The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Mauretania is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb. It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, southward to the Atlas Mountains, its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli. Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis; when the Vandals arrived in Africa in 429, much of Mauretania became independent. Christianity had spread there in the 4th and 5th centuries but was extinguished when the Arabs conquered the region in the 7th century. Mauretania existed as a tribal kingdom of the Berber Mauri people. Yevgenii Pospelov records a Phoenician naming of the area which became known as Mauretania: the Phoenicians called the country at the extreme western edge of their known world Mauharim, meaning "Western land".
In the early 1st century Strabo recorded Mauri as the native name. This appellation was adopted into Latin; the Mauri would bequeath their name to the Moors on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, from at least the 3rd century BC. The Mediterranean coast of Mauretania had commercial harbours for trade with Carthage from before the 4th century BC, but the interior was controlled by Berber tribes, who had established themselves in the region by the beginning of the Iron Age. King Atlas was a legendary king of Mauretania credited with the invention of the celestial globe; the first known historical king of the Mauri, ruled during the Second Punic War of 218-201 BC. The Mauri were in close contact with Numidia. Bocchus I was father-in-law to the redoubted Numidian king Jugurtha. Mauretania became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in 33 BC; the Romans installed Juba II of Numidia as their client-king. When Juba died in AD 23, his Roman-educated son Ptolemy of Mauretania succeeded him; the Emperor Caligula had Ptolemy executed in 40.
The Roman Emperor Claudius annexed Mauretania directly as a Roman province in 44, placing it under an imperial governor. The known kings of Mauretania are: In the 1st century AD, Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana along the line of the Mulucha River, about 60 km west of modern Oran: Mauretania Tingitana was named after its capital Tingis. Mauretania Caesariensis was named after its capital Caesarea and comprised western and central Algeria. Mauretania gave the empire the equestrian Macrinus, he seized power after the assassination of Caracalla in 217 but was himself defeated and executed by Elagabalus the next year. Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy reform further divided the area into three provinces, as the small, easternmost region of Sitifensis was split off from Mauretania Caesariensis; the Notitia Dignitatum mentions themas still existing, two being under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Africa: A Dux et praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis, i.e. a Roman governor of the rank of Vir spectabilis, who held the high military command of dux, as the superior of eight border garrison commanders, each styled Praepositus limitis... followed by Columnatensis, inferioris, Muticitani, Audiensis and Augustensis.
A Praeses in the province of Mauretania Sitifensis. And, under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Hispaniae: A Comes rei militaris of Mauretania Tingitana ranking as vir spectabilis, in charge of the following border garrison commanders: Praefectus alae Herculeae at Tamuco Tribunus cohortis secundae Hispanorum at Duga Tribunus cohortis primae Herculeae at Aulucos Tribunus cohortis primae Ityraeorum at Castrabarensis Another Tribunus cohortis at Sala Tribunus cohortis Pacatianensis at Pacatiana Tribunus cohortis tertiae Asturum at Tabernas Tribunus cohortis Friglensis at the Fortress of Friglas or Frigias, near Lixusand to whom three extraordinary cavalry units were assigned: Equites scutarii seniores Equites sagittarii seniores Equites Cordueni A Praeses of the same province of Tingitana During the crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania were reconquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities by the late 3rd century. Historical sources about inland areas are sparse, but these were controlled by local Berber rulers who, maintained a degree of Roman culture, including the local cities, nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Roman Emperors.
The Western kingdom more distant from the Vandal kingdom was the one of Altava, a city located at the borders of Mauretania Tingitana and Caesariensis.... It is clear that the Mauro-Roman kingdom of Altava was inside the Western Latin world, not only because of location but because it adopted the military-religious-sociocultural-administrative organization of the Roman Empire... In an inscription from Altava in western Algeria, one of these rulers, described himself as rex gentium Maurorum et Romanorum. Altava was the capital of another ruler, Garmul or
Marcus Antonius known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate; the Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.
Relations among the triumvirs were strained. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs, their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. That year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor. A member of the plebeian Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome on 14 January 83 BC.
