The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States. It was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period; the Deep South is referred to as the Cotton States, given that the production of cotton was a primary cash crop. The term "Deep South" is defined in a variety of ways: Most definitions include the states Georgia, South Carolina and Louisiana. Texas is sometimes included, due to its history of slavery and as being a part of the Confederate States of America; the eastern part of the state is the westernmost extension of the Deep South. Arkansas is sometimes included or else considered "in the Peripheral or Rim South rather than the Deep South." North Florida is a part of the Deep South region. The seven states that seceded from the United States before the firing on Fort Sumter and the start of the American Civil War, who formed the Confederate States of America. In order of secession they are: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas.
The first six states to secede were those. The Confederacy included eleven states. A large part of the original "Cotton Belt"; this was considered to extend from eastern North Carolina to South Carolina and through the Gulf States as far west as East Texas, including those parts of western Tennessee and eastern Arkansas in the Mississippi embayment. Some of this is coterminous with the Black Belt referring to upland areas of Alabama and Mississippi with fertile soil, which were developed for cotton under slave labor; the term came to be used for much of the Cotton Belt, which had a high percentage of African-American slave labor. Though used in history books to refer to the seven states that formed the Confederacy, the term "Deep South" did not come into general usage until long after the Civil War ended. Up until that time, "Lower South" was the primary designation for those states; when "Deep South" first began to gain mainstream currency in print in the middle of the 20th century, it applied to the states and areas of Georgia, southern Alabama, Mississippi, north Louisiana, East Texas, all historic areas of cotton plantations and slavery.
This was the part of the South many considered the "most Southern". The general definition expanded to include all of South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana, taking in bordering areas of East Texas and North Florida. In its broadest application today, the Deep South is considered to be "an area coextensive with the old cotton belt from eastern North Carolina through South Carolina west into East Texas, with extensions north and south along the Mississippi"; the Deep South is home to eight combined statistical areas with populations exceeding 1,000,000 residents, although the inclusion of these cities and exclusion of others is subject to varying geographic definitions of the region. Houston and Atlanta, with the ninth and eleventh largest CSAs in the United States are the Deep South's largest population centers by far. Metropolitan areas with more than 1,000,000 people: Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land, TX CSA Atlanta–Athens–Clarke–Sandy Springs, GA CSA Birmingham–Hoover–Talladega, AL CSA Jacksonville-St. Marys-Palatka, FL-GA CSA New Orleans–Metarie–Hammond, LA–MS CSA Memphis–Forrest City, TN–MS–CSA Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC CSA In the 1980 census, of those people who identified by one European national ancestry, most European Americans identified as being of English ancestry in every Southern state except Louisiana, where more people identified as having French ancestry.
A significant number have Irish and Scots-Irish ancestry. With regards to people in the Deep South who reported only a single European-American ancestry group in 1980, the census showed the following self-identification in each state in this region: Alabama – 857,864 persons out of a total of 2,165,653 people in the state identified as "English," making them 41% of the state and the largest national ancestry group at the time by a wide margin. Georgia – 1,132,184 out of 3,009,484 people identified as "English," making them 37.62% of the state's total. Mississippi – 496,481 people out of 1,551,364 people identified as "English," making them 32.00% of the total, the largest national group by a wide margin. Florida – 1,132,033 people out of 5,159,967 identified "English" as their only ancestry group, making them 21.94% of the total. Louisiana – 440,558 people out of 2,319,259 people identified only as "English," making them 19.00% of the total people and the second-largest ancestry group in the state at the time.
