Minden is a small city in and the parish seat of Webster Parish in northwestern Louisiana, United States. It is located twenty-eight miles east of Shreveport in Caddo Parish; the population has been stable since 1960, when it was 12,786. Minden is 51.7 percent African American. Minden is part of the larger Shreveport – Bossier City metropolitan area, it is a regional trade center for the neighboring parishes of Bienville and Claiborne, from which Webster Parish was carved in 1871. Minden has possessed a United States post office since 1839; the current postal building, a 10,000-square-foot structure at 111 South Monroe Street, was completed under a $285,000 contract awarded in 1959 to McInnis Construction Company of Minden. The community has been served by a newspaper since the 1850s; the current publication, the Minden Press-Herald, is located on Gleason Street south of Broadway. The building was used by a grocery store; the Press-Herald became a daily newspaper on July 18, 1966, but was earlier published as two weekly papers, the Minden Press on Mondays and the Minden Herald on Thursdays.
For a time there was the Webster Signal-Tribune and other publications. On October 15, 2012, an ordnance bunker at nearby Camp Minden exploded resulting in minor property damage. Camp Minden is the site of the former Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, once the major area employer. In December 2012, police began the removal of 2,700 tons of explosives from Camp Minden, leading to evacuations in the nearby town of Doyline. In 1959, Minden was named the "Cleanest City in Louisiana." Among the original settlers in the Minden area was Newitt Drew, a Welshman from Virginia, who built a gristmill and sawmill on Dorcheat Bayou in south Webster Parish in what became the since defunct Overton community. Minden itself was established in 1836 by Charles H. Veeder, a native of Schenectady, New York, who named it for the city of Minden in Germany. Veeder left Minden during the California Gold Rush and spent the rest of his life practicing law in Bakersfield, California. A year before Veeder arrived, a group from Phillipsburg, led by the Countess Leon, settled seven miles northeast of Minden in what was Claiborne Parish.
For nearly four decades, this Germantown Colony operated on a communal basis. It was dispersed in 1871; the "Countess" moved to Hot Springs, where she died in 1881. One of three Utopian Society settlements in this area, the Germantown Colony was the most successful and lasted the longest, having peaked at fifty to sixty pioneers but with fewer than forty followers; the settlement had been planned by the countess' husband, Bernhard Müller, known as the Count von Leon. He died of yellow fever on August 29, 1834, at Grand Ecore, four miles from Natchitoches, before he reached Webster Parish. Leon and his followers attempted to build an earthly utopia, socialist in practice, while awaiting for the Second Coming of Christ. For his religious views, Leon had been exiled from Germany, he intended to plant the settlement in Webster Parish to coincide with the latitude of Jerusalem, 31 degrees, 47 minutes. The colonists worshiped under oak trees at the center of the colony, they supported themselves with a concentration on cotton.
The settlement is preserved at Museum. A second museum in Minden, the Dorcheat Historical Association Museum, named for Dorcheat Bayou, is located downtown at 116 Pearl Street near the post office, it preserves the cultural history of the parish from the 19th century. During the American Civil War, a large Confederate encampment, which housed some 15,000 soldiers was located east of Minden. At the time Minden was a supply depot for the troops; some thirty Confederate soldiers who died in the Battle of Mansfield and another engagement at Pleasant Hill are buried in the historic Minden Cemetery located at Pine and Goodwill streets and Bayou Avenue. A modern cemetery, Gardens of Memory, opened in 1957 off the Lewisville Road north of Minden. In 1862, Confederate General Richard Taylor, son of Zachary Taylor, issued orders to round up deserters. According to the historian John D. Winters of Louisiana Tech University, near Minden were seen "many robust-looking men claiming to be'discharged soldiers.'"
General Taylor reported that a "'large number of persons liable to military service... deserters, enrolled conscripts who have failed to report, between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five, are to be found throughout the state.' He ordered militia officers and parish sheriffs to arrest all men who could not prove legal exemption or absence from military service because of furlough or parole. Liberal rewards were offered for the apprehension of such men."Governor Henry Watkins Allen tried to make the state self-sufficient during the war. A factory for the manufacture of cotton and wool cards was erected at Minden and in full operation by the end of the war. In 1864–1865, divisions of General Camille Armand Jules Marie, Prince de Polignac, hero at Mansfield, Maj. Gen. John H. Forney established winter quarters near Minden. On February 13, 1899, Minden recorded the state's all-time coldest temperature, −16 °F, during the height of the Great Blizzard. Another −16 °F reading was recorded in Minden on February 2, 1899.
The humid subtropical climate, however, is mild in winter and hot in summer. Near the start of the Great Depression, the Bank of Minden, one of the two in the city, failed. Five banks exist, Minden Building and Loan, Capital One, Regions and Richland State. Earlier, the major banks were Minden Bank and Trust Company. In the late afternoon of May 1, 1933, a tornado called a
Sherwood Anderson was an American novelist and short story writer, known for subjective and self-revealing works. Self-educated, he rose to become a successful copywriter and business owner in Cleveland and Elyria, Ohio. In 1912, Anderson had a nervous breakdown that led him to abandon his business and family to become a writer. At the time, he moved to Chicago and was married three additional times, his most enduring work is the short-story sequence Winesburg, which launched his career. Throughout the 1920s, Anderson published several short story collections, memoirs, books of essays, a book of poetry. Though his books sold reasonably well, Dark Laughter, a novel inspired by Anderson's time in New Orleans during the 1920s, was his only bestseller. Sherwood Berton Anderson was born on September 13, 1876, in Camden, Ohio, a farming town with a population of around 650, he was the third of seven children born to Emma Jane and former Union soldier and harness-maker Irwin McLain Anderson. Considered reasonably well-off financially—Anderson's father was seen as an up-and-comer by his Camden contemporaries, the family left town just before Sherwood's first birthday.
Reasons for the departure are uncertain. The Andersons headed north to Caledonia by way of a brief stay in a village of a few hundred called Independence. Four or five years were spent in years which formed Anderson's earliest memories; this period inspired his semi-autobiographical novel Tar: A Midwest Childhood. In Caledonia Anderson's father began drinking excessively, which led to financial difficulties causing the family to leave the town. With each move, Irwin Anderson's prospects dimmed; that job was short-lived, for the rest of Sherwood Anderson's childhood, his father supported the family as an occasional sign-painter and paperhanger, while his mother took in washing to make ends meet. As a result of these misfortunes, young Sherwood became adept at finding various odd jobs to help his family, earning the nickname "Jobby."Though he was a decent student, Anderson's attendance at school declined as he began picking up work, he left school for good at age 14 after about nine months of high school.
From the time he began to cut school to the time he left town, Anderson worked as a "...newsboy, errand boy, cow-driver, stable groom, printer's devil, not to mention assistant to Irwin Anderson, Sign Painter..." in addition to assembling bicycles for the Elmore Manufacturing Company. In his teens, Anderson's talent for selling was evident, a talent he would draw on it in a successful career in advertising; as a newsboy he was said to have convinced a tired farmer in a saloon to buy two copies of the same evening paper. With the exception of work, Anderson's childhood resembled that of other boys his age. In addition to participating in local events and spending time with his friends, Anderson was a voracious reader. Though there were only a few books in the Anderson home, the youth read by borrowing from the school library, the personal libraries of a school superintendent and John Tichenor, a local artist, who responded to Anderson's interest. By Anderson's 18th year in 1895, his family was on shaky ground.
His father had started to disappear for weeks. Two years earlier, in 1893, Sherwood's elder brother, had left Clyde for Chicago. On May 10, 1895, his mother succumbed to tuberculosis. Sherwood, now on his own, boarded at the Harvey & Yetter's livery stable where he worked as a groom—an experience that would translate into several of his best-known stories. Two months before his mother's death, in March 1895, Anderson had signed up with the Ohio National Guard for a five-year hitch while he was going steady with Bertha Baynes, an attractive girl and the inspiration for Helen White in Winesburg, he was working a secure job at the bicycle factory, but his mother's death precipitated. He settled in Chicago around late 1896 or spring/summer 1897, having worked a few small-town factory jobs along the way. Anderson moved to a boardinghouse in Chicago owned by a former mayor of Clyde, his brother Karl was studying at the Art Institute. Anderson moved in with him and found a job at a cold-storage plant.
In late 1897, Karl moved away, Anderson relocated to a two-room flat with his sister and two younger brothers newly come from Clyde. Money was tight—Anderson earned "two dollars for a day of ten hours"— but with occasional support from Karl, they got by. Following the example of his Clyde confederate and lifelong friend Cliff Paden and Karl, Anderson took up the idea of furthering his education by enrolling in night school at the Lewis Institute, he attended several classes including "New Business Arithmetic" earning marks that placed him second in the class. It was there that Anderson heard lectures on Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, was first introduced to the poetry of Walt Whitman. Soon, Anderson's first stint in Chicago would come to an end as the United States prepared to ent
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Lubbock is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the county seat of Lubbock County. With a population of 256,042 in 2015, the city is the 83rd-most populous in the United States; the city is located in northwestern part of the state, a region known and geographically as the Llano Estacado, ecologically is part of the southern end of the High Plains, lying at the economic center of the Lubbock metropolitan area, which has a projected 2020 population of 327,424. Lubbock's nickname, "Hub City", derives from it being the economic and health-care hub of the multicounty region, north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle called the South Plains; the area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is dependent on water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation. Lubbock was selected as the 12th-best place to start a small business by CNNMoney.com. CNN mentioned the city's traditional business atmosphere: low rent for commercial space, central location, cooperative city government.
Lubbock is home to the sixth-largest college by enrollment in the state. Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States, based in part on its international baccalaureate program; as of 1867, the land that would become Lubbock was the heart of Comancheria, the shifting domain controlled by the Comanche. Lubbock County was founded in 1876, it was named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War. As early as 1884, a U. S. post office existed in Yellow House Canyon. A small town, known as Old Lubbock, Lubbock, or North Town, was established about three miles to the east. In 1890, the original Lubbock merged with another small town south of the canyon; the new town adopted the Lubbock name. The merger included moving the original Lubbock's Nicolett Hotel across the canyon on rollers to the new townsite. Lubbock became the county seat in 1891, was incorporated on March 16, 1909.
In the same year, the first railroad train arrived. Texas Technological College was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969. Both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, Sunset International Bible Institute, both affiliated with the Churches of Christ, have their main campuses in the city. South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock. At one time, Lubbock was home to Reese Air Force Base located 6 mi west of the city, it was established in August 1941, during the defense build-up prior to World War II, by the United States Department of War and the U. S. Army as Lubbock Army Airfield, it served the old U. S. Army Air Forces, the U. S. Air Force, after reorganization and establishment in 1947; the USAF base's primary mission throughout its existence was pilot training.
The base was closed 30 September 1997, after being selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1995, is now a research and business park called Reese Technology Center. The city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University; the landmark is an natural-history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation in the region; the National Ranching Heritage Center part of the Museum of Texas Tech University, houses historic ranch-related structures from the region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Lubbock on training flights; the town served as a stand-in for the British for Cork, the same distance from London, England, as Lubbock is from Terrell. In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city; the "Lubbock Lights" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great "UFO" cases.
The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in Life. Project Blue Book, the USAF's official investigation of the UFO mystery, concluded the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects, but dismissed the UFOs as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a plover reflected in the nighttime glow of Lubbock's new street lights. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, for many, the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery. In 1960, the U. S. Census Bureau reported Lubbock's population as area as 75.0 sq mi. On May 11, 1970, the Lubbock Tornado struck the city. Twenty-six people died, damage was estimated at $125 million; the Metro Tower known as the Great Plains Life Building, at 274 ft in height, is believed to have been the tallest building to survive a direct hit from an F5 tornado.
Then-mayor Jim Granberry and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, Morris W. Turner, were charged with directing the rebuilding of downtown Lubbock in the aftermath of the storm. In August, 1988, tens of thousands of people came to Lubbock, drawn by an apparition of Mary. In 2009, Lubbock celebrated its centennial; the historians Paul H. Carlson, Donald R. Abbe, David J. Murrah co-authored Lubbock and the South
Winesburg, Ohio is a 1919 short story cycle by the American author Sherwood Anderson. The work is structured around the life of protagonist George Willard, from the time he was a child to his growing independence and ultimate abandonment of Winesburg as a young man, it is set in the fictional town of Winesburg, based loosely on the author's childhood memories of Clyde, Ohio. Written from late 1915 to early 1916, with a few stories completed closer to publication, they were "...conceived as complementary parts of a whole, centered in the background of a single community." The book consists of twenty-two stories, with the first story, "The Book of the Grotesque", serving as an introduction. Each of the stories shares a specific character's past and present struggle to overcome the loneliness and isolation that seems to permeate the town. Stylistically, because of its emphasis on the psychological insights of characters over plot, plain-spoken prose, Ohio is known as one of the earliest works of Modernist literature.
Winesburg, Ohio was received well by critics despite some reservations about its moral tone and unconventional storytelling. Though its reputation waned in the 1930s, it has since rebounded and is now considered one of the most influential portraits of pre-industrial small-town life in the United States. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Winesburg, Ohio 24th on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. Though there is no argument about the unity of structure within Winesburg, few scholars have concluded that it fits the standards of a conventional novel. Instead, it is placed "...midway between the novel proper and the mere collection of stories," known as the short story cycle. Aside from its structural unity, the common setting, symbolism and "consistency of mood" are all additional qualities that tie the stories together despite their initial publication as separate tales. Promoted to younger writers by Anderson himself, Ohio has served as a representative early example of the modern short story cycle in American letters.
Comparisons between Winesburg and Jean Toomer's Cane, Ernest Hemingway's In Our Time, William Faulkner's Go Down and several of John Steinbeck's works, among others, demonstrate the pervasiveness of the formal innovations made in Anderson's book. The focus on George Willard's development as a young man and a writer has led some critics to put Winesburg, Ohio within the tradition of "the American boy book, the Bildungsroman, the Künstlerroman", it is acknowledged that the fictional model of the book's town, Winesburg, is based on Sherwood Anderson's boyhood memories of Clyde, where Anderson lived between the ages of eight and nineteen, not the actual town of Winesburg, Ohio. This view is supported by the similarities between the names and qualities of several Winesburg characters and Clyde's townspeople, in addition to mentions of specific geographic details of Clyde and the surrounding area, it is not known. What is known is that the name was not inspired by the stories themselves. In actuality, Anderson had been using Winesburg, Ohio as a base for Talbot Whittingham, the protagonist of an unfinished novel he had been writing on-and-off for several years prior to the composition of the Winesburg stories.
A direct relationship between the real Clyde and the fictional Winesburg, remains the supposition of scholars. Anderson wrote in A Writer's Conception of Realism that he reacted with "shock" when he "...heard people say that one of my own books Winesburg, was an exact picture of Ohio village life." The author went on to admit that, "the hint for every character was taken from my fellow lodgers in a large rooming house..." These lodgers were the "...young musicians, young writers, actors..." and others that lived in proximity to Anderson on the North Side of Chicago and to whom he referred as "The Little Children of the Arts". The truth lies somewhere in between, with memories of Clyde "merging" with Anderson's interactions at the boardinghouse; because Sherwood Anderson was so ambiguous about what directly influenced him, it is difficult to say that any specific writer or work inspired him to write Winesburg, Ohio as a whole. Still, most scholars affirm the obvious connection between Anderson's cycle and the Spoon River Anthology of Edgar Lee Masters, which Anderson stayed up all night to read.
Though B. W. Huebsch, Anderson's publisher, sent out a statement, upon the release of Winesburg, heading off comparisons between the two works by stating that the Winesburg stories were printed in magazines before the Spoon River Anthology was published, the similarities in small-town setting and mood of the works have been noted by several reviewers, with one going so far as to call Winesburg, the Spoon River Anthology "...put into prose."Gertrude Stein, whose work Anderson was introduced to by either his brother Karl or photographer Alfred Stieglitz between 1912 and 1915, is said to have played a key role in helping shape the unique style found in the stories. Through his interaction with Stein's Three Lives and Tender Buttons, Anderson found the plain, unambiguous voice that became a staple of his prose; as indicated by the correspondence the two writers developed after the publication of Winesburg, variations on the repetition found in Stein's writing
Minden High School (Minden, Louisiana)
Minden High School is the public secondary educational institution in Minden, a small city of 13,000 and the seat of Webster Parish located twenty-eight miles east of Shreveport in northwestern Louisiana. MHS houses grades nine through twelve but handled grades one through eleven prior to the establishment of the twelfth grade; the school is under the supervision of the elected Webster Parish School Board. Minden was founded in 1837 by Charles H. Veeder, a New York State native who shaped the community into that of a parallelogram and divided the area into lots, he named the settlement after the home of his ancestors in Germany. Minden thereafter became the largest town in old Claiborne Parish, a part of, separated to be included in the newer Webster Parish, named for Massachusetts statesman Daniel Webster. In 1838, Minden received one of the first charters for a public school from the Louisiana State Legislature. Though the school charged tuition, it was open to all white children. Hence known as the "Minden Academy", the school split into the Minden Male Academy, with state court Judges John D. Watkins and A. B.
George for a time as principal, the Minden Female College, both of which operated into the late 1890s. The current Minden High School is located on College Street on the site of Veeder's original Minden Academy. In 1897, the Webster Parish School Board voted to establish a central high school in Minden; the trustees of the existing Minden Normal and Business College offered a building. In 1900, the reconfigured Minden High School had two graduates: Theressa Grigsby; these two young women began high school when the school was established in 1897. The Commencement Program of that graduation still exists. In 1901, the first year of its existence as a high school, MHS graduated Harry Crichton. Since that time, more than six thousand have received diplomas from the institution. From 1913-1917, the principal was John Barnard Snell, husband of short story author Ada Jack Carver Snell and father of David Snell and cartoonists with the defunct Life Magazine. Snell left the position for military service in World War I.
On his return, he operated a successful cotton gin. The black Minden Union School was established in 1923 and in 1941 was renamed Webster High School. One of the Webster principals was Robert T. Tobin, the interim African-American mayor of Minden in 1989. In 1974, Webster High was blended into the desegregated Minden High School; as a result of the consolidation, the MHS Class of 1975, with 248 graduates, became the largest in school history. Other high schools were established in the Webster Parish communities of Dubberly, Sibley, Shongaloo, Cotton Valley, in Springhill, the second largest city in the parish located adjacent to the Arkansas state boundary. Since the closure and razing in 2011 of William G. Stewart, there are three elementary schools in Minden: E. S. Richardson, J. E. Harper and J. L. Jones, named for another former Webster High School principal; these schools send pupils to Webster Junior High School, which in turn directs them after the eighth grade to Minden High School. On February 13, 1923, a fire swept through the Minden High School auditorium during the performance of a Mardi Gras play, three students, Dorothy Cheshire, Eugenie Burt, Mabel Hickman, a fourth casualty, a young child, Eva Evelyn Lowe, died from burns.
The blaze developed when the dress of another girl caught fire from a sparkler used to enhance a snow scene. The youngsters ran into the street through a nearby exit while in a state of panic. Four other girls were burned as well. In 1924, a new two-story brick MHS building was located on College Street, it was used as the principal school facility until 1954, when a new brick structure opened to the east of the existing building. The 1954 two-story building cost $590,000 plus another $50,000 for furnisings for twenty-one regular classrooms and two faculty lounges; the construction was undertaken by Southern Builders of Shreveport. After the opening of the 1954 building, the 1924 structure continued to be used as a classroom building and as a girls' gymnasium until the early 21st century, it was razed in 2005 to make room for yet another new MHS building complex. This latest renovated MHS opened at the same location in late August 2007; the new three-story structure features air-conditioned classrooms, a new gymnasium, computer services, a cafeteria.
After several defeats at the polls, including the rejection of a proposed new campus near Interstate 20, community and business leaders pushed through a $33 million tax package in an election held in January 2004. The renovations will hence replace the older Minden High and Webster Junior High campuses and upgrade elementary schools as well; the junior high facility opened in August 2008. E. S. Richardson served as Webster Parish superintendent from 1921 to 1936. In the summer of 1927, he made appearances across the nation to explain the school improvement and consolidation plan that he had created in Webster Parish, he spoke in seven states to educational conferences on what some had termed the "Webster miracle." Richardson continued with his reforms by the establishment of a uniform promotion plan of four principal points: 1) Promotions in the first three grades were based on work done in reading and numbers. For the second grade, a student had to perform in two minutes fifteen simple addition problems and nine subtraction problems.
2) In grades 4-7 a pupil had to pass arithmetic and language before being eligible for promotion. He could still be promoted with one failure in either of the other major subjects, civics, geography
The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities, it can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an aboriginal or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are the focus. In reference to sociology, multiculturalism is the end-state of either a natural or artificial process and occurs on either a large national scale or on a smaller scale within a nation's communities. On a smaller scale this can occur artificially when a jurisdiction is established or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures.
On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal migration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves policies which vary widely, it has been described as as a "cultural mosaic" -- in contrast to a melting pot. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences, it is associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", "the politics of recognition". It is a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments focusing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and the disabled, it is within this context in which the term is most understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate.
Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies; the term multiculturalism is most used in reference to Western nation-states, which had achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are made of a mosaic of cultures; the Canadian government has been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.
In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today. It was adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Right-of-center governments in several European states – notably the Netherlands and Denmark – have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism. A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism. Several heads-of-state or heads-of-government have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The United Kingdom's ex-Prime Minister David Cameron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Australia's ex-prime minister John Howard, Spanish ex-prime minister Jose Maria Aznar and French ex-president Nicolas Sarkozy have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.
Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse and are'multicultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue; the policies adopted by these states have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building – for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a'Malaysian race' by 2020. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to express who they are within a society, more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues, they argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes. Support for modern multiculturalism stems from the changes in Western societies after World War II, in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights revolution", in which the horrors of institutionalized racism and ethnic cleansing became impossible to ignore in the wake of the Holocaust.