A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action. The term sometimes has connotations of summary justice; the term is said to originate from the use of a drumhead as an improvised writing table. The earliest recorded usage is in an English memoir of the Peninsular War; the term sometimes has connotations of summary justice, with an implied lack of judicial impartiality, as noted in the transcripts of the trial at Nuremberg of Josef Bühler. According to Sir Arthur Wynne Morgan Bryant, such courts-martial have ordered lashings or hangings to punish soldiers who were cowardly, disobedient, or, acted rashly, it is used as a reference to a kangaroo court in its derogatory form. From 1934, every division of the German army had a court martial. After the occupation of Poland, the high command wished to introduce a system which allowed speedy trials to be performed, as it was believed that a fast process would be a more effective deterrent.
In November 1939 a law was passed which permitted drumhead trials if it was deemed necessary during warfare. Every commander of a regiment could either decide to inform the court martial of his division or he could convene a drumhead trial when somebody was accused of a crime; the decision of a drumhead trial could be executed immediately. With the beginning of the year 1944 the high command formed a special police, the "High command Feldjäger", which were in command of special drumhead trials named fliegende Standgerichte, composed of motorized judges. During the last two months of World War II, Adolf Hitler authorized the use of Fliegendes Sonder-Standgericht, mobile courts-martial used by the German armed forces; the use of "flying" refers to their mobility and may refer to the earlier "flying courts martial" held in Italian Libya. Italian military judges were flown by aircraft to the location of captured rebels where the rebels were tried in a court martial shortly after capture. An example of this was the summary trial of five officers found guilty of failing to prevent the Allies from capturing the Ludendorff Bridge during the Battle of Remagen on 7 March 1945.
On a direct order from Hitler, Generalleutnant Rudolf Hübner tried Major Hans Scheller, Captain Willi Bratge, Lt. Karl Heinz Peters, Maj. Herbert Strobel and Maj. August Kraft. Hübner, who had no legal experience, acted as both judge, he conducted brief show trials during which he harangued the defendants for their alleged command failures, pronounced sentence. All of the officers were sentenced to death. Except for Bratge, captured by the enemy, the others were taken to a nearby woods within 24 hours, executed with a shot to the back of the neck, buried where they fell. After the failed plot to assassinate Hitler in July 1944, General Friedrich Fromm, after capturing the conspirators, hosted an impromptu court martial sentencing the lead conspirators to death by firing squad. After Admiral Canaris, head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, was suspected of involvement in the 20 July Plot to assassinate Hitler, Hitler authorised Heinrich Himmler to have Canaris tried and sentenced to death by a drumhead court-martial.
In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Drumhead", Captain Jean-Luc Picard compares a counterintelligence investigation headed by a visiting retired admiral to a drumhead trial. In a conversation with security chief Lieutenant Worf, he says "five hundred years ago, military officers would upend a drum in a battlefield, sit at it and dispense summary justice. Decisions were quick, punishments severe, appeals denied; those who came to a drumhead were doomed." Kangaroo court – Court with little judicial credibility
Ramon Margalef i López was a Spanish Catalan biologist and ecologist. He was Emeritus Professor of Ecology at the Faculty of Biology of the University of Barcelona. Margalef, one of the most prominent scientists that Spain has produced, worked at the Institute of Applied Biology, at the Fisheries Research Institute, which he directed during 1966-1967, he created the Department of Ecology of the University of Barcelona, from where he trained a huge number of ecologists and oceanographers. In 1967 he became Spain's first professor of ecology. In 1957, with the translation into English of his inaugural lecture as a member of the Barcelona Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences, "Information Theory in Ecology", he gained a worldwide audience. Another groundbreaking article, "On certain unifying principles in ecology", published in American Naturalist in 1963, his book "Perspectives in Ecological Theory", based on his guest lectures at the University of Chicago, consolidated him as one of the leading thinkers of modern ecology.
In the summer of 1958 he was professor of Marine ecology at the Institute of Marine Biology of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez and produced the work Comunidades Naturales. Some of his most important work includes the application of information theory to ecological studies and the creation of mathematical models for the study of populations. Among his books, the most influential are: Natural Communities, Perspectives In Ecological Theory, The Biosphere and Theory of Ecological Systems, he received many scientific awards, including the inaugural medal of the A. G. Huntsman Award for Excellence in the Marine Sciences, the Naumann-Thienemann Medal from the International Society of Limnology, the Ramón y Cajal Award of the Spanish Government, the Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia. Full list of publications by Professor MargalefSelected publications ——. "Ideas for a synthetic approach to the ecology of running waters". Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol.: 133–153. ——. "On certain unifying principles in ecology".