His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the same name, murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–86 BC. His mother was a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla's march on Rome in 82 BC. According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively. In 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress; the elder Antony's death left Antony and his brothers and Gaius, in the care of their mother, who married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, an eminent member of the old Patrician nobility. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle, he was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement.
Antony's early life was characterized by a lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs. Antony's contemporary and enemy, claimed he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher and his street gang, he may have been involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order in life. By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 BC, where he studied philosophy and rhetoric at Athens. In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of Aulus Gabinius, the Proconsul of Syria, as chief of the cavalry; this appointment marks the beginning of his military career. As Consul the previous year, Gabinius had consented to the exile of Cicero by Antony's mentor, Publius Clodius Pulcher.
Hyrcanus II, the Roman-supported Hasmonean High Priest of Judea, fled Jerusalem to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law Alexander. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general Pompey had captured him and his father, King Aristobulus II, during his war against the remnant of the Seleucid Empire. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome's client ruler over Judea. Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus. With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest in Judea; the following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of Ptolemaic Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter Berenice IV in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey's conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome. Gabinius' invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne.
This was done against the orders of the Senate but with the approval of Pompey Rome's leading politician, only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian Plutarch records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to act. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but they surrendered before a battle commenced
Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt or Cleopatra VIII, was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony. She was the fraternal twin of Ptolemaic prince Alexander Helios, her second name in ancient Greek means moon meaning the Titaness-goddess of the Moon Selene, being the counterpart of her twin brother's second name Helios, meaning sun and the Titan-god of the Sun Helios. Cleopatra was born and educated in Alexandria, Egypt. In 36 BC in the Donations of Antioch and in late 34 BC during the Donations of Alexandria, she was made ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya. After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium and their suicides in Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra Selene was brought to Rome and placed in the household of Octavian's sister Octavia the Younger. Cleopatra Selene was married to Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and they produced a son and successor Ptolemy of Mauretania. Cleopatra Selene had two full brothers, her twin Alexander Helios and the younger Ptolemy Philadelphos.
Her older half-brother, was the son of her mother and her first partner, Julius Caesar. Cleopatra most planned her only daughter to marry her eldest son Caesarion, her father had five other children with previous wives. Her parents, Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII, were defeated by Octavian, during a naval battle at Actium, Greece in 31 BC. In 30 BC, her parents committed suicide as Octavian and his army invaded Egypt. Octavian captured Cleopatra Selene and her brothers and took them from Egypt to Rome, parading them in heavy golden chains in his triumph; the chains were so heavy that the children were unable to walk in them, eliciting unexpected sympathy from many of the Roman onlookers. Octavian gave the siblings to his elder sister Octavia Minor to be raised in her household in Rome. Between 26 and 20 BC, Augustus arranged for Cleopatra to marry King Juba II of Numidia in Rome; the Emperor Augustus gave to Cleopatra as a wedding present a huge dowry and she became an ally to Rome. By her brothers, Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus, had disappeared from all known historical records and are presumed to have died from illness or assassination.
When Cleopatra married Juba, she was the only surviving member of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Juba and Cleopatra could not return to Numidia as it had been made a Roman province in 46 BC; the couple were sent to an unorganized territory that needed Roman supervision. They renamed their new capital Caesarea, in honor of the Emperor. Cleopatra is said to have exercised great influence on policies. Through her influence, the Mauretanian Kingdom flourished. Mauretania traded well throughout the Mediterranean; the construction and sculptural projects at Caesarea and at another city Volubilis, were built and display a rich mixture of Ancient Egyptian and Roman architectural styles. The children of Cleopatra and Juba were: Ptolemy of Mauretania born in 10 BC A daughter, whose name has not been recorded, is mentioned in an inscription, it has been suggested that Drusilla of Mauretania was a daughter, but she may have been a granddaughter instead. Drusilla is described as a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, but she may have been a daughter of Ptolemy of Mauretania.