Those who wrote only "French" were 480,711 people out of 2,319,259 people, or 20.73% of the total state population. Texas – 1,639,322 people identified as "English" only out of a total of 7,859,393 people, making them 20.86% of the total people in the state and the largest ancestry group by a large margin. These figures to do not take into account people who identified as "English" and another ancestry group; when the two were added together, people who self identified as being of English with other ancestry, made up an larger portion of southerners. South Carolina was settled earlier than those states classified as the Deep South, its population in 1980 included 578,338 people out of 1,706,966 people in the state who identified as "English" only, making them 33.88% of the total population, the largest national ancestry group by a large margin. The map to the right was prepared by the Census Bureau from the 2000 census. Note: The Census said that areas with
Otis Campbell is the fictional "town drunk" in Mayberry on the American TV sitcom The Andy Griffith Show. Otis was played by Hal Smith and made frequent appearances on the show from 1960 to 1967 but stopped appearing toward the end of the series because of concerns raised by the sponsors over the portrayal of excessive drinking. Otis drinks all weekend. After a binge, Otis will lock himself in the town jail until he is sober, he has a key to the front door of the courthouse and the cell keys are hung on a nail near the cells. The lack of crime in Mayberry and the laid-back attitude of the Sheriff's department accommodates Otis's drinking habit. On one occasion Otis brings a suit to the jail on Friday before his binge so that he can change into the suit for church on Sunday without going home first. Otis lets himself in jail on the same day that a dignitary or a superior of Sheriff Andy Taylor is arriving at the courthouse, much to the chagrin of the sheriff or Deputy Barney Fife, played by Don Knotts.
In the episode "The Case of the Punch in the Nose", it is revealed that Otis was first arrested for drunkenness on September 23, 1941, at 2 p.m. but was released because it was "his first offense." A common joke on the show was to have Otis see something bizarre or unexpected while he was inebriated, present, but which he would assume to be a drunken hallucination. Once, Sheriff Taylor locked a dynamite-laden goat in a padded jail cell to prevent an explosion. Predictably, Otis stumbled in after a night of drinking, let himself into the same cell, only to find the mattress nailed to the wall. Otis attempted to climb into the bed anyway, fell on the floor. Believing the peculiarity to be a result of his intoxication, he exclaimed, "First time I fell off a bed onto the wall." If Barney deemed a situation urgent enough, he would sometimes deputize Otis. Otis became agitated with Barney's dictatorial style, a verbal shouting match would ensue. On the Danny Thomas Show episode, the pilot for The Andy Griffith Show, Andy had deputized another town drunk, Will Hoople, so that Will could arrest himself every time he got drunk.
It could be assumed that Andy had given Otis this same "authority," since Otis "arrested" himself, so he could be called upon to help when needed. An episode in Season 1 reveals; the Women's Historical Society want to award Otis an honorary plaque, which causes Barney and the mayor to worry about Otis' condition at the upcoming ceremony. Otis, appears sober, clean-shaven and in a suit, he humbly gives the award to the town stating that he cannot take credit for "just being born." In episode "Deputy Otis," the season 2 finale, it is revealed that Otis has a brother named Ralph, the town drunk in another community. In this episode viewers are introduced to Otis' wife, Rita. In the Season 1 episode, "Bringing Up Opie," Aunt Bee is concerned with Opie's frequent trips to visit Andy at the jail because of the nature of Andy's work; this includes Otis' presence. Near the end of the episode, Opie is allowed to conditionally return. Opie 7, responds "You mean when he's had a snootful?" At one point, Otis buys a car which concerns Barney who stakes Otis out for a possible DUI.
When Otis emerges from a party drunk and Barney intervene and trick Otis into believing he died while driving drunk. Otis reveals he had sold his car. Otis is found "smashed, tiddly, off the wagon and back on the sauce, or just plain drunk," by Barney Fife. In the episode "Ellie For Council," Otis is jailed for assault — the only time for an offense other than drunkenness. During a fight with Rita, Otis tries to hit her with a leg of lamb and hits his mother-in-law in the mouth. Towards the end of the series, Andy mentioned. In the 1986 television movie Return to Mayberry, it is revealed that Otis is now sober and employed as the town's ice-cream man, driving a van
Moonshine was a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits that were produced illicitly, without government authorization. In recent years, moonshine has been legalized in various countries and has become a commercial product. Legal in the United States since 2010, moonshine is defined as "clear, unaged whiskey" made with corn mash as its main ingredient. Liquor control laws in the United States always applied to moonshine, with efforts accelerated during the total ban on alcohol production mandated under the Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Since the amendment's repeal and moonshine's recent legalization, the laws focus on evasion of taxation on spirits or intoxicating liquors. Applicable laws are enforced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives of the US Department of Justice. Enforcement agents were once known colloquially as "revenooers". Moonshine is known by many nicknames in English, including white liquor, white lightning, mountain dew, hooch, shiney, white whiskey, mash liquor.
Other languages and countries have their own terms for moonshine. The word "moonshine" is believed to be derived from the term "moonrakers" used for early English smugglers and illegal Appalachian distillers who produced and distributed whiskey; when it was illegal in the United States, moonshine distillation was done at night to avoid discovery. It was prominent in the Appalachian area. White whiskey most entered the Appalachian region in the late 18th century to early 1800s. Scots-Irish immigrants from the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland brought their recipe for uisce beatha, Gaelic for "water of life"; the settlers made their whiskey without aging it, and, the recipe that became traditional in the Appalachian area. By the early 20th century, moonshine became a key source of income for many Appalachian residents because the limited road network made it difficult and expensive to transport corn crops; as a study of farmers in Cocke County, observes: "One could transport much more value in corn if it was first converted to whiskey.
One horse could haul ten times more value on its back in whiskey than in corn." Moonshiners in Harlan County, like Maggie Bailey, made the whiskey to sell in order to provide for their families. Others, like Amos Owens, from Rutherford County, North Carolina, Marvin "Popcorn" Sutton from Maggie Valley, North Carolina, sold moonshine to nearby areas. Sutton's life was covered in a documentary on the Discovery Channel called "Moonshiners"; the bootlegger once said. In modern usage, the term "moonshine" still implies the liquor is produced illegally, the term is sometimes used on the labels of legal products to market them as providing a forbidden drinking experience. Once distilled, drivers called bootleggers smuggled the moonshine across the region in specially-adapted cars, which were ordinary on the outside but modified with souped-up engines, extra interior room and heavy-duty shocks to coddle the jars of illicit alcohol. After Prohibition ended, the out-of-work drivers kept their skills sharp through organized races, which led to the formation of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing.
Poorly produced moonshine can be contaminated from materials used in the construction of the still. Stills employing automotive radiators as condensers are dangerous. Radiators used as condensers could contain lead at the connections to the plumbing. Using these methods resulted in blindness or lead poisoning in those who consumed tainted liquor; this was an issue during Prohibition. Consumption of lead-tainted moonshine is a serious risk factor for saturnine gout, a painful but treatable medical condition that damages the kidneys and joints. Although methanol is not produced in toxic amounts by fermentation of sugars from grain starches, contamination is still possible by unscrupulous distillers using cheap methanol to increase the apparent strength of the product. Moonshine can be made both more palatable and less dangerous by discarding the "foreshot" – the first few ounces of alcohol that drip from the condenser; because methanol vaporizes at a lower temperature than ethanol it is believed that the foreshot contains most of the methanol, if any, from the mash.
However, research shows this is not the case, methanol is present until the end of the distillation run. Despite this, distillers will collect the foreshots until the temperature of the still reaches 80 degrees celsius. Additionally, the head that comes after the foreshot contains small amounts of other undesirable compounds, such as acetone and various aldehydes. Alcohol concentrations at higher strengths are therefore dangerous to handle; this is true during the distilling process when vaporized alcohol may accumulate in the air to dangerous concentrations if adequate ventilation is not provided. A quick estimate of the alcoholic strength, or proof, of the distillate is achieved by shaking a clear container of the distillate. Large bubbles with a short duration indicate a higher alcohol content, while smaller bubbles that disappear more indicate lower alcohol content. A more reliable method is to use an hydrometer. A hydrometer is used during and after the fermentation process to determine the potential alcohol percent of the moonshine, whereas an alcoholmeter is used after the product has
Bootleggers and Baptists
Bootleggers and Baptists is a concept put forth by regulatory economist Bruce Yandle, derived from the observation that regulations are supported both by groups that want the ostensible purpose of the regulation, by groups that profit from undermining that purpose. For much of the 20th century and other evangelical Christians were prominent in political activism for Sunday closing laws restricting the sale of alcohol. Bootleggers sold alcohol illegally, got more business if legal sales were restricted. "Such a coalition makes it easier for politicians to favor both groups.... He Baptists lower the costs of favor-seeking for the bootleggers, because politicians can pose as being motivated purely by the public interest while they promote the interests of well-funded businesses.... Take the moral high ground, while the bootleggers persuade the politicians behind closed doors." The mainstream economic theory of regulation treats politicians and administrators as brokers among interest groups. Bootleggers and Baptists is a specific idea in the subfield of regulatory economics that attempts to predict which interest groups will succeed in obtaining rules they favor.
It holds that coalitions of opposing interests that can agree on a common rule will be more successful than one-sided groups. Baptists do not agitate for legislation, they help monitor and enforce it, thus bootleggers and Baptists is not just an academic restatement of the common political accusation that shadowy for-profit interests are hiding behind public-interest groups to fund deceptive legislation. It is a rational theory to explain relative success among types of coalitions. Another part of the theory is that Baptists produce suboptimal legislation. Although both groups are satisfied with the outcome, broader society would be better off either with no legislation or different legislation. For example, a surtax on Sunday alcohol sales could reduce Sunday alcohol consumption as much as making it illegal. Instead of enriching bootleggers and imposing policing costs, the surtax could raise money to be spent on, property tax exemptions for churches and alcoholism treatment programs. Moreover, such a program could be balanced to reflect the religious beliefs and drinking habits of everyone, not just certain groups.
From the religious point of the view, the bootleggers have not been cut out of the deal, the government has become the bootlegger. Although the bootleggers and Baptists story has become a standard idea in regulatory economics, it has not been systematically validated as an empirical proposition, it is a catch-phrase useful in analyzing regulatory coalitions rather than an accepted principle of economics. Legislation and treaties to reduce global warming command support of both polluting countries and environmentalists. Yandle and Buck argue that a similar phenomenon took place in the battle over the Kyoto Protocol, where the "Baptist" environmental groups provided moral support while "bootlegger" corporations and nations worked in the background to seek economic advantages over their rivals. "Arkansas liquor stores have allied with religious leaders to fight statewide legalization of alcohol sales. The stores in wet counties don’t want to lose customers; the churches don’t want to lose souls.
Larry Page, a Southern Baptist pastor and director of the Arkansas Faith and Ethics Council, which traces its roots to the Anti-Saloon League of Arkansas in 1899...when his group joined with feminists to oppose pornography and cooperated with Mississippi casinos to fight gambling in Arkansas." Bootleggers and Baptists has been invoked to explain nearly every political alliance for regulation in the United States in the last 30 years including the Clean Air Act, interstate trucking, state liquor stores, the Pure Food and Drug Act, environmental policy, regulation of genetically modified organisms, the North American Free Trade Agreement, environmental politics, gambling legislation, blood donation, wine regulation, the tobacco settlement. Crony capitalism Moonshine Regulatory capture Rum-running Yandle, Bruce. "Bootleggers and Baptists in retrospect". Regulation. 22: 5–7. Pdf. Podcast. Yandle discusses the story with Russ Roberts at EconTalk
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
The Andy Griffith Show
The Andy Griffith Show is an American situation comedy which aired on CBS from October 3, 1960, to April 1, 1968, with a total of 249 half-hour episodes spanning over eight seasons—159 in black and white and 90 in color. The series originated from an episode of The Danny Thomas Show; the show starred Andy Griffith in the role of Andy Taylor, the widowed sheriff of Mayberry, North Carolina, a fictional community of 2,000 people. Other major characters include Barney Fife. Eccentric townspeople and temperamental girlfriends complete the cast. Regarding the tone of the show, Griffith said that despite a contemporary setting, the show evoked nostalgia, saying in a Today Show interview: "Well, though we never said it, though it was shot in the'60s, it had a feeling of the'30s, it was, when we were doing it, of a time gone by." The show avoided unfavorable cultural aspects of this period, such as racism and segregation, by avoiding these topics with the all-white cast never encountering such situations.
Black actors and actresses were only seen as background characters, only one had a speaking role on the show. The series never placed lower than seventh in the Nielsen ratings and ended its final season at number one. On separate occasions, it has been ranked by TV Guide as the 9th-best and 13th-best show in American television history. Though neither Griffith nor the show won awards during its 8-season run, co-stars Knotts and Bavier accumulated a combined total of six Emmy Awards; the series spawned its own spin-off, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. and a reunion telemovie, Return to Mayberry. After the eighth season, when Andy Griffith became one of the original cast members to leave the show, it was retitled Mayberry, R. F. D. with Ken Berry and Buddy Foster replacing Andy Griffith and Ron Howard in new roles. In the new format, it ran an additional three seasons and 78 episodes, ending in 1971. Reruns of the show are aired to TV Land, MeTV and SundanceTV, while the complete series is available on DVD.
The sitcom has been made available on streaming video services such as Netflix. An annual festival celebrating the sitcom, Mayberry Days, is held each year in Griffith's hometown of Mount Airy, North Carolina. Sheldon Leonard, producer of The Danny Thomas Show, Danny Thomas hired veteran comedy writer Arthur Stander to create a pilot show for Andy Griffith, featuring him as justice of the peace and newspaper editor in a small town. At the time, Broadway and radio star Griffith was interested in attempting a television role, the William Morris Agency told Leonard that Griffith's rural background and previous rustic characterizations were suited to the part. After conferences between Leonard and Griffith in New York, Griffith flew to Los Angeles and filmed the episode. On February 15, 1960, The Danny Thomas Show episode "Danny Meets Andy Griffith" aired. In the episode Griffith played fictional Sheriff Andy Taylor of Mayberry, North Carolina, who arrests Danny Williams for running a stop sign.
Future players in The Andy Griffith Show, Frances Bavier and Ron Howard, appeared in the episode as townspeople Henrietta Perkins and Opie Taylor. General Foods, sponsor of The Danny Thomas Show, had first access to the spin-off and committed to it immediately. On October 3, 1960, at 9:30 pm, The Andy Griffith Show made its debut; the sitcom's production team included producers Bob Ross. First-season writers included Jack Elinson, Charles Stewart, Arthur Stander and Frank Tarloff, Benedict Freedman and John Fenton Murray, Leo Solomon and Ben Gershman, Jim Fritzell and Everett Greenbaum. During season six and Fritzell left the show and Ruben departed for Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. A show. Writer Harvey Bullock left after season six. Bob Sweeney directed the first three seasons save the premiere; the show was filmed at Desilu Studios, with exteriors filmed at Forty Acres in Culver City, California. Woodsy locales were filmed north of Beverly Hills at Franklin Canyon. Don Knotts, who knew Griffith professionally and had seen The Danny Thomas Show episode, called Griffith during the developmental stages of the show and suggested the Sheriff character needed a deputy.
Griffith agreed. Knotts auditioned for the show's creator and executive producer, Sheldon Leonard, was offered a five-year contract playing Barney Fife; the show's theme music, "The Fishin' Hole", was composed by Earle Hagen and Herbert Spencer, with lyrics written by Everett Sloane, who guest starred as Jubal Foster in the episode "The Keeper of the Flame". Whistling in the opening sequence, as well as the closing credits sequence, was performed by Earle Hagen. One of the show's tunes, "The Mayberry March", was reworked a number of times in different tempo and orchestrations as background music; the show's sole sponsor was General Foods, with promotional consideration paid for by Ford Motor Company. Griffith played Taylor as a heavy-handed country bumpkin, grinning from ear to ear and speaking in a hesitant, frantic manner; the style recalled that used in the delivery of his popular monologues such as "What It Was, Was Football". He abandoned the "rustic Taylor" and developed a serious and thoughtful characterization.
Producer Aaron Ruben recalled: He was being that marvelously funny character from No Time for Sergeants, Will Stockdale... One day