Am. Nat.: 357–374. ——. "Life-forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment". Oceanol. Acta: 493–509. ——. Comunidades naturales. Instituto de Biología Marina de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. Mayagüez. ——. Perspectives in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press. ——. Ecología. Barcelona: Omega. ——. D. Armengol J. Vidal A. Prat N. Guisset A. Toja J. Estrada M.. Limnología de los embalses españoles. Madrid: Dirección General de Obras Hidraúlicas. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ——. La biosfera: entre la termodinámica y el juego. Barcelona: Omega. ——. Limnología. Barcelona: Omega. ——. Planeta azul, planeta verde. Barcelona: Prensa Científica SA. ——. Limnology now: a paradigm of planetary problems. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ——. Our biosphere. Oldendorf: Ecology Institute. Ramon Margalef Prize in Ecology Biographical page in memoriam to Ramon Margalef Biographical page at Ramon Margalef Prize website Most of Margalef's scientific papers as PDFs. Profile at Google Scholar Citations Espai Margalef
Anthony Charles'Budge' Pountney is a rugby union coach and retired player. A flanker, he played in the Northampton Saints side. Pountney was born in Southampton in England, but had a grandmother from the Channel Islands which made him eligible for any of the British national teams, he won 31 caps for Scotland from 1998 to 2002. He was part of the Scotland team that won the 1999 Five Nations Championship, played in the 1999 World Cup, captained the team. After retiring, he was head coach and director of rugby at Northampton, he has since worked in school coaching. Pountney was born in the son of a farm manager, he attended Kings' Peter Symonds College in Winchester. He gained a BA Honours in European Studies and Sports Studies, he was eligible to play rugby for Scotland by virtue of a grandmother born in the Channel Islands. He began playing rugby for the Winchester RFC mini rugby sides. At age 18 he joined Northampton Rugby Union Football Club who were playing in what was the First Division, his senior debut came in 1994, against Coventry R.
F. C.. He had played for the England Students and U21s but had never felt like he fitted in, he started in the Northampton side that won the 2000 Heineken Cup Final, defeating Munster at Twickenham. He was club captain from 2001 to 2004, he had broken his nose twice that season, but with the Northampton squad stretched, he had continued to offer himself for selection. In September 2003 he sustained a broken ankle while playing a pre-season friendly match for Northampton, he did not recover sufficiently from that injury and in February 2004 he announced his retirement from playing rugby. He made 215 appearances for Northampton and scored 46 tries, playing in 104 English Premiership matches. Pountney represented England Students and Under-21s, but was told that he was too short to play for Eng, he qualified for Scotland through a grandmother from the Channel Islands. He received his first cap for Scotland in November 1998, in an autumn international test match against South Africa, he had played a part in all the team's matches when Scotland won the 1999 Five Nations Championship, where he was a replacement in the first three matches before Jim Telfer selected him in the starting line-up for the match against France in Paris.
He was part of the Scotland squad for the 1999 Rugby World Cup, playing in four matches. He scored a try against New Zealand in the quarter-finals, although the All Blacks won the match and brought Scotland's tournament came to an end. In January 2002, returning from injury, he captained Scotland against England in their opening match of the 2002 Six Nations Championship, he made a total of 31 capped appearances for Scotland. In January 2003 he left Murrayfield in frustration for the last time, after speaking his mind plainly on the problems he saw there. Late in 2004 he became head coach of Northampton Saints, together with former England fly-half and teammate Paul Grayson. In July 2005 he became Director of Rugby. After retiring from top class rugby, he has worked as an independent citing officer, reviewing English Rugby Premiership matches. In the summer of 2013 he became Director of Rugby at Bournemouth RFC who were playing in National Division 2 South; the club announced that he was to leave at the end of the 2014 season, citing a change in personal circumstances.
Action civique Montréal was a municipal political party that existed from 2009 to 2010 in Montreal, Canada. The party fielded five candidates in the 2009 Montreal municipal election, all of whom ran in the borough of Saint-Leonard. ACM's leader was Italo Barone, its candidate for borough mayor. ACM advocated the devolution of municipal services from the City of Montreal to Saint-Leonard. In announcing the party's formation, Barone said that he was open to the possibility of withdrawing Saint-Leonard from Montreal and returning the community to its pre-2001 status as a separate municipality. Italo Barone is a Montreal entrepreneur, he was elected to the Saint-Leonard city council in 1990 as a member of Frank Zampino's Parti municipal and was re-elected in 1994 and 1998. He sought election to the new Saint-Leonard borough council in the 2001 municipal election, following Saint-Leonard's amalgamation into Montreal. Running for Pierre Bourque's Vision Montreal party, he finished second against Mario Battista from Gérald Tremblay's Montreal Island Citizens' Union.
The 2009 election was his first as a party leader. ACM received 5,723 votes, none of its candidates were elected. Barone received about 10% of the vote in the mayoral contest, finishing third against incumbent Michel Bissonnet of the Union Montreal party. ACM was disestablished in September 2010
Elizabeth Gorham Hoag was one of the five founding members of Sigma Kappa sorority. Along with Mary Caffrey Low, Ida Fuller, Frances Mann and Louise Helen Coburn, Hoag helped to form Sigma Kappa at Colby College in Waterville, Maine on November 9, 1874; the five women were the only female students at Colby at that time. Colby was the first New England college to allow the admittance of women. Being the only women in the college, the five of them found themselves together frequently. In 1873-74, the five young women decided to form a social society, they were instructed by the college administration that they would need to present a constitution and bylaws with a petition requesting permission to form Sigma Kappa Sorority. They began work during that year and on November 9, 1874, the five young women received a letter from the faculty approving their petition, they sought for and received permission to form a sorority with the intent for the organization to become national. Hoag was described as an only child and joyous, artistic and wrote musical plays.
She lived with her widowed mother and her Quaker grandmother, who found it necessary to say, "Thee talks too much, Elizabeth." Since Hoag's mother was the organist for the village church, Mary Caffrey Low knew her prior to Colby. Born in 1857, she was 17, she was a conscientious student who found math to be drudgery. She had to memorize her textbooks on that subject. Hoag designed the first Sigma Kappa emblem. Hoag had tuberculosis and during the winter of her sophomore year, she grew sicker; the four other founders knew she would not live long and worked hard to prepare for their first initiation on February 17, 1875 so that Hoag could see her cousin, Emily Peace Meader, initiated. Late in March, Louise Coburn received this little note: "Adored Goody, I've gin' out. I shan't brighten our pleasant retirement with my presence this week anyway." It was signed, "An Imp still." Hoag lingered through the spring and died June 8, 1875, at the age of 18. Elizabeth was mourned not only by her sorority sisters, but by her whole class.
They voted to wear mourning bands until the end of the school term in July. Sigma Kappa now celebrates Founders' Day every November 9, in honor of the five women who created the organization. Five Founders of Sigma Kappa Sigma Kappa Sorority official site
Andrea N. Parker is an American film and television actress and former ballet dancer, she is known for her roles on ER, The Pretender, Less than Perfect, Desperate Housewives, Pretty Little Liars. Parker was born in California, she began ballet training at age 6 and at age 15 she joined a professional dance company. She quit her career in ballet after three years of touring and trained to become an actress while working as a bartender, her first documented film role was at age 19 in the movie Rented Lips in which she played a dancer/nurse. Parker appeared in Married... with Children as a Go-Go Dancer in 2 episodes – "Prom Queen: The Sequel" and "Prom Queen: Part 1". Parker got her break in television playing a nurse on the award-winning Seinfeld episode "The Contest" in 1992. After that first speaking role, she had several other guest-starring roles in television series and movies, most notably a recurring role in ER as Linda Farrell, the love interest of Dr. Doug Ross, as Caitlin Pike in JAG.
She was a body double for Julia Roberts in the movie Pretty Woman. She did several pilots before she gained a cult following for her role as Miss Parker on the NBC television series The Pretender, she played a rich, snooty neighbor on the television show My Name Is Earl. After The Pretender was cancelled by NBC in 2000, Parker did another guest spot on JAG before signing on to reprise her role as Miss Parker in the telemovies for The Pretender, which aired on TNT in 2001, she returned to series television in 2002 and starred in the ABC comedy Less than Perfect, playing Lydia Weston until it was cancelled in 2006. From 2011 to 2012, Parker had recurring role of Jane Carlson in the ABC series Desperate Housewives, she starred in NBC drama pilot Beautiful People, joined the cast of ABC Family series Pretty Little Liars. She has made several guest appearances on television talk shows and celebrity events such as the various celebrity poker tournaments. Parker supports various charities such as the National Hospice Palliative Care Organization, Glenn Siegel's My Good Friend charity organization, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's research and Project Angel Food.
In February 2006, Parker attended a benefit with former Pretender co-stars Michael T. Weiss and James Denton for Cure Autism Now. Parker is trained as a stunt driver and can handle firearms. Andrea Parker on IMDb Andrea Parker on Twitter Andrea Parker at Yahoo! TV