College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
Trotwood is a city in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 24,431 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city is served by the Trotwood-Madison City School District. Trotwood was called Higgins Station, under the latter name was platted in 1854; the Village of Trotwood was incorporated in 1901 from portions of Madison Township. This merger resulted in the creation of a Trotwood neighborhood, surrounded by the City of Dayton. Several smaller sections are attached to Trotwood by a small strip of land; the merger added a large rural area to this suburban community consisting of farms, golf courses, large rural estates. Trotwood is located at 39°47′41″N 84°17′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.50 square miles, of which 30.49 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Wolf Creek, a tributary of the Miami River, runs through Trotwood providing fishing and many scenic areas. Along Wolf Creek is the only state park in Montgomery County.
The 3,000-acre Sycamore Woods State Park offers horseback riding, hiking and Group camping. The city is adjacent to the cities of Dayton and Englewood; as of the census of 2010, there were 24,431 people, 10,404 households, 6,408 families residing in the city. The population density was 801.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,152 housing units at an average density of 398.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 28.1% White, 68.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 10,404 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.4% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.
The median age in the city was 41.8 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.4% male and 55.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 27,420 people, 11,110 households, 7,343 families residing in the city; the population density was 898.1 people per square mile. There were 12,020 housing units at an average density of 393.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 38.66% White, 58.34% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 1.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 11,110 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.3% were married couples living together, 21.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,931, the median income for a family was $40,426. Males had a median income of $33,771 versus $26,324 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,329. About 13.6% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. Trotwood is the home of Hara Arena, where the annual Dayton Hamvention was held, until Hara Arena closed in 2016; every year, thousands of Amateur Radio Operators from around the world attend this convention. Trotwood is home to United Theological Seminary, one of thirteen seminaries of the United Methodist Church. Trotwood has two golf courses: Moss Creek, Hara Greens.
Larch Tree Golf Course is no longer a golf course. Roscoe Filburn, defendant in the 1942 Supreme Court case of Wickard v. Filburn, which permitted the Federal Government to regulate intrastate commerce under the Interstate Commerce Clause, farmed near 5150 Denlinger Road in what is now urban Trotwood. Trotwood is the alleged childhood home of John Dorian on the television show Scrubs. Trotwood, OH is the confirmed childhood home of legendary detective Thomas J. Cope. Trotwood has a branch of the Dayton Metro Library. City website Dayton Metro Library, Trotwood Branch Totally Trotwood - Weekly News
The World League of American Football renamed the NFL Europe League and NFL Europa, was a professional American football league which operated between 1991 and 2007. It was backed by the largest league in the United States; each season culminated with the World Bowl. The World League of American Football was founded in 1989 to serve as a type of spring league. Seven of the ten teams were based in North America, the other three in Europe; this format lasted for two seasons, with no league in 1993–94. The WLAF returned in 1995 with six teams, all in Europe, in 1998 the league was rebranded as the NFL Europe League or NFL Europe, until 2006. For the league's last season, 2007, it changed its name to NFL Europa; the league's squads were predominantly assigned by NFL teams, who wanted these younger, developmental players to get additional game experience and coaching. The NFL assumed the expenses of coaches living in Europe; the European six-team format was maintained for 12 seasons, from 1995 to 2008, but by 2008 five teams were based in Germany.
Making a reported $30 million loss per season, with teams such as the inaugural league champion London Monarchs having gone defunct, on 29 June 2008, the NFL announced the end of NFL Europa. A previous proposed league in the 1970s, the Intercontinental Football League, had contained many elements of the eventual all-European league. West German entrepreneur Adalbert Wetzel and sports coach Bob Kap secured the release of several NFL players to the IFL for a planned 1975 season; the IFL would have involved teams in Barcelona, West Berlin, Munich and Istanbul, but was cancelled due to economic and political problems. The World League of American Football was formed in 1989, by a unanimous vote of NFL owners, as a spring developmental league, the "brainchild" of commissioner Paul Tagliabue; this came after the NFL had played popular American Bowls in London's Wembley Stadium and elsewhere since 1986. Of the 28 NFL teams, 26 paid $50,000 each in start-up costs for the WLAF. Team payrolls and budgets were controlled by the WLAF office but not all teams were owned by the league.
The WLAF was set up as a professional American football league for North America and Europe: six teams from the United States, three European teams, one Canadian team. In 1991 parties in Moscow and Japan expressed an interest in additional franchises. Teams were aligned in three divisions: North American West: Birmingham Fire, Sacramento Surge, San Antonio Riders North American East: Montreal Machine, New York/New Jersey Knights, Orlando Thunder, Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks European: Barcelona Dragons, Frankfurt Galaxy, London MonarchsThe WLAF played two seasons in the spring of 1991 and 1992, with 10 teams playing a 10-game regular season with the World Bowl championship game. Rules unique to WLAF included assigning increasing point value to field goals based on distance, a requirement that at least one player of non-US nationality participate in at least every other series of downs. New ideas were tested, like using the two-point conversion rule on the professional field before adopting it in the NFL in 1994.