Zenobia of Palmyra, Queen of Syria, claimed descent from Cleopatra. Controversy surrounds Cleopatra's exact date of death. A discovered hoard of Cleopatra's coins was dated at 17 AD, it has traditionally been believed. To explain this strange marital problem, historians have supposed some sort of rift between Cleopatra and Juba, mended after Juba's divorce from Glaphyra. Modern historians dispute the idea that Juba, a Romanized king, would have taken a second wife; the argument goes that if Juba married Glaphyra before 4 AD his first wife, must have been dead. The following epigram by Greek Epigrammatist Crinagoras of Mytilene is considered to be Cleopatra's eulogy; the moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset, Covering her suffering in the night, Because she saw her beautiful namesake, Breathless, descending to Hades, With her she had had the beauty of her light in common, And mingled her own darkness with her death. If this poem is not literary license astronomical correlation can be used to help pinpoint the date of Cleopatra's death.
Lunar eclipses occurred in 9, 8, 5 and 1 BC and in AD 3, 7, 10, 11 and 14. The event in 5 BC most resembles the description given in the eulogy, but the date of her death is not ascertainable with any certainty. Zahi Hawass, former Director of Egyptian Antiquities, believes Cleopatra died in AD 8; when Cleopatra died, she was placed in the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania in modern Algeria, built by her and Juba east of Caesarea and still visible. A fragmentary inscription was dedicated as the King and Queen of Mauretania, their human remains have not been found at the site due to tomb raids that occurred at an uncertain time, or because the structure was meant to serve as a memorial and not an actual place of burial. Cleopatra is mentioned in the novels
Juba I of Numidia
Juba I of Numidia was a king of Numidia. He was the son and successor to Hiempsal II. Juba I was the father of King of Numidia and Mauretania, Juba II, father-in-law of Juba II’s wives Greek Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II, Cappodocian princess Glaphyra and paternal grandfather to King Ptolemy of Mauretania and the princess Drusilla of Mauretania the Elder. In 81 BC Hiempsal had been driven from his throne; this alliance was strengthened during a visit by Juba to Rome, when Julius Caesar insulted him by pulling on his beard during a trial when Caesar was defending his client against Juba's father, still further in 50 BC, when the tribune Gaius Scribonius Curio proposed that Numidia should be sold privately. In August 49 BC, Caesar sent Curio to take Africa from the Republicans. Curio was held Publius Attius Varus, the governor of Africa, in low esteem. Curio took fewer legions. In the Battle of the Bagradas the same year, Curio led his army in a bold, uphill attack which swiftly routed Varus's army and wounded Varus.
Encouraged by this success, Curio acted on what proved to be faulty intelligence, attacked what he believed to be a detachment of Juba's army. In fact, the bulk of the king's forces were there and, after an initial success, Curio's forces were ambushed and annihilated by Saburra. Curio was died in the fighting. Only a few escaped on their ships, King Juba took several senators captive back to Numidia for display and execution. With the arrival of Caesar in Africa, Juba planned to join Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, but his kingdom was invaded from the west by Caesar's ally Bocchus II and an Italian adventurer, Publius Sittius, he therefore marched home to save his country. Scipio knew he could not fight without more troops, sent a desperate message to Juba for assistance. Juba left the command of his kingdom's defence with Sabura, joined Scipio with three legions, around 15,000 light infantry, 1000 cavalry and 30 elephants for the Battle of Thapsus. However, he camped away from Scipio's main lines.
Seeing the certain defeat of Scipio's army, Juba did not take part in the battle and fled with his 30,000 men. Having fled with the Roman general Marcus Petreius and finding their retreat cut off, they made a suicide pact and engaged in one on one combat; the idea was. Sources vary on the outcome, but it is most that Petreius killed Juba and committed suicide with the assistance of a slave; the genus of the endangered Chilean wine palm, Jubaea, is named for him. Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars - Caesar. Appian, B. C. i. 80. Marcus Velleius Paterculus ii. 54. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Civili 2.40 Huss, Geschichte der Karthager, Munich: C. H. Beck
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Caligula and Nero—or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in 27 BC until AD 68, when the last of the line, committed suicide; the name "Julio-Claudian dynasty" is a historiographical term derived from the two main branches of the imperial family: the gens Julia and gens Claudia. Primogeniture is notably absent in the history of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Neither Augustus, nor Nero fathered a natural and legitimate son. Tiberius' own son, Drusus predeceased him. Only Claudius was outlived by his son, although he opted to promote his adopted son Nero as his successor to the throne. Adoption became a tool that most Julio-Claudian emperors utilized in order to promote their chosen heir to the front of the succession. Augustus—himself an adopted son of his great-uncle, the Roman dictator Julius Caesar—adopted his stepson Tiberius as his son and heir.
