The Sepulveda Dam is a project of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers designed to withhold winter flood waters along the Los Angeles River. Completed in 1941, at a cost of $6,650,561, it is located south of center in the San Fernando Valley eight miles east of the river's source in the western end of the Valley, in Los Angeles, California. Sepulveda Dam, along with Hansen Dam located in the north San Fernando Valley, was constructed in response to the historic 1938 floods which killed 144 people. Sepulveda Dam was placed at what was at the current edge of the city. East of the dam the river was crowded into a narrow bottom by the city's growth. One legacy of Sepulveda Dam is its flood control basin, a large and undeveloped area in the center of the Valley, used for wildlife refuge and recreation, but another legacy of the 1938 Los Angeles River flood was the post-World War II channelization of all the Valley's dry washes, which along with the post-World War II rapid suburbanization left the Valley with hot, concrete-lined river bottoms instead of greenbelts.
Although now, in part, these are being devolved as interconnecting bike paths. Behind the dam, the Sepulveda Basin is home to several large recreation areas including Woodley Park, a model aircraft field, The Japanese Garden, a wildlife refuge, a water reclamation plant, an armory; the Basin is kept free of urban over-building so that water can build up there during a prospective hundred-year flood. It is an often-used location for car commercials; when the 1914 flood caused $10 million in damages to the developing basin areas, a public outcry began for action to address the recurring flooding problems. During the following year, the Los Angeles County Flood Control District was formed; some of the early flood control efforts included smaller areas of channelization and the planning for needed reservoirs. Taxpayers approved bond issues in 1924 to build the first major dams. However, they were not willing to provide enough funding for the much needed and substantial infrastructure downstream of these dams.
After two more destructive floods in the 1930s, most notably the 1938 flood, federal assistance was requested. The Army Corps of Engineers took a lead role in channelizing the river and constructing several dams which would create flood control basins behind them. Channelization began in 1938, by 1960, the project was completed to form the present fifty-one mile engineered waterway. Included in this work were Hansen Dam, completed in 1940 and followed by Sepulveda Dam in 1941. In 1973, Burbank Blvd was built through the Sepulveda Basin, Woodley Ave was built in the recreation area in 1975. For 28 years the Sepulveda Dam did its job without incident until 1969 when the Los Angeles River overflowed its banks causing millions of dollars in damage. In 1988 the Los Angeles River's banks were raised to avoid another incident. In 1994 a hundred-year flood occurred in the Los Angeles River; the dam was restored and went without incident for another 11 years until the Los Angeles River again overflowed its banks in 2005.
During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the area around the dam will host Canoe Slalom and Shooting. The 2,000-acre Sepulveda Basin Recreation Area is a flood control basin managed by the Los Angeles City Department of Recreation and Parks. Woodley Park is a large city park located on Woodley Avenue between Burbank Boulevards; the Leo Magnus Cricket Complex, a dog park, group picnic areas are within the park. The park was opened in 1975; the Japanese Garden is a 6.5 acres public Japanese garden located on the grounds of the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant adjacent to Woodley Park. Lake Balboa Park known as Anthony C. Beilenson Park, is water recreation facility with boat rentals and fishing. Lake Balboa is a 27 acres lake filled with water reclaimed from the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant, it has barbecue pits, children's play area, picnic tables, covered picnic pavilions. There are many Flowering cherry trees in the park; the Sepulveda Basin Wildlife Reserve is at the southeast end of the Sepulveda Flood Control Basin and Recreation Area.
It has two sections, the North Reserve and South Reserve, located north and south of Burbank Boulevard. Both have nature paths and hiking trails. Access and parking are in eastern Woodley Park near to the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant, or from Burbank Boulevard east of Woodley Avenue. Haskell Creek flows through the nature preserve, there are several wildlife ponds. Over 200 species of birds have been seen in the basin. Many, attracted by the water, gather here during spring migrations; the Sepulveda Basin Wildlife Reserve is an ongoing habitat restoration project, with locally native California plants. Native trees include Fremont's cottonwood, Coast live oak, Valley oak, California Black Walnut, California sycamore; the Sepulveda Dam Recreation Area Bike Path is a 9 miles bicycle path route looping around the recreation area. It runs from Victory Boulevard near Interstate 405, westward to White Oak Avenue, south on White Oak to Burbank Boulevard, east on Burbank to Woodley Boulevard, north on Woodley returning to Victory Boulevard.
Public access is continuous along it. A shorter route heads south on Balboa Boulevard, which crosses a natural stretch of the Los Angeles River that lined with native Arroyo willows, California sycamores, other California native plants; the loop sections along Victory and Burbank can be frequented by joggers. The bike path can seasonally have burr-bearing weeds. There is ample free parking available in the public park, sports field
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Santa Clarita, California
Santa Clarita the City of Santa Clarita, is the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 24th largest in the state of California. The city has annexed a number of unincorporated areas, contributing to the large population increase, it is located about 35 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, occupies most of the Santa Clarita Valley. It is a notable example of a U. S. edge boomburb. Santa Clarita was ranked by Money magazine in 2006 as 18th of the top 100 places to live. Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987 as the union of four unincorporated communities, Canyon Country, Newhall and Valencia, most of which are situated on the land of the former Rancho San Francisco; the four communities retain separate identities, it is common for residents to refer to a specific neighborhood when asked where they are from. Santa Clarita is bounded on the west by the Golden State Freeway; the Antelope Valley Freeway runs northeast-southwest through an irregular east border, the Newhall Pass is the city's southernmost point.
Six Flags Magic Mountain amusement park and Stevenson Ranch are both associated with Santa Clarita, though since both are located west of Interstate 5, neither is within the Santa Clarita city limits. The Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Clare of Assisi; the valley and the settlement became known as "little Santa Clara" in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, "little Santa Clara" became "Santa Clarita." Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987. About AD 450, the Tataviam arrived. In 1842, Francisco Lopez made the first "documented" discovery of gold in California; the event is memorialized in an 1842 mining claim issued by Gov. Juan B. Alvarado; the discovery was made in Placerita Canyon, an area used as Hollywood's original back lot. The community of Newhall is named after Henry Newhall, a businessman who made his fortune during the California Gold Rush after opening up the H. M. Newhall & Company, a successful auction house in San Francisco.
Newhall's next business interest was railroads. He invested in rail companies that would connect San Francisco to other cities and became president of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. In 1870, he and his partners sold the company to Southern Pacific Railroad, on whose board of directors he sat. After railroads, Newhall turned to real ranching, he purchased a number of the old Spanish and Mexican land grants in the state for a total of 143,000 acres between Monterey and Los Angeles counties. The most significant portion was the 46,460 acres Rancho San Francisco in northern Los Angeles County, which he purchased for $2/acre, which became known as Newhall Ranch after Newhall's death. Within this territory, he granted a right-of-way to Southern Pacific through what is now Newhall Pass, he sold them part of the land, upon which the company built a town named after him: Newhall; the first station built on the line he named for his hometown, Massachusetts. After his death, Newhall's heirs incorporated the Newhall Land and Farming Company, which oversaw the development of the communities that now make up Santa Clarita.
On September 26, 1876, Charles Alexander Mentry brought in the state's first productive oil well at Mentryville, giving rise to the California oil industry. The oil was brought to a refinery at Newhall, now the oldest existing petroleum refinery in the world. A few days earlier, on September 5, 1876, Charles Crocker and Leland Stanford joined their railroads in Canyon Country, linking Los Angeles with the rest of the nation for the first time; the Saugus Cafe, on Railroad Avenue in Saugus, was established in 1887 and appears to be, by far, the oldest still-operating restaurant in Los Angeles County. Filming in Santa Clarita began shortly after the turn of the 20th century with a veritable Who's Who of actors, including William S. Hart, Tom Mix, Harry Carey and a young John Wayne. Hart and Carey made their homes in the Santa Clarita Valley; the Santa Clarita Valley was the scene of the second worst disaster in California's history in terms of lives lost, known as the "worst civil engineering failure of the 20th century".
Shortly before midnight on March 12, 1928, the St. Francis Dam collapsed. By the time the floodwaters reached the Pacific Ocean near Ventura five hours nearly 600 people were dead. Within modern Santa Clarita city limits, the present day site of the Westfield Valencia Town Center mall would have been buried beneath muck and debris; some buildings in Newhall became makeshift morgues. After multiple failed attempts to form a city and at least two failed attempts to form a separate county, the people of the Santa Clarita Valley incorporated the City of Santa Clarita at 4:30 PM on December 15, 1987 after voting in favor of incorporation by a margin of two to one in that year's general election; the other proposed name for the new city, narrowly defeated, was "City of the Canyons." Santa Clarita, according to the United States Census Bureau, has an area of 62.16 square miles, of which 62.10 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Santa Clarita is near the San Fernando fault zone and was affected by the 1971 San Fernando earthquake known as the Sylmar quake.
The city was affected by the 1994 Northridge earthquake, many commercial and residential buildings were devastated by its aftermath, including the nearby Newhall Pass, the Valencia Town Center, Six Flags Magic Mountain. Magi
The Mulholland Dam is a Los Angeles Department of Water and Power dam located in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles, California. Designed with a storage capacity of 7,900 acre⋅ft of water at a maximum depth of 183 feet, the dam forms the Hollywood Reservoir, which collects water from various aqueducts and impounds the creek of Weid Canyon. Named Weid Canyon Dam Hollywood Dam and Mulholland Dam in honor of William Mulholland who at the time was the General Manager and Chief Engineer of the Bureau of Water Works and Supply, a predecessor department of what is now known as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. Mulholland was responsible for the design and construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct and much of the city's water system, including many of the early earthen dams and storage reservoirs; the area was first surveyed for use as a reservoir in 1912. In 1922, the area was again surveyed and designs for a masonry dam began to be made. Construction of the dam began in August 1923 and it was completed during December 1924.
Upon its completion, the Mulholland dam became the first concrete, curved gravity dam designed and built by the Bureau of Water Works and Supply. The St. Francis Dam was designed and built by the Bureau of Water Works and Supply, in that its design was an adaptation of the Mulholland Dam, it was nearly identical in size and shape. In March 1928, the St. Francis Dam experienced a catastrophic failure, the resulting flood devastated the Santa Clara Valley and took the lives of more than an estimated 430 people. William Mulholland ordered the Hollywood reservoir lowered shortly after the collapse of the St. Francis Dam as a precaution as well as to help ease public fears of a repeat disaster. Due to the St. Francis Dam disaster, the California legislature created an updated dam safety program and in 1929, the Department of Public Works, under the oversight of the State Engineer was given authority to review all non-federal dams over 25 feet high or which would hold more than 50 acre-feet of water.
The new legislation allowed the State to employ consultants, as they deemed necessary. Additionally, the State was given full authority to supervise the maintenance and operation of all non federal dams. Soon after the failure of the St. Francis Dam a Committee of Engineers & Geologists to Assess Mulholland Dam was appointed to reviewed the safety of the Mulholland Dam; this was followed in January 1930 by the External Review Panel to evaluate the structure, convened by the State of California. In March 1930 the City of Los Angeles Board of Water & Power Commissioners appointed their own Board of Review for the dam. Although the state’s panel did not recommend modification of the dam, both panels came to similar conclusions that the fact the dam lacked, what was at the time considered, sufficient uplift relief and which may lead to destabilization and that this was unacceptable. A fourth panel, the Board of Engineers to evaluate Mulholland Dam, was appointed in 1931 to examine the feasibility of abandoning Mulholland Dam.
An external Geological Report of the Suitability of Foundations followed this in late 1931, appointed by the Board of Water & Power Commissioners. These believed design deficiencies, made by the engineering department while planning and which were not only employed in the Mulholland but, thereby the St. Francis Dam as well were brought to light though given little public notice in 1931; the decision made was to permanently keep the Hollywood Reservoir drawn down, keep its capacity to no more than 4,000 acre⋅ft, the reservoir now is maintained at about 2,800 acre⋅ft, to place an enormous amount of earth, 330,000 cu yd, on the dam’s downstream face. This was to be done not only to bolster its resistance against hydraulic uplift and earthquake forces, it did well in screening it from public view; this work was carried out in 1933–34, after which the LADWP undertook a forceful program of re-vegetation on the new earth, which succeeded in screening the dam from most everyone’s notice. More recent studies have revealed Mulholland Dam to be within the state guidelines for dam safety.
The Mulholland Dam was portrayed in the 1974 disaster film Earthquake, where after a large earthquake destroys much of Los Angeles, the dam threatens to collapse and does due to aftershocks. It is the location of the photograph "Man on Steps, Bowl" by Hiromu Kira. California Water Wars List of dams and reservoirs in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood St. Francis Dam William Mulholland Media related to Mulholland Dam at Wikimedia Commons
Cogswell Dam is a rockfill dam on the West Fork of the San Gabriel River in Los Angeles County, California. It is in the San Gabriel Mountains, northeast of Mount Wilson, within the Angeles National Forest, it forms Cogswell Reservoir. It serves for flood control in conjunction with San Gabriel Dam and Morris Dam downstream. San Gabriel Dam lies 13 miles downstream. Bonds for the dam's construction were issued in 1924. Construction began March 1932 and was completed April 1934, at a total cost of US$3,127,762; the rock-fill dam, built by the Los Angeles County Flood Control District, is 585 feet long, 266 feet tall, 18 feet wide at the top, contains 1,044,945 cubic yards of material. Its crest is 27 feet above the certified water storage elevation; the dam rests on crystalline granite bedrock. The buttress is 750 feet thick at the base, the height from foundation to crest is 285 feet. There are a concrete facing slab on the dam's upstream side. List of dams and reservoirs in California San Gabriel Mountains topics San Gabriel River topics
Pacoima Dam is a concrete arch dam on Pacoima Creek in the San Gabriel Mountains, in Los Angeles County, California. The reservoir which it creates, Pacoima Reservoir, has a capacity of 3,777 acre⋅ft Built by the Los Angeles County Flood Control District, which became part of the Department of Public Works, it was completed in 1928. At the time, the 371 foot high dam was the tallest arch dam in the U. S; the dam is situated 5 miles northeast of Sylmar, above the San Fernando Valley. As construction of Pacoima Dam began, the County of Los Angeles hired Roy W. Carlson as their concrete and soil testing engineer, he developed the world's first strain meter. He developed an adiabatic calorimeter and electrical-resistance thermometers to determine why the temperature of concrete increased during curing and how best to avoid cracking caused by these stresses; the Pacoima Dam withstood, but was damaged by, the strong ground movement which occurred during both the 1971 and 1994 earthquakes. Because of concerns about the stability of the dam and its response to potential future earthquakes, the County of Los Angeles, with the technical support of the USGS, began monitoring the dam using continuous GPS.
Angeles National Forest List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California