Other minor tweaks in gameplay, such as a shorter kickoff tee, were first used in the WLAF. Several technical innovations, such as helmet mounted cameras and one-way radios, enabling coaches to tell plays directly to quarterbacks, were developed; the average game attendance for the first season was 25,361, 24,216 in the second season. The original WLAF was noticed in the United States, having a "minor-league or developmental image" and low TV ratings. In the non-U. S. Cities of London, Barcelona and Montreal, crowds surpassed early expectations; the Monarchs' home attendance led the league, the 1991 World Bowl played at Wembley Stadium was attended by 61,108. In May 1991, the Los Angeles Times's Chris Dufresne said American fans were less than Europeans to "shell out hard-earned dollars for games featuring roster-cut leftovers" and suggested there was a post-USFL backlash in Orlando and San Antonio; the WLAF lost $7 million in 1991. The playoff format consisted of four teams: the three divisional champions, plus a wild card with the best overall non-division winning record.
The two teams emerging from the WLAF semi-final playoffs met at the end of the season in the World Bowl. The first two World Bowl locations were predetermined before the season; the average WLAF salary for 10 games plus playoffs was $40,000, but some of the top players made close to $100,000. Operations of the WLAF were suspended after the 1992 season as the league lost money and the involved NFL owners were not willing to invest more. However, the NFL still needed another pro football league to help their cause in the antitrust and free agency lawsuit with the National Football League Players' Association; the three Europe-based teams dominated in 1991, with a combined 24–6 record, while no North American team managed better than 5–5. The London Monarchs won the World Bowl; the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks lost all 10 games and their franchise, moved to Ohio for 1992. The WLAF's second season was confirmed to go ahead on 23 October 1991, six months before it kicked off. In 1992, fortunes changed and none of the European teams had winning seasons.
Despite this, the European fans remained loyal, but the NFL owners suspended the WLAF after the season. Paul Tagliabue mentioned plans to bring it back with only European teams in 1994. British sports writer Matt Tench cited "an amb
The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a professional Canadian football team based in Hamilton, Canada. They are members of the East Division of the Canadian Football League; the Tiger-Cats play their home games at Tim Hortons Field. They were founded in 1950 with the merger of the Hamilton Wildcats. Since the 1950 merger, the team has won the Grey Cup championship eight times, most in 1999; the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club recognizes all Grey Cups won by Hamilton-based teams as part of their history, which would bring their win total to 15. However, the CFL does not recognize these wins under one franchise, rather as the individual franchises that won them. If one includes their historical lineage, Hamilton football clubs won league championships in every decade of the 20th century, a feat matched by only one other North American franchise in professional sports, the Triple-A Rochester Red Wings of the International League. Neither of these teams won a championship in the first decade of the 21st century.
In their first forty years of existence, the Tiger-Cats were a model franchise, qualifying for the playoffs in all but three of those years and winning seven Grey Cup championships. They are one of six teams in the modern era to win the Grey Cup at home and were the first to accomplish this when they did it in 1972. However, since 1990, they have missed the playoffs on eleven occasions and have won just one Grey Cup in 1999, their lowest moment came when they lost a CFL record 17 games in one season with just one win during their 2003 season. The franchise has started to return to prominence after qualifying for the post-season in four of the past five seasons, including a loss in the 101st Grey Cup and again in the 102nd Grey Cup; the owner/caretaker of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club is businessman Bob Young, who purchased the club on October 7, 2003. He was born in Hamilton, Ontario and graduated from Victoria College at the University of Toronto, his fortune was earned in the software industry and he is the owner and CEO of Lulu, a self-publishing website.
As of 2011, the Hamilton Tiger-Cats Executive Committee consists of three people: Bob Young, Caretaker. Although the current Hamilton Tiger-Cats were only founded in 1950, football in Hamilton goes back much further than that; the history of Hamilton Tiger-Cats Football Club can be traced back to November 3, 1869 in a room above George Lee’s Fruit Store, when the Hamilton Football Club was formed. The Hamilton football club played their first game on December 1869 against the 13th Battalion. In 1872, the Hamilton Football club began play at the Hamilton AAA Grounds and they became known as the Tigers in 1873; the Hamilton Tigers began play in the Ontario Rugby Football Union in 1883 and won their first Canadian Dominion Football Championship in 1906 when the Tigers beat McGill University 29–3. The Tigers continued in the ORFU until 1907, when the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union was formed; the IRFU became known as the Big Four and the IRFU became the East division of the modern CFL in the 1950s.
The Tigers faced stiff local competition with the ORFU's Hamilton Alerts who, in 1912, won the City of Hamilton its first Grey Cup, the trophy, now awarded to the Canadian Dominion Football Champions, by beating the Toronto Argonauts 11–4. In the following season, the Tigers won their first of five Grey Cups when they beat the Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club by the lopsided margin of 44–2; the Alerts were refused entry into the ORFU in 1913 with many of its players opting to join the Tigers, while the Alerts faded from existence. The Alerts gave way to a team under the name Hamilton Rowing Club from 1913–1915, who played in the ORFU. 1914 saw the complete amalgamation of the Hamilton Alerts and the Hamilton Tigers and the football club continued playing under the name "Tigers". In 1915, in the final pre-war season, the Hamilton Tigers won their second Grey Cup. After over a decade-long drought, the Hamilton Tigers won the Grey Cup championship game in 1928, 1929 and 1932; the 1941 season saw the Tigers suspend play for the remainder of World War II.
