The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section; the two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create complex cross-sections, to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It forms parts with an excellent surface finish. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die; this limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, multiple stages are needed. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Metal bars and tubes are often drawn. Extrusion may be semi-continuous; the extrusion process can be done with the material cold. Extruded materials include metals, ceramics, modelling clay, foodstuffs; the products of extrusion are called "extrudates". Referred to as "hole flanging", hollow cavities within extruded material cannot be produced using a simple flat extrusion die, because there would be no way to support the centre barrier of the die.
Instead, the die assumes the shape of a block with depth, beginning first with a shape profile that supports the center section. The die shape internally changes along its length into the final shape, with the suspended center pieces supported from the back of the die; the material flows around the fuses together to create the desired closed shape. The extrusion process in metals may increase the strength of the material. In 1797, Joseph Bramah patented the first extrusion process for making pipe out of soft metals, it involved preheating the metal and forcing it through a die via a hand-driven plunger. In 1820 Thomas Burr implemented that process with a hydraulic press. At that time the process was called "squirting". In 1894, Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to brass alloys; the process begins by heating the stock material. It is loaded into the container in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram presses on the material to push it out of the die. Afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it.
If better properties are required it may be heat treated or cold worked. The extrusion ratio is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the cross-sectional area of the final extrusion. One of the main advantages of the extrusion process is that this ratio can be large while still producing quality parts. Hot extrusion is a hot working process, which means it is done above the material's recrystallization temperature to keep the material from work hardening and to make it easier to push the material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 230 to 11,000 metric tons. Pressures range from 30 to 700 MPa, therefore lubrication is required, which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions, or glass powder for higher temperature extrusions; the biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost for its upkeep. The extrusion process is economical when producing between several kilograms and many tons, depending on the material being extruded.
There is a crossover point. For instance, some steels become more economical to roll. Aluminium hot extrusion die Cold extrusion is done at near room temperature; the advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer tolerances, better surface finish, fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot shortness. Materials that are cold extruded include: lead, aluminum, zirconium, molybdenum, vanadium and steel. Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes, fire extinguisher cases, shock absorber cylinders and gear blanks. In March 1956, a US Patent was filed for "process for warm extrusion of metal." Patent US3156043 A outlines that a number of important advantages can be achieved with warm extrusion of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys if a billet to be extruded is changed in its physical properties in response to physical forces by being heated to a temperature below the critical melting point.
Warm extrusion is done above room temperature, but below the recrystallization temperature of the material the temperatures ranges from 800 to 1800 °F. It is used to achieve the proper balance of required forces and final extrusion properties. Friction extrusion was invented at The Welding Institute in the UK and patented in 1991, it was intended as a method for production of homogenous microstructures and particle distributions in metal matrix composite materials. Friction extrusion differs from conventional extrusion in that the charge rotates relative to the extrusion die. An extrusion force is applied so as to push the charge against the die. In practice either the die or the charge may rotate or they may be counter-rotating; the relative rotary motion between the charge and the die has several significant effects on the process. First, the relative motion in the plane of rotation leads to large shear stresses, plastic deformation in the layer of charge in contact with and near the die; this plastic deformation is dissipated by recovery and recrystallization processes
Mogema is a registered brand trademark owned by Sportsinline International BV, a Dutch company that specialized in the design and production of inline- and ice speedskating products. Sportsinline International was founded by the parent company of the Mogema group to design and produce speedskating products under the Mogema name; the company approached Design Engineer Diederik Hol to design a whole range of ice and inline speedskates that evolved under Hol's direction into Mogema's modern product line. The't Harde-based Mogema metalworking group in the Netherlands was the first to commercially produce an inline speedskating frame after two employees – both speedskaters – began using company technologies in their own time to produce a specialized speedskating frame in 1985; the frame they produced for themselves was in demand among their friends and fellow speedskaters and production soon expanded. An agreement was reached soon after for Mogema metalworking to produce quantities of the frame for sale by the Stouwdam skate shop in nearby Oldebroek.
The Mogema-branded frames were produced from extruded aluminium alloy and were soon sold around the world. The frame design underwent a number of evolutions and became the Mogema Diamond Series frame that for years was the most-prevalent inline speedskating frame in the world. Mogema was a technological innovator in speedskating sports products - the most commercially successful being the Dual Box inline skating frames, a patented design developed by Diederik Hol while working at Mogema. Late in 2006, lead designer Diederik Hol left Mogema to start his own skating company CadoMotus. Although some inaccurate reports indicated Mogema itself was changing its name, the owners of Sportsinline International made the decision to dissolve the company at the end of that year. Hol established his own brand in 2007, together with Henk Schra, producing a CadoMotus-branded frame using the Dual Box technology - the patent for which he had licensed from Sportsinline's owners. Mogema metalworking in't Harde, NL StouwdamSport skate shop in Oldebroek, NL CadoMotus Skating BV World Cup of Inline Racing Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports
Inline skates are a type of roller skate used for inline skating. Unlike quad skates, which have two front and two rear wheels, inline skates have two to five wheels arranged in a single line; some those for recreation, have a rubber "stop" or "brake" block attached to the rear of one or both of the skates so that the skater can slow down or stop by leaning back on the foot with the brake skate. The modern style of inline skates was developed as a substitute for ice skates, for use by a Russian athlete training on solid ground for Olympic long track speed skating events. Life magazine published a photo of American skater Eric Heiden, training for the 1980 Olympics, using such skates on a Wisconsin road. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Inc. a company founded by Scott and Brennan Olson in Minneapolis, Minnesota promoted inline skating through the registered trademark Rollerblade. John Joseph Merlin experimented with single- to many-rowed devices worn on feet in 1760. Inline skates, skates designed to work like ice skates during periods of warm weather, were invented by Louis Legrange of France in 1849.
Legrange designed the skates for an opera. The skates were unsuccessful as the wearer could not turn nor could they stop. At some point between 1895 and 1899 the UK engineering company D. Napier & Son made Ritter "road skates", which had two comparatively large wheels and back, on each skate; the first U. S. patent for modern in-line skates, designed to behave like ice runners with individually sprung and cushioned wheels, was granted under patent number US 2644692 in July, 1953 to Ernest Kahlert of Santa Ana, CA. They were described in the April 1950 issue of "Popular Mechanics" and again in the April 1954 issue of "Popular Science" in the section called "New Ideas from the Inventors." Inline skates appear in the 1962 Russian film Koroleva benzokolonki at 9m23s. In Canada in 1972, Mountain Dew attempted to sell Mettoy's product the "Skeeler", an inline skate, developed for Russian hockey players and speed skaters. In 1978 the German branch of SKF presented the "Speedy"-System, but the product was taken in less than one year from the market, as the managment do no wanted a consumer product in the portfolio of the company.
The first commercially available inline skate for this form of Rollerskating is in 1987 by Rollerblade. In 1996, Jason Lewis completed the first solo crossing of the USA on inline skates, part of Expedition 360, a successful attempt to circumnavigate the globe using only human power. En route he was hit by a car in Colorado. After nine months he completed the journey from Fort Lauderdale to San Francisco. In 2012, Kacie Fischer became the first woman, the fastest person, to inline skate across the United States. A skate is composed of a boot, worn on the foot. To the boot is attached a frame, which holds the wheels in place. Bearings allow the wheels to rotate around an axle; the rubber brake attaches to the frame of the right foot. There are different types of inline skates for different types of skating such as aggressive skating, speed skating, inline hockey and artistic inline skating; those differ in the boots and wheels that are used. For most skating a high boot is used, which provides more ankle support and is easier to skate in for beginners.
Speed skaters use a carbon fiber boot which provides greater support with a lower cut allowing more ankle flexion. For recreational skating a soft boot is used for greater comfort, but many other disciplines prefer a harder boot, either to protect the foot against impact or for better control of the skate; the boot may contain shock absorbent padding for comfort. Downhill skaters use boots that are heat-molded to the shape of the foot, with a foam liner. Most aggressive skates use a hard/soft boot for increased support. Typical recreational skates use frames built out of high-grade polyurethane. Low-end department or toy store skate frames may be composed of other types of plastic. Speed skate frames are built out of carbon fiber or extruded aluminum, magnesium, or pressed aluminium, folded into a frame. Carbon fiber frames are expensive but more flexible, making for a smoother ride at the expense of worse power transfer between the leg and the wheels. In general, carbon fiber frames weigh about 160–180 grams.
High-end carbon fiber frames with a monocoque construction have been introduced. They offer the same level of stiffness as aluminum frames while weighing only around 130g. Aluminum can weigh from 170 to 240 grams. Frame length ranges from 2 wheel framed freestyle wheels to around 230 mm for short-framed four wheel skates, up to about 325 mm for a five-wheel racing frame. Ball bearings allow the wheels to rotate and smoothly. Bearings are rated on the ABEC scale, a measure of the manufactured precision tolerance, ranging from 1 to 9 in odd numbers; the ABEC standards were intended for high-speed machinery, not skating applications, do not account for the quality of steel used, important for how long bearings last. While higher rated bearings are better in overall quality, whether they automatically translate to more speed is questionable. Since at least 2007, Rollerblade brand amongst others have begun using their own rating system. For instance, Rollerblade brand is using a SG1 to SG9 rating system, whereas TwinCam brand is using its own "ILQ" (InLi
Rollerblade is a brand of inline skates owned by Nordica, part of the Tecnica Group of Giavera del Montello, Italy. The company was started by Brennan Olson in Minneapolis as Ole's Innovative Sports. Though the long established Roces company was the first to manufacture in-line skates in 1981, their distribution was limited to Italy and Central Europe for the first few years. For the first few years after Rollerblade was developed, Inc. were the only manufacturer of in-line skates that had worldwide distribution. This allowed Rollerblade, Inc. to capitalize and grab a huge percentage of the world market share and total dominance of the North American market with their aggressive advertising campaigns and sponsored in-line-only sporting events. Rollerblade, Inc. manufactures different types of skates, such as those for aggressive skating, fitness, or recreational use with removable "walkable" liners, as well as adjustable skates for younger bladers. Rollerblade official web site Rollerblade official web site UK
Inline speed skating
Inline speed skating is the roller sport of racing on inline skates, or as they may be mistakenly be called, rollerblades. The sport may be called inline racing by participants. Although it evolved from racing on traditional roller skates, the sport is similar enough to ice speed skating that many competitors are known to switch between inline and ice speed skating according to the season. An inline speed skate is a specialized shoe version of the inline skate; the boot or shoe is close-fitting, without much padding and made of leather, carbon fiber, and/or fiberglass composites. For best performance, the boot must conform to the shape of the foot, so most inline speed skating boots are custom-fitted or else heat-moldable. Speed skating boots are low-cut and offer little ankle support, allowing the skater extra ankle movement. Skin blisters due to friction can be a problem, common solutions include neoprene or silicone "ankle bootee" such as "Ezeefit" or "Bunga Pads"; the frame that holds the wheels may be made of aircraft-quality aluminum, magnesium, or carbon fiber.
