River Isla, Moray
The River Isla is a tributary of the River Deveron in North-East Scotland. The area surrounding it is known as Strathisla It rises to the northeast of Milltown of Auchindoun and flows northeastwards for 18 miles through Strathisla, separating Keith from Fife-Keith, forms the boundary between Moray and Aberdeenshire for a short distance before joining the Deveron near Rothiemay. Media related to River Isla, Moray at Wikimedia Commons
Not to be confused with Drummuir, north east Scotland Drummore (drum-ORE. The village lies where the Kildonan Burn runs out to the sea, a few miles north of the Mull of Galloway, it is the most southerly in Scotland, further south than the English cities of Durham and Carlisle. It is in the Dumfries and Galloway Council area and the parish and community of Kirkmaiden and is about 16 miles from the nearest major town, the ferry port of Stranraer. In the 2011 census, the population was 534. Drummore shares its name with High Drummore a mile up Glen Lee, with Drummore Glen half a mile to the east; the underlying name is the Gaelic "druim mòr" or "big ridge", it has been suggested that this reflected the motte associated with the castle of the Adairs of Kinhilt, whose lands were granted in 1602 by King James VI. The rather scattered incidence of related names, makes it more that the hill-ridge itself is in question, although at 300 feet it is not all that prominent compared to the 450-foot Muntloch Fell and Inshanks Fell a mile or two to the west, or the 250-foot Mull of Galloway itself, three miles to the south.
A branch line was proposed in 1877 linking to the Portpatrick Railway. It was opposed by the feudal landowner, the Earl of Stair, abandoned after the failure of the City of Glasgow Bank in 1882; the southern Rhins was an area of early Christian activity following the missionary work of Ninian across Luce Bay in the Machars. Shortly before 1860, at Low Curghie less than a mile up the coast north of Drummore, not far from an extant standing stone, a gravestone was discovered which appeared to date to the 5th or 6th century, with a weathered Latin inscription in which the name “Ventidius” was legible along with another word which translated as “sub-deacon”. Many place-names testify to Norse influence in the southern Rhins, as in many of the west-coast islands and peninsulas, but Drummore's Gaelic name is in tune with the general use of Gaelic in Galloway after the Dark Ages until it was supplanted by English under Presbyterian influence in the 17th century. Drummore is the largest settlement in the parish of Kirkmaiden, named after St Medan.
The parish church was some five miles south of the village, but in 1638 the parishioners, citing the inconvenience of the journey to church, secured the building of a new church known as Kirk Covenant on Core Hill, about a mile west of Drummore. Following the Disruption of 1843, a new church was again built, for worshippers in the Free Church of Scotland, this time in the village itself, in the street now known as Stair Street. Early in the 20th century the two congregations were reunited. Now worship is habitually at the church within Drummore, with one service each month in the summer being held at Kirk Covenant; the harbour, facing north and shielded by the Rhins from the prevailing south-westerly wind, was developed with a jetty in the early 19th century to serve a lime manufacturing industry. For many years in the hands of the UK's Ministry of Defence as part of the management of their bombing range and weapon development area offshore in Luce Bay, it was taken over in 2004 for a nominal sum by the Drummore Harbour Trust Ltd, which announced the aim of developing its use for pleasure boats.
This disposal by the MoD attracted attention in the UK Parliament as a result of disputes over the rights of access to the harbour by fishermen, a subsequent Court of Session judgement confirmed a Victorian precedent that no right of harbour existed. Failure of the Drummore Harbour Trust to widen its membership beyond the initial two individual members, or to begin its promised investment programme, caused increasing concern. However, in July 2008 the Dumfries and Galloway Council decided to seek an Empowerment Order under the Harbours Act 1964 which would enable the Council to take over the harbour land and operations, following the pattern of a number of successful harbours along the Solway coast; this was not achieved. In 2015 the Harbour Trust became liable for a £15000 personal injury claim, it dissolved itself, so the harbour reverted to the Crown Estate; as of June 2018 the Drummore residents are attempting to buy the harbour, via the Kirkmaiden Community Harbour Trust. Older residents recall a time when the main streets were full of shops, including no fewer than three bakers.