Tiberius was, in turn, required to adopt his nephew Germanicus, the father of Caligula and brother of Claudius. Caligula adopted his cousin Tiberius Gemellus shortly before executing him. Claudius adopted his great-nephew and stepson Nero, lacking a natural or adopted son of his own, ended the reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty with his fall from power and subsequent suicide; the ancient historians who dealt with the Julio-Claudian period—chiefly Suetonius and Tacitus —write in negative terms about their reign. In Tacitus's historiography of the Julio-Claudian emperors, he states: But the successes and reverses of the old Roman people have been recorded by famous historians; the histories of Tiberius, Gaius and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred. Julius and Claudius were two Roman family names. Roman family names were inherited from father to son, but a Roman aristocrat could – either during his life or in his will – adopt an heir if he lacked a natural son.
In accordance with Roman naming conventions, the adopted son would replace his original family name with the name of his adopted family. A famous example of this custom is Julius Caesar's adoption of Gaius Octavius. Augustus, as Caesar's adopted son and heir, discarded the family name of his natural father and renamed himself "Gaius Julius Caesar" after his adoptive father, it was customary for the adopted son to acknowledge his original family by adding an extra name at the end of his new name. As such, Augustus' adopted name would have been "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus". However, there is no evidence that he used the name Octavianus. Following Augustus' ascension as the first emperor of the Roman Empire in 27 BC, his family became a de facto royal house, known in historiography as the "Julio-Claudian dynasty". For various reasons, the Julio-Claudians followed in the example of Julius Caesar and Augustus by utilizing adoption as a tool for dynastic succession; the next four emperors were related through a combination of blood relation and adoption.
Tiberius, a Claudian by birth, became Augustus' stepson after the latter's marriage to Livia, who divorced Tiberius' natural father in the process. Tiberius' connection to the Julian side of the Imperial family grew closer when he married Augustus' only daughter, Julia the Elder, he succeeded Augustus as emperor in AD 14 after becoming his stepfather's adopted son and heir. Caligula was born into the Julian and Claudian branches of the Imperial family, thereby making him the first actual "Julio-Claudian" emperor, his father, was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, the son of Livia and the daughter of Octavia Minor respectively. Germanicus was a great-nephew of Augustus on his mother's side and nephew of Tiberius on his father's side, his wife, Agrippina the Elder, was a granddaughter of Augustus. Through Agrippina, Germanicus' children – including Caligula – were Augustus' great-grandchildren; when Augustus adopted Tiberius, the latter was required to adopt his brother's eldest son as well, thus allowing Germanicus' side of the Imperial family to inherit the Julius nomen.
Claudius, the younger brother of Germanicus, was a Claudian on the side of his father, Nero Claudius Drusus, younger brother of Tiberius. However, he was related to the Julian branch of the Imperial family through his mother, Antonia Minor; as a son of Antonia, Claudius was a great-nephew of Augustus. Moreover, he was Augustus' step-grandson due to the fact that his father was a stepson of Augustus. Unlike Tiberius and Germanicus, both of whom were born as Claudians and became adopted Julians, Claudius was not adopted into the Julian family. Upon becoming emperor, however, he added the Julian-affiliated cognomen Caesar to his full name. Nero was a great-great-grandson of Augustus and Livia through Agrippina the Younger; the younger Agrippina was a daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, as well as Caligula's sister. Through his mother, Nero was related by blood to the Julian and Claudian branches of the Imperial family. However, he was born into the Domitii Ahenobarbi on his father's side.
Nero became a Claudian in name a