SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dualistic cosmology

Dualism in cosmology is the moral, or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which oppose each other. It is an umbrella term that covers a diversity of views from various religions, including both traditional religions and scriptural religions. Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement of, or conflict between, the benevolent and the malevolent, it implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and independent of how these may be represented. Moral opposites might, for example, exist in a worldview which has one god, more than one god, or none. By contrast, bitheism or ditheism implies two gods. While bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between good and evil, or light and dark, or summer and winter. For example, a ditheistic system could be one in which one god is a creator, the other a destroyer. In theology, dualism can refer to the relationship between the deity and creation or the deity and the universe.

This form of dualism is a belief shared in certain traditions of Hinduism. Alternatively, in ontological dualism, the world is divided into two overarching categories; the opposition and combination of the universe's two basic principles of yin and yang is a large part of Chinese philosophy, is an important feature of Taoism. It is discussed in Confucianism. Many myths and creation motifs with dualistic cosmologies have been described in ethnographic and anthropological literature; these motifs conceive the world as being created, organized, or influenced by two demiurges, culture heroes, or other mythological beings, who either compete with each other or have a complementary function in creating, arranging or influencing the world. There is a huge diversity of such cosmologies. In some cases, such as among the Chukchi, the beings collaborate rather than competing, contribute to the creation in a coequal way. In many other instances the two beings are not of power. Sometimes they can be contrasted as good versus evil.

They may be believed to be twins or at least brothers. Dualistic motifs in mythologies can be observed in all inhabited continents. Zolotaryov concludes that they cannot be explained by diffusion or borrowing, but are rather of convergent origin: they are related to a dualistic organization of society. Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between the benevolent and the malevolent. Like ditheism/bitheism, moral dualism does not imply the absence of monist or monotheistic principles. Moral dualism implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and—unlike ditheism/bitheism—independent of how these may be represented. For example, Mazdaism is both dualistic and monotheistic since in that philosophy God—the Creator—is purely good, the antithesis—which is uncreated–is an absolute one. Zurvanism and Mandaeism are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities emanate.

This is true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, so on. More complex forms of monist dualism exist, for instance in Hermeticism, where Nous "thought"—that is described to have created man—brings forth both good and evil, dependent on interpretation, whether it receives prompting from the God or from the Demon. Duality with pluralism is considered a logical fallacy. Moral dualism began as a theological belief. Dualism was first seen implicitly in Egyptian religious beliefs by the contrast of the gods Set and Osiris; the first explicit conception of dualism came from the Ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism around the mid-fifth century BC. Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion that believes that Ahura Mazda is the eternal creator of all good things. Any violations of Ahura Mazda's order arise from druj, everything uncreated. From this comes a significant choice for humans to make. Either they participate in human life for Ahura Mazda or they do not and give druj power.

Personal dualism is more distinct in the beliefs of religions. The religious dualism of Christianity between good and evil is not a perfect dualism as God will destroy Satan. Early Christian dualism is based on Platonic Dualism. There is a personal dualism in Christianity with a soul-body distinction based on the idea of an immaterial Christian soul; when used with regards to multiple gods, dualism may refer to bitheism, or ditheism. Although ditheism/bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism/bitheism implies two gods, while moral dualism does not imply theism at all. Both bitheism and ditheism imply a belief in two powerful gods with complementary or antonymous properties. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one god is creative, the other is destructive. In the original conception of Zoroastrianism, for example, Ahura Mazda was the spirit of ultimate good, while Ahriman was the spirit of ultimate evil

History of Katowice

The today's city of Katowice in Poland started as a conglomerate of a number of small farming and industrial village communities from the 13th century. Katowice itself was first mentioned under its present name as a village in the 16th century. Following the annexation of Silesia by Prussia in the middle of the 18th century, a slow migration of German merchants began to the area, until was inhabited by a Polish population. With the development of industry, in the half of the 19th century the village started to change its nature into an industrial settlement. Katowice was renamed to German Kattowitz and around 1865 was granted municipal rights; the Prussian authorities hoped that the town with 50% Polish population, would become a centre of Germanization of Silesia. The town flourished due to large mineral deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met in Katowice.

In 1873 the city became the capital of the new Prussian Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, it was become an independent city. According to the Treaty of Versailles, the fate of Upper Silesia was to be settled by a plebiscite, held on 20 March 1921. Over 85% of the city's population voted to remain in Germany, while the population in the surrounding rural district voted 56% in favour of Poland; the Allies were in disagreement as to where the new border should be drawn, with the French proposal being more generous to Poland, while the British proposal was more favourable to Germany. After rumours spread that the British proposal was to be adopted by the League of Nations, the Third Silesian Uprising broke out, as a result, Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with a certain level of autonomy. A wave of Jewish settlers from other areas of Poland Galicia arrived to the city; the Jewish community played an important role in the development of Katowice and in 1937 a new Jewish communal building was erected.

After the 1939 invasion of Poland the town was annexed by Nazi Germany and became the capital of the Gau of Upper Silesia, replacing the former capital of Oppeln. During the invasion the Germans had burned the Great Synagogue. Under Nazi rule, many of the city's historical monuments were destroyed, the street names were renamed to German and the use of the Polish language was banned. During the occupation, the German administration organized numerous public executions of civilians and about 700 Poles were beheaded with a purpose-built guillotine. By the middle of 1941, most of the Polish and Jewish population of the city was expelled. Katowice was liberated by the Red Army in January 1945. Significant parts of the city centre were destroyed during the liberation. In 1953 Katowice was renamed Stalinogród by the Polish communist government. However, the new name was never accepted by the city's population and in 1956 the former Katowice name was restored. Severe ecological damage to the environment occurred during the post-Second World War time of communist governance in the People's Republic of Poland, but recent changes in regulations and policies of Polish government since the fall of Communism have reversed much of the harm, done.

Due to economic reforms, there has been a shift away from heavy industry, towards small businesses. The English translation of "Katowice: the Rise and Decline of the Jewish community.

Makhaleng River

The Makhaleng River is a river of western Lesotho. It rises in the Maluti Mountains, flows in a southwesterly direction to join the Orange River at the border with Free State in South Africa; the river originates northwest of the 2,886 m high Machache in the Maluti Mountains. It flows southwest across the Lesotho Highlands past the towns and villages of Molimo-Nthuse, Makhaleng and Qaba, flowing into the Orange River at the international border by the Free State near the Makhaleng Bridge; the valley of the river forms part of the approach to several mountain passes, notably the God Help Me Pass and the Gates of Paradise Pass. The Qiloane Falls are a tourist attraction located in the upper course of the river, they are about 30 m high but are more known for their width, as the water flows across the rocks in a "bridal veil". In Lesotho this river in its upper parts does not have a flood plain; the flow is swift and the river rises after heavy rainfall in the mountains and during the spring thaw.

The catchment area is about 300,000 hectares and the average flow is about 15 cubic metres per second. There are no large reservoirs on the river, but there are a number of small and medium-sized ones constructed for soil conservation and for water collection purposes; these are liable to silt up and a few have washed away. The Makhaleng has three main tributaries the Qhoqhoane and the Khibiting. All of them flow into it from the right bank as they drain the water off the Maluti Mountains