There have been significant casualties, including on Mill Street the bank, the butcher's, the Harbour Stores. The village’s facilities still however include the Mariners Coffee Shop, the Queen's Hotel, a post office, a volunteer tourist office and a general shop on Mill Street; the Kirkmaiden Community Council meets monthly in Drummore. Housing is mixed, ranging from listed Victorian residential and commercial properties to modern bungalows and harled council houses. Within living memory a number of street names have changed, notably Stair Street, Mill Street and Harbour Road. Following a landslip in the 1960s the former Lower Road
Burghead is a small town in Moray, about 8 miles north-west of Elgin. The town is built on a peninsula that projects north-westward into the Moray Firth, meaning that most of the town has sea on 3 sides; the present town was built between 1805 and 1809, destroying in the process more than half of the site of an important Pictish hill fort. General Roy’s map shows the defences as they existed in the 18th century but he wrongly attributed them to the Romans; the fort was a major Pictish centre and was where carved slabs depicting bulls were found. A chambered well of some considerable antiquity was discovered in 1809 and walls and a roof were added to help preserve it; each year on 11 January a fire festival known as the Burning of the Clavie takes place. Burghead is known by locals as The Broch, a nickname applied to Fraserburgh in nearby Aberdeenshire. A recent dig just beyond the boundary of Burghead at Clarkly Hill has uncovered Iron Age circular stone houses and Pictish building foundations, as well as silver and bronze Roman coins and a gold finger ring from the Baltic region.
Significant evidence of large scale Iron smelting has been found, providing evidence that iron was being traded from this site. The National Museum of Scotland has carried out significant exploration which leads it to believe this is a significant site of interest; this vitrified fort lies on top of a headland. Believed to be Ptolemy's Castra Alata, later'Ptoroton' and the'Torffness' of the Orkneyinga Saga, it is now known to be of Pictish origin and is thought to be the oldest Pictish fort, it is three times as large as any other fort of the same period in Scotland. It was defended on the landward side by three banks and ditches which were destroyed during the creation of the harbour and modern village. Six striking carved slabs known as the "Burghead Bulls" were discovered during excavations. Dating to 7th Century AD, four of the originals are held locally in Burghead Visitor Centre and Elgin Museum and one each in the Royal Museum and the British Museum, London. Much of the fort was destroyed during the building of the village from 1805 to 1809.
The Doorie Hill, which marked the junction of the citadel and the bailey, is the only remaining piece of the southern ramparts. Lengths of the eastern and northern ramparts are still visible; the Burghead Well, which lies within the perimeter of the promontory fort, was discovered in 1809. It consists of a flight of stone steps leading down to a chamber containing a tank fed by springs. There is a frieze in the upper walls, a pedestal in the southeast corner and a sunken basin in the northwest corner; the chamber is 11 feet high, 11 feet across with a 4-foot wide ledge around the edge, the tank is 4 feet deep. The discovery was made during excavations for a possible municipal water supply after an elderly fisherman recalled a tradition of a well in the vicinity. Various additions such as re-cutting the steps and deepening the tank were undertaken, but the flow of water proved to be insufficient for the proposed new function. At the time of discovery it was assumed that both the fort and well were of Roman antiquity and it was described as a'Roman bath'.
In the 19th century it was suggested that it was an early Christian baptistery associated with the cult of St Aethan, but its origins remain obscure to this day. It is certainly of Dark Age provenance and had some ceremonial significance, it is possible that its main purpose was as a water supply for the fort and may suggest a Pictish interest in water spirits. The well is a scheduled monument. A fire festival called the Burning of the Clavie is held on 11 January each year, except when the 11th is a Sunday, in which case it takes place on the 10th; the event starts when the Clavie is lit on Granary Street at 18:00 and ends by 19:30. In 1599 the Parliament of Scotland passed a law which, while retaining the Julian calendar, provided that, beginning in 1600, the first day of the year would be 1 January. In 1752 Great Britain, including Scotland, adopted the Gregorian calendar, removing 11 days from the calendar by stipulating that the day following 2 September would be not 3 September but 14 September.
