as a threatening place; the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. By the mid-19th century, in Germany, "Scientific Conservation," as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success. Over the course of the 19th century wilderness became viewed not as a place to fear but a place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in the latter half of the 19th century.
Rivers were rafted and mountains were climbed for the sake of recreation, not to determine th
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is variously known as Old Brittonic and Common or Old Brythonic. By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cornish and the Pictish language. Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish and south of the Firth of Forth by Old English. Brittonic was replaced by English throughout England.
O'Rahilly's historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance. O'Rahilly's model seems to be supported by the presence of Belgic tribes in Ptolemy's maps. No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified; the Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic. There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse: Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai The affixed – Deuina, Andagin, Uindiorix – I have bound An alternative translation taking into account case marking is: May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda. There is a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text; this seems to contain Brittonic names.
British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy's Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979, they show. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic; some Brittonic personal names are recorded. Tacitus' Agricola noted. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic. Pritenic is a modern term, coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain. Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages, "Pritenic" would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BC; the evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain.
These names have been discussed by Kenneth H. Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European; the rarity of survival of Pritenic names is due to Dál Riatan and Norse settlement in the area. The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Koch, their conclusions are that Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century. The Roman frontier between Britannia and Pictland is to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede considered Welsh/British to be separate languages. Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers; the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was replaced by Old English.
Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales and Devon, Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh and Breton, respectively; the early Common Brittonic vowel inventory is identical to that of Proto-Celtic. /ɨ/ and /ʉ/ have not developed yet. Notes: The central mid vowels /ə/ and /ɵ̞/ were allophonic developments of /i/ and /u/, respectively. Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic: Notes: The dative dual and plural represent the inherited instrumental forms, which replaced the inherited dative dual and plural, from Proto-Celtic *toutābom, *toutābos. Notes: Neuter 2nd declension stems deviate from the paradigm as such:Notes: Dual is same as singular All other declensions same as regular 2nd declension paradigm Common Brittonic survive