Frames flex during skating, the amount of flex can be a personal factor in which frame choice to use. "stiff" frames may be favored by heavy skaters. But a frame, too stiff for a particular skater may feel unstable on corners, while a frame, not stiff enough will be slower. Frame stiffness works along with boot and wheel stiffness, so there are endless possible variations. A light frame is desirable. Ideal frame length is affected by wheel size. A shorter frame may be preferred for the tight curves of smaller tracks; the frame position can be adjusted with respect to the skate to adjust for a skater's individual foot and leg characteristics. Frame positioning is critical as a minor change from the skater's actual frame position can lead to severe foot pain. Many times it leads to'locking' of the skater's ankle and/or calf muscle, thereby restricting its movements, it may take a skater several days to weeks to adjust the frame position of his new skates. The common inline mounting is 195mm, different from the ice mounting of 165mm.
The frame mounts three, four, or five polyurethane wheels. The three wheel frames are used by skaters with small feet, otherwise 4 wheel frames are used, with 90 mm to 110 mm diameter wheels. Five-wheel frames with smaller wheel have lost favor; each wheel contains two ball bearings with an aluminum spacer, held in place with an axle screwed into the frame. Larger wheels require better skating technique, so skaters progress upwards in wheel size as they gain experience. "Hi-Lo" arrangements are available, which have three larger wheels and one smaller wheel under the ball of the foot, allowing a lower and shorter overall frame design. In 2014 Powerslide introduced a 125mm wheel for use on a 3-wheeled frame varying in sizes from 11.8" to 13.0". Lots of controversy surrounded this development since FIRS did not allow 125m wheels at the 2014 and 2015 world championships. On January 18 of 2016 FIRS released a press release that stated: "Dear Friends, Considering the evolution and growth that our sport has attained in the last years, the FIRS and the Speed Technical Committee have decided to allow, starting from February 1, 2016, the use of the w heels up to a maximum size of 125 mm but only for the Marathons and the MASTER Category.
We will be grateful for the spread of this information and we take this opportunity to send you. Kind regards, Jorge Roldan, FIRS Speed Technical Committee, Chairman & Robert Marotta FIRS Secretary General." Harder wheels minimize elastic hysteresis energy absorption, due to skater's weight deforming the solid polyurethane "tyre". So, speed skaters tend to select the hardest possible wheels, with the highest polyurethane durometer for their skating condition, limited by either wheel slip or surface roughness. Durometer selection is affected by skater weight, temperature. Wheels for indoor use are hardest with a durometer of 88–97, they tend to last well, but can be damaged if used outdoors. Wheels for outdoor use are softer with a durometer of 82–87, tend to wear more quickly. Harder outdoor wheels can be used indoors. Skaters sometimes combine different hardness wheels on the same skate in an attempt to achieve the best combination. Skaters refer to wheel "rebound"; this refers to the relative height.
It is a reasonable comparative indicator of the relative energy absorbed by elastic hysteresis of a wheel during skating. Bearing sizes have been standardized around the popular 608 series. A smaller and lighter 688 series has had limited acceptance. Bearing manufacturing precision run from ABEC-1 to ABEC-11, some skate bearings are additionally designed to be "loose" to minimize ball rolling friction. Various grades of steel offer rust resistance etc.. Bearings with ceramic balls have been available since the late 1990s, They are lighter and longer lasting, however more expensive. Black silicon nitride ceramic is superior to white zirconium dioxide ceramic, since it is harder and tougher. At the modest rotational speeds encountered in skates, manufacturer data suggests negligible difference in friction performance between the various bearing materials. At these speeds, ball bearing friction tends to be dominated