The day that would have been New Year's Day in the old calendar now fell on 12 January of the new calendar. The Burning of the Clavie continues to be celebrated on the former New Year's Eve—that is, in the new calendar, on 11 January; the practice has survived clerical condemnation. On 20 January 1689, the young men of the village were rebuked by the church courts for "having made a burning clavie, paying it superstitious worship, blessing the boats after the old heathen custom"; the Clavie is a barrel cut down to 17 inches, filled with tar and bits of wood. It is nailed onto a pole with a specially forged nail, it has to be specially made to leave a space for the carrier’s head to fit between the staves and allowing him to rest it on his shoulders while he carries it. A group of about 15 men known as the Clavie crew, traditionally fishermen and headed by the Clavie king, take turns to carry the burning Clavie on a set route clockwise round the streets of the old part of the town; the Clavie crew stop to present bits of smouldering embers to certain households and the three public houses in the village to bring them good luck for the followi
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Duffus is a village in Moray, Scotland. The Duffus Village Inn, the local shop, Post Office and Duffus Village Hall provide a focal point for the community. Nearby are the remains of Duffus Castle, St. Peters' Kirk, Spynie Palace. Duffus has won numerous awards, including "Best Kept Small Village in the North of Scotland". To the east side is Gordonstoun School which covers over 150 acres; the name of the village Duffus derives from the lands of Duffus in Scotland. What is now known as Duffus Parish encompasses the lands of the ancient Barony of Duffus and comprises 9,565 acres; the Duffus name has undergone a variety of spelling changes through the years. The name is a compilation of two Gaelic words and uisg, meaning "darkwater" or "blackwater". At one time, the region was below sea-level and the Loch of Spynie and stagnant pools of water were a conspicuous feature of the area; the current village called New Duffus, is a grid plan village established as a planned settlement in 1811. This replaced an earlier medieval settlement which lay 0.4 kilometres to the east, of which only the ruined Old Parish Church remains.
A church was first founded on the site of Duffus Old Parish Church in the 9th century as a replacement for the church of St Aethan within Burghead Fort, destroyed by the Vikings. The parish of Duffus included Burghead, its dedication to Saint Peter may reflect an emulation by the Pictish Kingdom of Fortriu of the common Early Medieval pattern – seen at Bamburgh and Canterbury – of giving this dedication to a Kingdom's primary centre of Royal power. Duffus was the base of the regionally powerful de Moravia family during the High Middle Ages; the family was of Flemish origin. Freskin de Moravia came north from his lands in Lothian as part of an army of David I to put down another rebellion by the men of Moray. At his side, soon to be a neighbor, was the ancestor of the Innes'; the annual Duffus Village Gala provides a host of activities for villagers and nearby settlements, starting with the crowning of the Rose Queen, Rose Prince & Rosebud. Duffus family website www.duffus.com Gilbert de Moravia Andreas de Moravia Walter de Moravia Fearchar, Earl of Ross Nechtan IV of the Picts Duffus Castle Duffus - Sept of Sutherland Barrow, G.
W. S; the Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1 Walker, David W.. Aberdeenshire: North and Moray; the Buildings of Scotland. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300204285
Arradoul is a small village in Scotland, in the traditional county of Banffshire, in the Moray council area. It is a ribbon settlement on the south side of main A98 road between Cullen and Fochabers, near to the Buckpool turn off to the town of Buckie. To the south of the village are the farms of Arradoul Mains and Cairnfield. Arradoul Mains is owned by Christies of Fochabers and grows sapling trees for the forestry industry across the UK; the Cairnfield Estate is an arable farm growing oats and barley
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm