MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Hollywood Records, Inc. is an American record label of the Disney Music Group. The label focuses in pop, alternative, hip hop, country genres, as well as specializing in mature recordings not suitable for the flagship Walt Disney Records label. Founded in 1989, its current roster includes artists such as Jordan Fisher, Zella Day, Demi Lovato, Zendaya, Ocean Park Standoff, Bea Miller, Martina Stoessel, Breaking Benjamin, Jorge Blanco, Sabrina Carpenter, R5, Olivia Holt, Sofia Carson, Forever in Your Mind, New Hope Club, Maddie Poppe and In Real Life; the label releases Marvel Studios's soundtrack and compilation albums in conjunction with Marvel Music. Hollywood Records was founded in 1989 by Michael Eisner CEO of The Walt Disney Company as a way of expanding the company's music operations by looking to develop and promote the careers of a wide variety of artists in various genres. At the time, the company was limited to the release of soundtracks from Touchstone, Hollywood Pictures films. Lawyer Peter Paterno was the first president of the label, until his resignation in 1993 because of the division's lackluster sales.
After failing to sign new artists such as Nirvana, Smashing Pumpkins, Naughty By Nature, Cypress Hill and Dr. Dre, the label experienced its first major success in February 1990, when it acquired the North American distribution rights to Queen's entire catalog for $10 million; the following year, the first Queen album under Hollywood, was released. The deal's outlook as an important economic opportunity was affected by the premature death of the band's lead singer Freddie Mercury, although the band's catalog sales managed to generate nearly $94 million in revenue for Disney from 1991 to 1995. Bob Pfeifer was named President of the label in March 1995 after a whole year without a President, but problems continued to the label and Pfeifer was fired in 1997, after the label revealed that he had lost over 150 million dollars since 1989. In 1997, Disney acquired Mammoth Records, in order to get an already-established record label that could succeed. However, the acquisition of Mammoth was a failure and the label was closed and integrated to Hollywood in 2003.
Additionally, during this time, they had signed Duran Duran to a three-album contract, subsequently released Pop Trash, only to terminate their contract after disappointing album sales. In 1998, the company decided to form Buena Vista Music Group, integrating the operations of Walt Disney Records along with Hollywood, Lyric Street and Walt Disney Music Publishing. Bob Cavallo, former manager of Earth, Wind & Fire and Prince was appointed as chairman of the group, president of Hollywood Records; this movement looked to organize the music operations of the company under a more integrated direction. After some years of development, Hollywood Records had its first major success in 2003, when Metamorphosis, Hilary Duff's first non-holiday album, was released and became a success to the label, selling over three million copies in the United States; the launch of Duff's career represents a new business model for the record, utilising the synergies around the company, including important outlets like Disney Channel, Radio Disney, ABC Family & ABC.
Duff's albums released under Hollywood proved to be successful including 2004's Hilary Duff and 2005's Most Wanted. A similar business model was utilized in subsequent Hollywood's artists like Demi Lovato, Miley Cyrus, Bridgit Mendler and Selena Gomez with several productions that gained Platinum or Gold certifications, their musical careers proved. At the same time, the label continued to develop the careers of artists with a less mainstream profile like Grace Potter & the Nocturnals, Breaking Benjamin or Plain White T's, but, successful in its own terms; the label continued to release soundtracks from films and TV shows those derived from Marvel Studios productions. In 2010, Hollywood absorbed the remaining operations of country music label Lyric Street Records, which became an imprint for the catalog of the defunct-label managed by Hollywood. In 2011, Queen left EMI for Universal-owned Island Records, with Hollywood continuing to remain the group's North American music distributor. In January 2012, after 14 years of a successful tenure, Bob Cavallo retired as chairman of the Group and Ken Bunt was appointed as president of the group.
Several changes have been done under his tenure, including the retirement of long-time executives from the Cavallo's era like Abbey Konowitch, Justin Fontaine and Jhon Linda and the appointment of new A&R's like Mio Vukovic and Mike Daly. In March 2013, Disney Music Group and Universal Music Group announced the expansion of their relationship with a new commercial and creative agreement that enable Hollywood Records' artists to collaborate with the roster of producers and songwriters that are part of Universal. Since 2013, Hollywood Records uses the brand name DMG Nashville to specialize in country music; the genre label was founded to provide music licensing for Bigger Picture Music Group. After Bigger Picture's closure in 2014, DMG Nashville released its first studio album. Hollywood Basic was Hollywood’s short-lived hip-hop subsidiary, run by Dave Funkenklein, which existed from 1990 to 1995, it did not survive the distribution transition its parent made to PolyGram Records, all of its recordings were deleted, save for those by Organized Konfusion, which were repressed under the new deal.
It was the first label to record DJ Shadow, releasing his "Lesson 4" as the B-side of a 1991 single by Lifers Group, a hip hop group composed of prisoners at East Jersey State
Nu metal is a subgenre of alternative metal that combines elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, alternative rock, funk and grunge. Nu metal bands have drawn elements and influences from a variety of musical styles, including multiple genres of heavy metal. Nu metal features guitar solos. Many nu metal guitarists use seven-string guitars. DJs are featured in nu metal to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Vocal styles in nu metal include singing, rapping and growling. Nu metal is one of the key genres of the new wave of American heavy metal. Nu metal became popular in the late 1990s with bands and artists such as Korn, Limp Bizkit, Kid Rock all releasing albums that sold millions of copies. Nu metal's popularity continued during the early 2000s, with bands such as Papa Roach, P. O. D. all selling multi-platinum albums, came to a peak with Linkin Park's diamond-selling album Hybrid Theory. However, by the mid-2000s, the oversaturation of bands combined with the under-performance of a number of high-profile releases led to nu metal's decline, leading to the rise of metalcore and many nu metal bands disbanding or abandoning their established sound in favor of other genres.
During the 2010s, there has been a minor nu metal revival. Nu metal is known as nü-metal and aggro-metal, it is a subgenre of alternative metal. MTV states that the early nu metal group Korn "arrived in 1993 into the burgeoning alternative metal scene, which would morph into nü-metal the way college rock became alternative rock." Stereogum has claimed that nu metal was a "weird outgrowth of the Lollapalooza-era alt-metal scene". Nu metal merges elements of heavy metal music with elements of other music genres such as grunge, hip hop, alternative rock. Nu metal bands have been influenced by and have used elements of a variety of musical genres, including electronic music, gothic rock, hardcore punk, punk rock, dance music, new wave, post-punk, symphonic rock and synth-pop. Nu metal bands are influenced by and use elements of genres of heavy metal music such as death metal, rap metal, groove metal, funk metal, thrash metal; some nu metal bands, such as Static-X and Dope, made nu metal music with elements of industrial metal.
In contrast with other heavy metal subgenres, nu metal tends to use the same structure of verses and bridges as those in pop music. Nu metal is syncopated and is based on guitar riffs. Mid-song bridges and a general lack of guitar solos contrasts it with other genres of heavy metal. Kory Grow of Revolver wrote, "... N its efforts to tune down and simplify riffs, nu-metal drove a stake through the heart of the guitar solo". Another contrast with other heavy metal genres is nu metal's emphasis on rhythm, rather than on complexity or mood its rhythm sounds like that of groove metal; the wah pedal is featured in nu metal music. Nu metal guitar riffs are similar to those of death metal. Nu metal bassists and drummers are influenced by funk and hip hop adding to nu metal's rhythmic nature. Blast beats, which are common in heavy metal subgenres such as black metal and death metal, are rare in nu metal. Nu metal's similarities with many heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygian modes.
While loud and distorted electric guitars are a core feature of all metal genres, nu metal guitarists took the sounds of "violence and destruction" to new levels with their overdriven guitar tone, which music journalists Kitts and Tolinski compared to the "...sound a Mack truck being crushed by a collapsing skyscraper."Some nu metal bands use seven-string guitars that are down-tuned, rather than traditional six-string guitars. Some bass guitarists use five-string and six-string instruments. Bass guitar-playing in nu metal features an emphasis on funk elements. In nu metal music, DJs are sometimes featured to provide instrumentation such as sampling, turntable scratching and electronic backgrounds. Nu metal tends to have hip hop rhythms. Vocal styles used in nu metal music include singing, rapping and growling. Vocals in nu metal are rhythmic and influenced by hip hop. Although some nu metal bands, such as Limp Bizkit and Linkin Park have rapping in their music, some nu metal bands, such as Godsmack and Staind, do not feature rapping.
Nu metal bands feature hip hop musicians as guests in their songs. The hip hop musician Nas was featured on Korn's song "Play Me", on the band's album Take a Look in the Mirror. Limp Bizkit has recorded with multiple hip hop musicians including Method Man, Lil Wayne, Redman, DMX and Snoop Dogg. Linkin Park collaborated with hip hop musician Jay Z on their 2004 extended play Collision Course. Kid Rock has recorded with hip hop musicians Snoop Dogg. Trevor Baker of The Guardian wrote, "Bands such as Linkin Park and the much reviled Limp Bizkit... did far more to break down the artificial barriers between'urban music' and rock than any of their more critically acceptable counterparts." Lyrics in nu metal songs are angry or nihilistic.
Madden NFL 2003
Madden NFL 2003 is an American football simulation video game based on the NFL, developed by EA Tiburon and Budcat Creations and published by EA Sports. The 14th installment of the Madden NFL series, the game features former St. Louis Rams running back Marshall Faulk on the cover; this edition of Madden was the first to have EA Trax, the Mini Camp mode and to feature John Madden and Al Michaels as commentators, who took over for Pat Summerall. The game was released on August 12, 2002 for the Game Boy Advance, GameCube, Microsoft Windows, PlayStation, PlayStation 2 and the Xbox. Bruce Matthews is the starting center for the Tennessee Titans despite having retired by the start of the season. Retired quarterback Mark Rypien is listed as a free agent. Ryan Leaf appears as a backup quarterback for the Seattle Seahawks despite retiring before the start of training camp. LaVar Arrington does not appear in the game due to him not represented by the NFL players association at the time therefore preventing him from appearing in the game, however his name can be added.
Pat Tillman appears as a free agent despite retiring before the season to join the military. Tony Boselli appears as a left tackle for the Houston Texans, however he retired before the 2002 NFL season because of injuries. Madden NFL 2003 was the first EA Sports video game to feature EA Trax; the game was met with universal acclaim to positive reception upon release. GameRankings and Metacritic gave it a score of 91.20% and 95 out of 100 for the PlayStation 2 version. In Japan, Famitsu gave the PS2 version a score of 33 out of 40. Madden NFL 2003 at MobyGames Madden NFL 2003 at MobyGames
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Freekstyle is a 2002 motocross racing video game for the PlayStation 2, Game Boy Advance and Nintendo GameCube. There are four levels of gameplay: the circuit, a quick race and free run. Race courses Monumental Motoplex in Monument Valley, Utah — This is a course that twists and turns though the rock structures; the jumps are smooth and one of the last jumps has burst though a ring with a glass panel in it with the Freekstyle logo on it. The Crust Belt — This track is based in an abandoned coal mining/welding factory, oddly still running, features jumping over belts full of coal, speeding through a run down warehouse. There are two secret jumps, one where the player jumps over buckets filled with molten steel, the other in which they have to smash through wooden crates to get on the route to a massive jump. Burn It Up — The player must race their way in this "Nature Gone Ari" track, full of burning/collapsing trees and rocks shooting down an uphill section of the track; the first jump is the biggest in the course.
There are two secret jumps, one in which the player goes off course and follows a gray line that leads them to a rock jump. The other needs full boost to get up on the top of the multiple'S' shaped turns below. Gnome Sweet Gnome — This course takes place at Green Animals Topiary Garden in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, featuring jumps over multiple sculptures, a section where the player knocks over little gnomes. Let It Ride — This track is based in Laughlin, Nevada, it is one of the more colorful and ambient tracks in the game. There is a secret route where, when a jump pops up from the ground, the player will land on a red and blue platform which takes them to the next pop up jump; the Rocket Garden — The hardest track in the game is in a rocket launching base, has more secret jumps than any of the other tracks. First, if the player hears an alarm go off in the first section of the track, they must go to the middle launching pad. Next, on the next jump, if they jump the middle ramp, they will land on a platform which leads them to the inside of the facility.
The exit of the building launches them out to the next jump section. On the final stretch, the player must go to the middle route, it will lead them to a big jump with a glass pane ring. Freestyle courses Feel the Pane in Detroit — This is a course filled with jumbo-trons or "Freek TV's", loads of glass panes to smash or crash though; the Crash Pad — This is an abandoned house under construction, full of jumps over the house, exploding grills, a pool. It is not for swimming, though; the Burbs — This is a neighborhood turned into "Freekville" The population was in the thousands, after Freekstyle paid a visit, there were only eight. This course is full of twisty, massive, "Over-the-Top" jumps. Mike "Metz" Metzger, a.k.a. "The Godfather" Brian Deegan Leeann Tweeden Stefy Bau Clifford Adoptante, a.k.a. the Flyin' Hawaiian Mike Jones, a.k.a. Mad Mike Jessica Patterson Greg Albertyn, a.k.a. Albee The title track for the game is a song called "Slip Away" by Dry Cell. Dry Cell's debut CD, was scheduled to be released by Warner Bros. Records on July 16, 2002, but was scrapped due to a dispute between the label and the band.
The PlayStation 2 and GameCube versions received "generally favorable reviews", while the Game Boy Advance version received "mixed" reviews, according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. In Japan, where the PS2 version was ported for release under the name Freekstyle Motocross and published by Electronic Arts on October 3, 2002, Famitsu gave it a score of 27 out of 40. Entertainment Weekly gave the PS2 version an A− and said, "With a great two-player head-to-head mode and 100 over-the-top stunts to perform, this makes regular motocross games look downright dull by comparison." FHM gave it four stars out of five and said it had "Splendid gameplay topped by highly-involving action and some nice comedy touches." The Cincinnati Enquirer gave the PS2 and GameCube versions four stars out of five and said, "This title feels as good as it looks thanks to its tight and responsive handling." Maxim gave the PS2 version four stars out of five a month before its release date and said, "Extreme games keep getting extremer, but it would be tough to top this hellish twist on motocross racing."
Freekstyle at MobyGames
Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California. The band's current lineup comprises vocalist/rhythm guitarist Mike Shinoda, lead guitarist Brad Delson, bassist Dave Farrell, turntablist/keyboardist Joe Hahn and drummer Rob Bourdon, all of whom are founding members. Vocalists Mark Wakefield and Chester Bennington and bassist Kyle Christner are former members of the band. Formed in 1996, Linkin Park rose to international fame with its debut studio album, Hybrid Theory, certified diamond by the RIAA in 2005, multi-platinum in several other countries, its second album, continued the band's success, topping the Billboard 200 album chart in 2003, was followed by extensive touring and charity work. Having adapted nu metal and rap metal to a radio-friendly yet densely layered style in its first two albums, the band explored other genres on its third album, Minutes to Midnight; the album had the third-best debut week of any album that year. Linkin Park continued to explore a wider variation of musical types in its fourth album, A Thousand Suns, layering their music with more electronic sounds.
The band's fifth album, Living Things, combined musical elements from all of its previous records. Its sixth album, The Hunting Party, returned to a heavier rock sound, its seventh album, One More Light, was a more electronic and pop-oriented record. In 2003, MTV2 named Linkin Park the sixth-greatest band of the music video era and the third-best of the new millennium. Billboard ranked Linkin Park No. 19 on the Best Artists of the Decade chart. In 2012, the band was voted as the greatest artist of the 2000s in a Bracket Madness poll on VH1. In 2014, the band was declared as the Biggest Rock Band in the World Right Now by Kerrang!. As the best-selling band of the 21st century and one of the world's best-selling music artists overall, Linkin Park has sold more than 70 million albums worldwide and has won two Grammy Awards. Linkin Park went into an indefinite hiatus after longtime lead vocalist Bennington died from suicide by hanging on July 20, 2017; the other members of the band have yet to decide.
Linkin Park was founded by three high school friends: Mike Shinoda, Rob Bourdon, Brad Delson. The three attended Agoura High School in California, a suburb of Los Angeles. After graduating from high school, the three began to take their musical interests more recruiting Joe Hahn, Dave "Phoenix" Farrell, Mark Wakefield to perform in their band called Xero. Though limited in resources, the band began recording and producing songs within Shinoda's makeshift bedroom studio in 1996, resulting in a four-track demo tape, entitled Xero. Tensions and frustration within the band grew however; the lack of success and stalemate in progress prompted Wakefield, at that time the band's vocalist, to leave the band in search of other projects. Farrell left to tour with Tasty Snax, a Christian punk and ska band. After spending a considerable time searching for Wakefield's replacement, Xero recruited Arizona vocalist Chester Bennington, recommended by Jeff Blue, the vice president of Zomba Music in March 1999. Bennington of a post-grunge band by the name of Grey Daze, became a standout among applicants because of the dynamic in his singing style.
The band agreed on changing its name from Xero to Hybrid Theory. In 1999 the band released a self-titled extended play, which they circulated across internet chat-rooms and forums with the help of an online'street team'; the band's renaissance culminated with another change in name, this time to Linkin Park, a play on and homage to Santa Monica's Lincoln Park, now called Christine Emerson Reed Park. The band wanted to use the name "Lincoln Park", however they changed it to "Linkin" to acquire the internet domain "linkinpark.com". The band still struggled to sign a record deal. Linkin Park turned to Jeff Blue for additional help after facing numerous rejections from several major record labels. After failing to catch Warner Bros. Records on three previous reviews, Jeff Blue, who had negotiated his employment contract with Warner Brothers to include signing Linkin Park, was now the vice president of Warner Bros. Records, helped the band sign a deal with the company in 1999. Farrell returned the band released its breakthrough album, Hybrid Theory.
Linkin Park released Hybrid Theory on October 24, 2000. The album, which represented half a decade's worth of the band's work, was edited by Don Gilmore. Hybrid Theory was a massive commercial success. Additionally, other singles from the album were featured in films such as Dracula 2000, Little Nicky, Valentine. Hybrid Theory won a Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance for the song "Crawling" and was nominated for two other Grammy Awards: Best New Artist and Best Rock Album. MTV awarded the band their Best Rock Video and Best Direction awards for "In the End". Through the winning of the Grammy for Best Hard Rock Performance, Hybrid Theory's overall success had catapulted the band into mainstream success. During this time, Linkin Park received many invitations to perform on many high-profile tours and concerts including Ozzfest, Family Values Tour, KROQ Almost Acoustic Christmas; the band worked with Jessica Sklar to found their official fan club and street