Volga trade route
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River. The Rus used this route to trade with Muslim countries on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, sometimes penetrating as far as Baghdad; the route functioned concurrently with the Dnieper trade route, better known as the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, lost its importance in the 11th century. The Volga trade route was established by the Varangians who settled in Northwestern Russia in the early 9th century. About 10 km south of the Volkhov River entry into Lake Ladoga, they established a settlement called Ladoga. Archaeological evidence suggests Rus trading activities along the Volga trade route as early as the end of the 8th century; the earliest and the richest finds of Arabic coins in Europe were discovered on the territory of present-day Russia along the Volga, at Timerevo in the district of Yaroslavl. A hoard of coins found at Petergof, near Saint Petersburg, contains twenty coins with graffiti in Arabic, Turkic runic and Old Norse runic, the latter accounting for more than half of the total.
These coins include Sassanid and Arabo-Sassanid dirhams, the latest of them dated to 804-805. Having examined major finds of Arabic coins in Eastern Europe, Valentin Yanin conclusively demonstrated that the earliest monetary system of early Russia was based on the early type of dirham minted in Africa. From Aldeigjuborg, the Rus could travel up the Volkhov River to Novgorod to Lake Ilmen and further along the Lovat River. Taking their boats around 3 kilometers over a portage, they reached the sources of Volga; the traders brought furs and slaves through territory held by Finnish and Permian tribes down to the land of the Volga Bulgars. From there, they continued by way of the Volga, to the Khazar Khaganate, whose capital Atil was a busy entrepot on the shore of the Caspian Sea. From Atil, the Rus merchants traveled across the sea to join the caravan routes leading to Baghdad. Around 885-886, ibn Khordadbeh wrote about the Rus merchants who brought goods from Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia to Baghdad: In ibn Khordadbeh's account, the Rus are described as "a kind of the Saqaliba", a term used to refer to Slavs, anti-Normanist scholars have interpreted this passage as indicative of the Rus being Slavs rather than Scandinavians.
In the interpretation of the Normanist scholars, the word Saqaliba was frequently applied to all fair-haired, ruddy-complexioned population of Central and Northeastern Europe, so ibn Khordadbeh's language is ambiguous here. Modern scholars have clashed over the interpretation of ibn Khordadbeh's report that the Rus used Saqlab interpreters. Anti-Normanists construed this passage as evidence that the Rus and their interpreters shared a common Slavic mother tongue. Slavic, was a lingua franca in the Eastern Europe at that time; the Persian geographer ibn Rustah described the Rus communities living along Volga: In 921-922, ibn Fadlan was a member of a diplomatic delegation sent from Baghdad to Volga Bulgars, he left an account of his personal observations about the Rus of the Volga region, who dealt in furs and slaves. Johannes Brøndsted interpreted ibn Fadlan's commentary as indicating that these Rus retained their Scandinavian customs regarding weapons, ship-burials, religious sacrifices. Ibn Fadlan's account includes a detailed description of the Rus praying and making sacrifices for success in trade: On the other hand, the Rus came under foreign influence in such matters as dead chief's costume and in the habit of overloading of their women with jewelry: The Volga trade route lost its importance by the 11th century due to the decline of silver output in the Abbasid caliphate, thus, the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, which ran down the Dnieper to the Black Sea and the Byzantine Empire, gained more weight.
The Icelandic saga Yngvars saga víðförla describes an expedition of Swedes into the Caspian launched around 1041 from Sweden by Ingvar the Far-Travelled, who went down the Volga into the land of the Saracens. The expedition was unsuccessful, afterwards, no attempts were made to reopen the route between the Baltic and Caspian seas by the Norsemen. Brøndsted, Johannes; the Vikings.. Penguin Books. Golden, P. B. "Rus." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill. Logan, Donald F.. The Vikings in History 2nd ed. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08396-6 Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "When Did Rus/Rus' Merchants First Visit Khazaria and Baghdad?" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 7, pp. 213–219
In medieval Scandinavia, husmän were either non-servile manservants or household troops in personal service of someone, equivalent to a bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings. This institution existed in Anglo-Saxon England after its conquest by the kingdom of Denmark in the 11th century. In England, the royal housecarls had a number of roles, both administrative; the original Old Norse term, húskarl means "house man". These were well trained men; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle uses hiredmenn as a term for all paid warriors and thus is applied to housecarl, but it refers to butsecarls and lithsmen. It is not clear whether these were types of different altogether; the Old Norse word húskarl had a general sense of "manservant", as opposed to the húsbóndi, the "master of the house". In that sense, the word had several synonyms: griðmenn in Iceland, innæsmæn in Denmark. Housecarls were free men. Both terms emphasise. With time, the term "housecarls" came to acquire a specific sense of "retainers", in the service of a lord, in his hirð, lid or drótt.
In Denmark, this was the sense of the word himthige, a variant of húskarl. This meaning can be seen, for instance, on the Turinge stone: Ketill and Bjôrn, they raised this stone in memory of Þorsteinn, their father; these brothers were the best of men in the land and abroad in the retinue, held their housecarls well. He fell in battle in the east in Garðar, commander of the best of landholders. According to Omeljan Pritsak, this Þorsteinn may have commanded the retinue of king Yaroslav I the Wise. Thus, the housecarls mentioned here would be royal bodyguards. In Norway, housecarls were members of the king's or another powerful man's hirð; the institution of the hirð in Norway can be traced back to the 9th century. The texts dealing with royal power in medieval Norway, the Heimskringla and the Konungs skuggsjá, make explicit the link between a king or leader and his retainers. There was a special fine for the killing of a king's man, which in Konungs skuggsjá is underlined as an advantage of entering the king's service.
Conversely, retainers were expected to avenge their leader. Sigvatr Þórðarson, a court poet to two kings of Norway, Olaf II of Norway and Magnus the Good, called the retainers of Olaf II of Norway heiðþegar, meaning "gift- receivers". More Snorri Sturluson explained that "heið-money is the name of the wages or gift which chieftains give". Thus, Sigvat referred to an institution similar to the Danish heimþegar or to the housecarls of Cnut the Great: free men in the service of a king or lord, who gave them gifts as payment of said service, it is known from Icelandic sources that in the 1060s, the royal housecarls were paid with Norwegian coins. Six runestones in Denmark, DR 1, DR 3, DR 154, DR 155, DR 296, DR 297, use the term heimþegi, meaning "home-receiver"; the use of the term in the inscriptions suggest a strong similarity between heimþegar and housecarls: like housecarls, heimþegar are in the service of a king or lord, of whom they receive gifts for their service. Johannes Brøndsted interpreted heimþegi as nothing more than a local variant of húskarl.
Johannes Brøndsted suggested that the garrison of the Danish fort of Trelleborg may have consisted of royal housecarls, that kings Svein Forkbeard and Cnut the Great may have "safeguarded the country by a network of forts manned by the royal housecarls, the mercenaries, the hird". Among the Hedeby stones, the Stone of Eric is dedicated by a royal retainer to one of his companions: Thurlf, Sven's retainer erected this stone after Erik his fellow, who died when the warriors sat around [i.e. besieged Hedeby, but he was a commander, a brave warrior. "Sven" is king Svein Forkbeard, as elsewhere on the Hedeby stones. Another runestone there, the Skarthi stone, was personally raised by king Svein: King Sveinn placed the stone in memory of Skarði, his retainer, who has sailed in the west, but who died at Hedeby. Under Svein Forkbeard and Cnut the Great, when the Danish kings came to rule England, a body of royal housecarls was developed there, with institutions that were of Norse inspiration, inspired by canon law.
But after the Danish kings had lost England, housecarls continued to exist in Denmark. Such a group of royal retaine
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in
Ostrów Lednicki is an island in the southern portion of Lake Lednica in Poland, located between the cities of Gniezno and Poznań. The word'ostrów' means'holm' - hence in English it is sometimes known as'Lednica Holm'. A gród was built here in the Middle Ages. Existing ruins of a chapel and palace, thought to be the home of the first Kings of the Piast dynasty, have been roofed over for preservation. Today the ruins are of archaeological significance, the site of the Museum of the Piast Dynasty, opened in 1969, it is Poland's largest open-air museum. The site is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as one of the first such monuments designated on September 16, 1994; the list of national monuments is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The island is important in the national history of Poland. During the reign of the first ruler of the Polish state, Mieszko I, Boleslaw the Brave, it stood as one of the main defensive and administrative centers of the kingdom; the ruined castle and other buildings here were constructed during Mieszko I's reign, just before the year 966.
It's one contender for the historical site of the personal baptism of Mieszko I, his wife Dobrawa of Bohemia, his entire court, which took place on the Holy Saturday of April 14, 966. This date is the Baptism of the historical introduction of Christianity in Poland; the event arguably marks the beginning of the Polish state. The island is the scene of Józef Ignacy Kraszewski's historical 1876 novel An Ancient Tale
Mieszko I of Poland
Mieszko I was the ruler of Poland from about 960 until his death. A member of the Piast dynasty, he was a son of Siemomysł, a grandson of Lestek, he was of Gunhild of Wenden. Most sources make Mieszko I the father of Sigrid the Haughty, a Nordic queen, though one source identifies her father as Skoglar Toste, the grandfather of Canute the Great, the great-grandfather of Gunhilda of Denmark, Canute the Great's daughter and wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. While he was the first Christian ruler of Poland, he continued the policies of both his father and grandfather, who initiated the process of creation of the Polish state. Through both alliances and the use of military force, Mieszko extended ongoing Polish conquests and early in his reign subjugated Kuyavia and Gdańsk Pomerania and Masovia. For most of his reign, Mieszko I was involved in warfare for the control of Western Pomerania conquering it up to the vicinity of the lower Oder river. During the last years of his life, he fought the Bohemian state, winning Silesia and Lesser Poland.
Mieszko I's alliance with the Czech prince, Boleslaus I the Cruel, strengthened by his marriage in 965 to the Czech Přemyslid princess Dobrawa, his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. Apart from the great conquests accomplished during his reign Mieszko I was renowned for his internal reforms, aimed at expanding and improving the so-called war monarchy system. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader, a charismatic ruler, he used diplomacy, concluding alliances, first with Bohemia Sweden, the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost entering into agreements with his former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country with expanded territories, a well-established position in Europe. Mieszko I enigmatically appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document dating to about 1085, called Dagome iudex, which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope.
It is his borders that Poland was returned to in 1945. There is no certain information on Mieszko I's life. Only the Lesser Poland Chronicle gives the date of his birth as somewhere between the years 920–931, modern researchers don't recognize the Chronicle as a reliable source. Several historians on the basis of their investigations postulated the date of Mieszko I's birth to have been between 922–945. There are three major theories concerning the meaning of Mieszko I's name; the most popular theory, proposed by Jan Długosz, explains that Mieszko is a diminutive of Mieczysław, a combination of two elements or lexemes: Miecz meaning sword and Sław meaning famous. Today, this theory is rejected by the majority of Polish historians, who consider the name Mieczysław to have been invented by Długosz to explain the origin of the name Mieszko. Today, we know that ancient Slavs never formed their names using either animal names or weapon names. Ancient Slavic names were abstract in nature; the same explanation rules out another theory about the origin of the name Mieszko, which links the name with the Polish word miś/miśko meaning bear, as no animal names were used to form honorable Polish names among Polish nobility.
The second most popular theory about the origin and sense of Mieszko's name can be traced to the old legend, firstly described by Gallus Anonymus, according to which Mesco was blind during his first seven years of life. The chronicler related this story as follows: At that time Prince Siemomysł urgently asked the elderly people of his country whether his son's blindness conveyed some miraculous meaning, they explained that this blindness meant that Poland was blind back but from now was going to be illuminated by Mieszko and elevated over the neighboring nations. This interpretation was a clear reference to the baptism of the Duke: Poland was indeed blind before, knowing nothing about the true God or the principles of the Catholic faith, but thanks to the enlightenment of Mieszko the country had become enlightened, because when he adopted the faith, the Polish nation was saved from death and destruction. In addition, it is known that the Slavic word "mzec" can be interpreted as "having his eyes closed" or "be blind".
Yet again, today it is certain that this legend was used as a metaphor, in allusion to the old Slavic pagan ceremony known as the "postrzyżyny": During that ceremony hair cutting was performed to every boy at the age of seven. In that symbolic rite a child became a man; that explains. He was blind only metaphorically. Besides his son's name was Mieszko and it is hard to believe that he was blind. In addition, as we know today ancient Slavs used only abstract names among nobility; the third theory links the name of Mieszko with his other name, Dagome, as it appeared in the document called Dagome iudex. We know this document only from a copy prepared by an anonymous monk, not familiar with Polish language or Polish names, it is possible that while copying the document he made a mistake and wrote down Dagome instead of Dagomer or Dagomir. The name Dagomir is used to this day and its construction is sim
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Moscovian, Wallachian and Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes from the 10th century to the 17th century. The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia and Romania, in Finland, where it is spelled Pajari. Known as bolyar. For the linguists, the title Boila is predecessor or old form of the title Bolyar. Boila was a title worn by some of the Bulgar aristocrats in the First Bulgarian Empire; the plural form of boila, bolyare is attested in Bulgar inscriptions and rendered as boilades or boliades in the Greek of Byzantine documents. Multiple different derivation theories of the word have been suggested by scholars and linguists, such as it having possible roots from old Turkic: bai, itself a derivative of beg, from the Indo-European Iranic word bagh, "lord" – whence, akin to Russian bog, Serbian bojh, "lord," plus Turkic är; the title entered Old Russian as быля. The oldest Slavic form of boyar—bolyarin, pl. bolyari —dates from the 10th century, it is found in Bulgaria, where it may have stemmed from the old Bulgar title boila, which denoted a high aristocratic status among the Bulgars.
It was transformed through boilar or bilyar to bolyar and bolyarin. In support of this hypothesis is the 10th-century diplomatic protocol of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, where the Bulgarian nobles are called boliades, while the 9th-century Bulgar sources call them boila. A member of the nobility during the First Bulgarian Empire was called a boila, while in the Second Bulgarian Empire, the corresponding title became bolyar or bolyarin. Bolyar, as well as its predecessor, was a hereditary title; the Bulgarian bolyars were divided into malki. Presently in Bulgaria, the word bolyari is used as a nickname for the inhabitants of Veliko Tarnovo—once the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In medieval Serbia, the rank of the boyars was equivalent to the rank of the baron; the etymology of the term comes from the word battle. With the rule of the Ottoman Empire after 1450, the Ottoman as well as the Austro-Hungarian terms exchanged the Serbian one. Today, it is an archaic term representing the aristocracy.
From the 9th to 13th century, boyars wielded considerable power through their military support of the Kievan princes. Power and prestige of many of them, soon came to depend completely on service to the state, family history of service and, to a lesser extent, land ownership. Boyars of Kievan Rus were visually similar to knights, but after the Mongol invasion, their cultural links were lost; the boyars occupied the highest state offices and, through a council, advised the grand duke. They received extensive grants of land and, as members of the Boyars' Duma, were the major legislators of Kievan Rus'. After the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the boyars from central and southern parts of Kievan Rus' were incorporated into Lithuanian and Polish nobility. In the 16th and 17th centuries, many of those Ukrainian boyars who failed to get the status of a nobleman participated in the formation of the Cossack army, based in the south of modern Ukraine. During the 14th and 15th centuries, the boyars of Moscow had considerable influence that continued from the Muscovy period.
However, starting with the reign of Ivan III, the boyars were starting to lose that influence to the authoritative tsars in Russia. Because of Ivan III's expansionist policies, administrative changes were needed in order to ease the burden of governing Muscovy. Small principalities knew their loyal subjects by name, but after the consolidation of territories under Ivan, familial loyalty and friendship with the boyar's subjects turned those same subjects into administrative lists; the face of provincial rule disappeared. Boyar membership, until the 16th century, did not require one to be Russian, or Orthodox, as historians note that many boyars came from places like Lithuania or the Nogais, some remained Muslims for a generation after the Mongols were ousted. What is interesting about the boyars is their implied duties; because boyars were not constitutionally instituted, much of their powers and duties came from agreements signed between princes. Agreements, such as one between Ivan III and Mikhail Borisovich in 1484 showed how allegiances needed to be earned and secured, rather than implied and enforced.
Instead of the grand prince overseeing his lands, he had to rely on his captains and close advisors to oversee day-to-day operations. Instead of the great voice the boyars had in their advisory roles, they now had less bargaining power and mobility, they answered questions posed by the grand prince, Ivan III made sure to get their approval on special events, such as his marriage to Zoe Paleologa, or the attack on Novgorod. This was to ensure the boyars and their military power remained loyal t