The Hamilton Tigers folded because a number of players had gone into the armed services. It is believed by some that the failure of the Tigers is what caused the IRFU to be dissolved, the Eastern Rugby Football Union to be formed; because of the absence of the Tigers, a new club called the Hamilton Wildcats were formed to play in the ORFU in 1941. The Wildcats were given permission to use players from the Hamilton Tigers, but not the traditional black and yellow colors of the Tigers. In 1943, the Hamilton Flying Wildcats, stocked with Royal Canadian Air Force personnel, won the 31st Grey Cup. Things returned to normal in 1945 when the IRFU and the Hamilton Tigers resumed play while the Wildcats continued on in the ORFU. In 1948 the Hamilton Wildcats joined the IRFU to replace the Tigers who joined the Ontario Rugby Football Union; the Tigers and Wildcats switch of unions only lasted. At this time, the Tigers and Wildcats competed for fans and bragging rights so vehemently that neither team could operate on a sound financial level.
The Tigers and Wildcats amalgamated in 1950 to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats that would compete in the IRFU. Under the guidance of prominent and distinguished local leaders such as Ralph "Super-Duper" Cooper and F. M. Gibson, i
Gridiron football known as North American football or, in North America football, is a football sport played in the United States and Canada. American football, which uses 11-player teams, is the form played in the United States and the best known form of gridiron football worldwide, while Canadian football, featuring 12-player teams, predominates in Canada. Other derivative varieties include indoor football, football for smaller teams, informal games such as touch and flag football. Football is played at professional, semi-professional, amateur levels; the sport originated in the 19th century out of older games related to modern rugby football and soccer. American and Canadian football developed alongside each other and were more distinct before Canadian teams adopted features of the American game. Both varieties are distinguished from other football sports by their use of hard plastic helmets and shoulder pads, the forward pass, the system of downs, a number of unique rules and positions, measurement in customary units of yards, a distinctive brown leather ball in the shape of a prolate spheroid with pointed ends.
The international governing body for the sport is the International Federation of American Football. The sport is known as "football" in the countries where it originated, regardless of the specific variety. Various sources use the term "North American football" when discussing the American and Canadian games together, it is sometimes known as "gridiron football". This name originates with the sport's characteristic playing field, marked by a series of parallel lines along the width of the field in a pattern resembling a cooking gridiron. However, "gridiron football", or "gridiron" refers to American football sometimes in distinction from Canadian football. "Gridiron" is the usual name for American football in New Zealand. Some sources, including the International Federation of American Football, use "American football" inclusive of Canadian football and other varieties; the sport developed from informal games played in North America during the 19th century. Early games had a variety of local rules and were similar to modern rugby union and soccer.
By the 1860s, teams from universities were playing each other, leading to more standardized rules and the creation of college football. While several American schools adopted rules based on the soccer rules of the British Football Association, Harvard University held to its traditional "carrying game". Meanwhile, McGill University in Montreal used rules based on rugby union. In 1874, Harvard and McGill University in Montreal organized two games using each other's rules. Harvard took a liking to McGill's rugby-style rules, subsequently played several other U. S. colleges over the next several years. American football teams and organizations subsequently adopted new rules which distinguished the game from rugby. Among the most consequential changes was the adoption of the forward pass in 1906, which allowed the quarterback to throw the ball forward over the line of scrimmage to a receiver. Canadian football remained akin to rugby for decades, though a progressive faction of players, chiefly based in the western provinces, demanded changes to the game based on the innovations in American football.
Over the years, the sport adopted more Americanized rules, though it retained some of its historical features, including a 110-yard field, 12-player teams, three downs instead of four. American football is the most common and known of these sports, it was more related to rugby, until various rule changes created by Walter Camp were implemented in 1880. It is played with eleven players to four downs and a 100-yard field; the major professional league, the National Football League, has its own rule book. College football programs play under the code defined in the NCAA Football Rules and Interpretations. High schools follow the rules and interpretations published by the National Federation of High School Associations, although some states follow the NCAA code for high school play. Youth games follow NFHS code with modifications. Adult semi-pro and minor professional, touch, etc. may follow any one of these codes or use their own rules. While the vast majority of the game is the same among these three codes, subtle variations in rules can lead to large difference in play.
Many of the differences are in the definitions of fouls. Canadian football is played exclusively in Canada. Like its American cousin, it was more related to rugby, until the Burnside rules were adopted in 1903; the game has three downs and twelve players to a side. The Canadian game features a one-point "single" for a ball kicked into the end zone and not returned by the receiving team. Like the American game, the Canadian Football League and Canadian Interuniversity Sport both have their own rulebooks, although there are fewer differences than between their American counterparts. Nine-man football, eight-man football and six-man football are varieties of gridiron football played with fewer players, they are played with four downs (often with a 15-yard requirement f
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro