SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Duamutef

Duamutef was, in ancient Egyptian religion, one of the Four Sons of Horus and a protection god of the canopic jars. He is said to be the son of the god Horus the Elder. Another myth describes his brothers as sons of Osiris. According to this account, they were born from a lily flower; the name Duamutef means "He who adores his mother". In war, the most frequent cause of death was from injuries in the stomach; the deity protecting this organ was associated with death by war and gained the name Duamutef, meaning "adoring his motherland". Duamutef was represented as a man wrapped in mummy bandages. From the New Kingdom onwards, he is shown with the head of a jackal. In some cases his appearance is confused or exchanged with that of his falcon-headed brother Qebehsenuef, so he has the head of a falcon and Qebehsenuef has the head of a jackal. Duamutef was depicted on coffins and as the lid of canopic jars. Many images of the Judgement of the Dead show him together with his brothers in front of Osiris on a small lily flower.

Alongside with Horus' three other sons Imsety and Qebehsenuef, Duamutef protected the mummified internal organs. His goal was to protect the stomach, his protector is the goddess Neith. Four Sons of Horus

Strategic Defense Initiative

The Strategic Defense Initiative was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons. The concept was first announced publicly by President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983. Reagan was a vocal critic of the doctrine of mutual assured destruction, which he described as a "suicide pact", he called upon the scientists and engineers of the United States to develop a system that would render nuclear weapons obsolete; the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee development. A wide array of advanced weapon concepts, including lasers, particle beam weapons and ground- and space-based missile systems were studied, along with various sensor and control, high-performance computer systems that would be needed to control a system consisting of hundreds of combat centers and satellites spanning the entire globe and involved in a battle that would last only minutes.

A number of these concepts were tested through the late 1980s, follow-on efforts and spin-offs continue to this day. Under the SDIO's Innovative Sciences and Technology Office, headed by physicist and engineer Dr. James Ionson, the investment was predominantly made in basic research at national laboratories, in industry. In 1987, the American Physical Society concluded that the technologies being considered were decades away from being ready for use, at least another decade of research was required to know whether such a system was possible. After the publication of the APS report, SDIs budget was cut. By the late 1980s, the effort had been re-focused on the "Brilliant Pebbles" concept using small orbiting missiles not unlike a conventional air-to-air missile, expected to be much less expensive to develop and deploy. SDI was controversial in some sectors, was criticized for threatening to destabilize the MAD-approach and to re-ignite "an offensive arms race". SDI was derisively nicknamed by Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy as "Star Wars", after the 1977 film by George Lucas.

By the early 1990s, with the Cold War ending and nuclear arsenals being reduced, political support for SDI collapsed. SDI ended in 1993, when the administration of President Bill Clinton redirected the efforts towards theatre ballistic missiles and renamed the agency the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. BMDO was renamed the Missile Defense Agency in 2002; the US Army had considered the issue of ballistic missile defense as early as late in World War II. Studies on the topic suggested attacking a V-2 rocket would be difficult because the flight time was so short that it would leave little time to forward information through command and control networks to the missile batteries that would attack them. Bell Labs pointed out that although longer-range missiles flew much faster, their longer flight times would address the timing issue and their high altitudes would make long-range detection by radar easier; this led to a series of projects including Nike Zeus, Nike-X, Sentinel and the Safeguard Program, all aimed at deploying a nationwide defensive system against attacks by Soviet ICBMs.

The reason for so many programs was the changing strategic threat. Low-cost countermeasures like radar decoys required additional interceptors to counter. An early estimate suggested one would have to spend $20 on defense for every $1 the Soviets spent on offense; the addition of MIRV in the late 1960s further upset the balance in favor of offense systems. This cost-exchange ratio was so favorable that it appeared the only thing building a defense would do would be to cause an arms race; when faced with this problem, President Eisenhower asked ARPA to consider alternative concepts. Their Project Defender studied all sorts of systems, before abandoning most of them to concentrate on Project BAMBI. BAMBI used a series of satellites carrying interceptor missiles that would attack the Soviet ICBMs shortly after launch; this boost phase intercept rendered MIRV impotent. The operational cost of such a system would be enormous, the US Air Force continually rejected such concepts. Development was cancelled in 1963.

Through this period, the entire topic of BMD became controversial. Early deployment plans were met with little interest, but by the late 1960s, public meetings on the Sentinel system were met by thousands of angry protesters. After thirty years of effort, only one such system would be built. A Soviet military A-35 anti-ballistic missile system was deployed around Moscow to intercept enemy ballistic missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas; the A-35 was the only Soviet ABM system allowed under the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. In development since the 1960s and in operation from 1971 until the 1990s, it featured the nuclear-tipped A350 exoatmospheric interceptor missile. George Shultz, Secretary of State under Reagan, suggests that a 1967 lecture by

Nagapattinam district

Nagapattinam district is a coastal district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. Nagapattinam district was carved out by bifurcating the erstwhile composite Thanjavur district on October 19, 1991; the town of Nagapattinam is the district headquarters. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,616,450 with a sex-ratio of 1,025 females for every 1,000 males, it is the only discontiguous district in Tamil Nadu Nagapattinam is derived from Nagar, referring to people, pattinam referring to town. In Tamil Pattinam and paakkam depicts coastal towns; the town was called Cholakula Vallipattinam during the Chola period, when it was one of the important ports. Ptolemy refers to Nagapattinam as Nikam and mentions it as one of the most important trade centres of the ancient Tamil country; this view is doubtful as there is no contemporary evidence to prove the existence of the town as a metropolis in the name of "Nikama" or "Nikam". Nagapattinam was referred to by early writers and the Portuguese as "the city of Coromandel".

Appar and Tirugnanasambandar, the 7th-century saint poets refer to the city as Nagai in their verses in Tevaram. The town was called "Nagai". There are urn burials in and around the city from the Sangam period indicating some level of human habitation; the neighbouring port, Kaveripoompattinam, was the capital of the Chola kingdom of the Sangam Age, referred to in Tamil scriptures like Paṭṭiṉappālai. The early works of Tevaram by the 7th-century poets Appar and Sambandar mention that the town had fortified walls, busy roads, buildings and a busy port; the inscriptions from the Kayarohanswami temple indicate the construction was initiated during the reign of the Pallava king, Narasimha Pallava II. A Buddhist pagoda was built under Chinese influence by the Pallava king and town was frequented by Buddhist travellers. Thirumangai Azhwar, the 9th century vaishnavite saint poet, is believed to have stolen the golden Buddha statue to fund the Ranganthaswamy Temple at Srirangam. In the 11th century CE, Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist monastery was built by Javanese king Sri Vijaya Soolamanivarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola.

Nagapattinam was the prominent port of Cholas for trade and conquering gateway to the east. In the early 16th century the Portuguese made commercial contacts with the town and established a commercial centre in 1554 CE; the Portuguese conducted missionary enterprise in the town. In 1658, the Dutch established an agreement with King Vijaya Nayakkar of Thanjavur on 5 January 1662. Ten villages were transferred from the Portuguese to the Dutch – Nagappattinam Port, Muttam, Anthanappettai, AzhingiMangalam, Thiruthinamangalam, Nariyankudi. Ten Christian churches and a hospital were built by the Dutch, they released coins with the name Nagappattinam engraved in Tamil letters. Under an agreement between the first Maratta King Egoji of Thanjavur and the Dutch and surrounding villages were handed over to the Dutch on 30 December 1676. In 1690, the capital of Dutch Coromandel moved from Pulicat to Nagapattinam; this town fell into the hands of the British in 1781 after the two naval battles between British and French fleets were fought off the coast of Negapatam, as it was known: the first in 1758 as part of the Seven Years' War and the second in 1782 as part of the American Revolutionary War.

The town was taken by the British from the Dutch in 1781. When the Dutch and British reached a peace agreement in 1784, Nagapattinam was formally ceded to the British. 277 villages, with Nagore as the headquarters, were handed over to the East India Company. From 1799 to 1845 CE Nagapttinam was the headquarters of Tanjore district. Nagapattinam and Nagore were incorporated as a single municipality in 1866 CE; the town remained one of the chief ports to the Madras Presidency. The port suffered decline after the inclusion of Tuticorin. Nagapattinam was one of the regions affected by the tsunami which followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; the district shares bordes with Thanjavur district, Tiruvarur district, Cuddalore district and Karaikal district of the union territory Puducherry The district of Nagapattinam lies on the shores of the Bay of Bengal between latitude 10.7906°N and Longitude 79.8428°E an area of 2,715 square kilometres. The District capital, Nagapattinam lies on the eastern coast, 350 kilometers down south of the State capital Chennai and of Tiruchirappalli.

It has an average elevation of 9 metres above the mean sea level. The district has a coastline of 187 kilometres; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, triggering a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean. Nagapattinam district was the most affected part in Tamil Nadu, accounting for 6,064 off the 8,009 casualties in the state, predominantly from the fishing community who resided close to the seashore; the damage impacted the fishing industry. The immediate aftermath created a lull in tourism. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nagapattinam one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the six districts in Tamil Nadu receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to 2011 census, Nagapattinam district had a population of 1,616,450 with a sex-ratio of 1,025 females for ever