Deubiquitinating enzymes known as deubiquitinating peptidases, deubiquitinating isopeptidases, ubiquitin proteases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin isopeptidases, are a large group of proteases that cleave ubiquitin from proteins and other molecules. Ubiquitin is attached to proteins in order to regulate the degradation of proteins via the proteasome and lysosome. DUBs can reverse these effects by cleaving the peptide or isopeptide bond between ubiquitin and its substrate protein. In humans there are nearly 100 DUB genes, which can be classified into two main classes: cysteine proteases and metalloproteases; the cysteine proteases comprise ubiquitin-specific proteases, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases, Machado-Josephin domain proteases and ovarian tumour proteases. The metalloprotease group contains only the Jab1/Mov34/Mpr1 Pad1 N-terminal+ domain proteases. In humans there are 102 putative DUB genes, which can be classified into two main classes: cysteine proteases and metalloproteases, consisting of 58 ubiquitin-specific proteases, 4 ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases, 5 Machado-Josephin domain proteases, 14 ovarian tumour proteases, 14 Jab1/Mov34/Mpr1 Pad1 N-terminal+ domain-containing genes.
11 of these proteins are predicted to be non-functional. In yeast, the USPs are known as ubiquitin-specific-processing proteases. There are four main superfamilies of cysteine protease DUBs: the ubiquitin-specific protease superfamily; the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase superfamily. The Jab1/Mov34/Mpr1 Pad1 N-terminal+ domain superfamily proteins bind zinc and hence are metalloproteases. DUBs play several roles in the ubiquitin pathway. One of the best characterised functions of DUBs is the removal of monoubiqutin and polyubiquitin chains from proteins; these modifications are a post translational modification where single ubiquitin proteins or chains of ubiquitin are added to lysines of a substrate protein. These ubiquitin modifications are added to proteins by the ubiquitination machinery; the end result is ubiquitin bound to lysine residues via an isopeptide bond. Proteins are affected by these modifications in a number of ways: they regulate the degradation of proteins via the proteasome and lysosome.
DUBs play the antagonistic role in this axis by removing these modifications, therefore reversing the fate of the proteins. In addition, a less understood role of DUBs is the cleavage of ubiquitin-like proteins such as SUMO and NEDD8; some DUBs may have the ability to cleave isopeptide bonds between these proteins and substrate proteins. They activate ubiquitin by the proteolysis of the inactive expressed forms of ubiquitin. Ubiquitin is encoded in mammals by 4 different genes: UBA52, RPS27A, UBB and UBC. A similar set of genes is found in other eukaryotes such as yeast; the UBA52 and RPS27A genes produce ubiquitin, fused to ribosomal proteins and the UBB and UBC genes produce polyubiquitin. DUBs cleave the ubiquitin from these proteins. DUBs cleave single ubiquitin proteins that may have had their C-terminal tails accidentally bound to small cellular nucleophiles; these ubiquitin-amides and ubiquitin-thioesters may be formed during standard ubiquitination reactions by the E1-E2-E3 cascade. Glutathione and polyamines are two nucleophiles that might attack the thiolester bond between ubiquitin and these enzymes.
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase is an example of the DUB that hydrolyses these bonds with broad specificity. Free polyubiquitin chains are cleaved by DUBs to produce monoubiquitin; the chains may be produced by the E1-E2-E3 machinery in the cell free from any substrate protein. Another source of free polyubiquitin is the product of ubiquitin-substrate cleavage. If DUBs cleave the base of the polyubiquitin chain, attached to a protein, the whole chain will become free and needs to be recycled by DUBs. DUBs contain a catalytic domain surrounded by one or more accessory domains, some of which contribute to target recognition; these additional domains include domain present in ubiquitin-specific proteases domain. The catalytic domain of DUBs is what classifies them into particular g
Dubuque, Iowa minor league baseball
Minor league baseball teams have operated in the city of Dubuque, Iowa under a variety of names and participating in various leagues. The city has hosted teams in 52 seasons between 1879 and 1976; the earliest known professional team was the Dubuque Red Stockings, who played in an early version of the Northwestern League in 1879. Dubuque had early teams that played in the Central Interstate League in 1888, Illinois–Iowa League in 1890, Eastern Iowa League in 1895 and Western Association from 1895–1899; the Dubuque Shamrocks played in the Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League from 1903–1905, winning the league title in 1905. The team name became the Dubuque Dubs in 1906 and they played in the Three-I League from 1906–1915, when they moved to Freeport, Illinois to become the Freeport Comeons on July 14, 1915; the Dubs returned in 1917 in the Central Association, but moved mid-season, to Charles City, where they became the Charles City Tractorites. Multiple players with major league experience played for the team, including Hall of Fame pitcher Red Faber and 223-game winner Mel Harder.
The Dubuque Climbers played in the Mississippi Valley League from 1922 to 1923. Of note, Hall of Fame baseball pitcher Joe McGinnity played for the team both years, managing the squad the latter season; the 51-year-old was 5-8 in 19 games in 1922 and 15-12 with a 3.93 ERA in 42 games in 1923, at the age of 53. He led the squad to a first-place finish in the standings in 1923. Art Delaney, who pitched three years in the major leagues played for the team. After returning to the Dubs name for the 1924 season, the team became the Dubuque Ironmen for 1925. Hall of Fame baseball player Iron Joe McGinnity played for the team; the name was the Dubuque Speasmen during the 1926 season and was managed by Bill Speas, after whom the team was nicknamed. The team featured multiple players who played or who would go on to play in the major leagues: Estel Crabtree, Luther Harvel, Al Platte and Webb Schultz, they were once again the Dubs from 1924–1928. In 1927, still under manager Speas, they were the de facto league champions, finishing first in the standings.
They were the Dubuque Tigers from 1929 to 1932 and won a league championship in 1929. Numerous future and former major league players played for the team, including Otto Bluege, Paul Speraw and Biggs Wehde in 1929, Johnny Dickshot, Wally Millies and Wehde in 1930, George Caithamer, Red Lutz, Hal Trosky and Phil Weintraub in 1931, Maurice Archdeacon, Red Evans and Wehde in 1932. Following the 1932 season, the Tigers ceased to exist; the Dubuque Packers were a minor league baseball team that played in the Mississippi–Ohio Valley League from 1954–55 and the Midwest League from 1956–68 and 1974-76. The Packers won Midwest League Championships in both 1955 and 1961. After the Packers folded, the Quincy Gems moved to Dubuque in 1974 to restart baseball in Dubuque. Nicknamed "Iron Man", Hall of Famer Joe McGinnity was a player/manager for three seasons in Dubuque, beginning at age 51. In his career, McGinnity won 231 Minor League Games. Spanning 26 seasons, McGinnity threw 7,210 Innings in winning 485 games.
He went 5-8 in 1922, 15-12 in 1923. He went 6-6 in 1925, his final season to pitch, at age 54. From 1915 to 1976, Dubuque teams played at Memorial Stadium/John Petrakis Park, built in 1914. Memorial Stadium was renamed after GM of the franchise; the stadium was located before East Dubuque Bridge in Dubuque, Iowa. Its dimensions were: 340-400-340; the park was prone to flooding and its condition led to the demise of the franchise in Dubuque. The namesake of the ballpark, John Petrakis served as the GM of the franchise. Petrakis was a longtime baseball supporter in Dubuque and was instrumental in youth baseball and minor league baseball. Petrakis was recognized on a National level. In 1956, Petrakis was featured in the Saturday Evening Post and received the "Executive of the Year for minor leagues" by the Sporting News. After the demise of the original ballpark, a new field, within the Gerald McAleece Park & Recreation Complex, was named "John Petrakis Field" and dedicated on May 4, 1986; the Dubuque Packers were the subject of the documentary A Pitch in Time: The Story of the Dubuque Packers.
The documentary was directed by journalist Katlyn Gerken. Houston Astros Kansas City Royals Los Angeles Dodgers Cleveland Indians Pittsburgh Pirates Chicago White Sox They won league championships in 1955 & 1962. Baseball Reference Documentary about the Dubuque Packers
Gene Dub is a Canadian architect and former politician. Born in Edmonton, Dub is a first generation Ukrainian-Canadian. Dub created his own architecture firm, Dub Architects in 1975, served on Edmonton City Council from 1977 to 1980. Dub is noted for his award-winning residential architecture, including condo conversions, the historic restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage buildings, his most well-known building is Edmonton City Hall, completed in 1992. He is known for his 2008 competition entry to create crystalline welcome features for the City of Edmonton, narrowly defeated by city council, his 2009 proposal for a new downtown arena district, he was inducted as a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 2014. Dub Architects Alberta's Real Estate - Gene Dub Biographies of Mayors and Councillors - Edmonton Public Library
Lawrence Weston, Bristol
Lawrence Weston is a post war housing estate in north west Bristol between Henbury and Shirehampton. The estate is bounded in woods, it is situated at the edge of the Severn flood plain, directly beneath the wooded Kingsweston Hill. The industrial complex and port of Avonmouth is a mile or so west, across the flood plain. Lawrence Weston forms part of the city ward of Kingsweston. Lawrence Weston was a hamlet, a tything of the parish of Henbury, it was transformed in the late 1940s and early 1950s, when the estate was built, absorbing both the original hamlet and the neighbouring hamlet of Kings Weston. Council owned, much of the housing stock is now in private hands, it is known as "El Dub" or "L' Dub" to its inhabitants. The row of shops in Ridingleaze has been revamped and each shop is now adorned with a mural. Lawrence Weston is well known locally for its vibrant facilities for young people. There are two youth centres, a BMX track, a young people's shop called Juicy Blitz and a Youth Inclusion project.
It has a range of clubs and groups for young people. Kings Weston House and Kings Weston Roman Villa both lie near the western end of the estate. Lawrence Weston Moor is an 11.9 hectare local nature reserve leased from Bristol City Council and managed by the Avon Wildlife Trust. The drier fields are hay meadows where plants such as pepper-saxifrage are common; the wetter meadows have marsh marigold and creeping forget-me-not. The fields and old pollarded willows support birds such as reed buntings, snipe reed and sedge warblers little owls and kestrels; the rhynes are rich in water plants and provide homes for frogs and many insects, such as dragonflies. Kingsweston
Dub, King of Scotland
Dub mac Maíl Coluim, sometimes anglicised as Duff MacMalcolm, called Dén, "the Vehement" and Niger, "the Black" was king of Alba. He was son of Malcolm I and succeeded to the throne when Indulf was killed in 962. While chroniclers such as John of Fordun supplied a great deal of information on Dub's life and reign, including tales of witchcraft and treason all of them are rejected by modern historians. There are few sources for the reign of Dub, of which the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and a single entry in the Annals of Ulster are the closest to contemporary; the Chronicle records that during Dub's reign bishop Fothach, most bishop of St Andrews or of Dunkeld, died. The remaining report is of son of king Ildulb. Dub won the battle, fought "upon the ridge of Crup", in which Duchad, abbot of Dunkeld, sometimes supposed to be an ancestor of Crínán of Dunkeld, Dubdon, the mormaer of Atholl, died; the various accounts differ on. The Chronicle claims; the Latin material interpolated in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykl states that he was murdered at Forres, links this to an eclipse of the sun which can be dated to 20 July 966.
The Annals of Ulster report only: "Dub mac Maíl Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by the Scots themselves". It has been suggested that Sueno's Stone, near Forres, may be a monument to Dub, erected by his brother Kenneth II, it is presumed that Dub was killed or driven out by Cuilén, who became king after Dub's death, or by his supporters. It is related that his body was hidden under the bridge of Kinloss, the sun did not shine till it was found and buried. An eclipse on 10 July 967 may have confirmed this story. Dub left at least one son, Kenneth III. Although his descendants did not compete for the kingship of Alba after Cináed was killed in 1005, they did hold the mormaerdom of Fife; the MacDuib held the mormaerdom, earldom, until 1371. Duncan, A. A. M; the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000. Edinburgh UP, Edinburgh, 1984. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7 Annals of Ulster, part 1, at CELT The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
DUB, founded in January 2000, is a North American magazine covering urban custom car culture and features celebrities and their vehicles. The magazine launched the DUB Magazine Custom Auto Show & Concert, a nationwide car show and concert tour that spans 16 United States cities. DUB now has many licensed goods that include Jada Toys' DUB City die-cast and radio controlled vehicles, DUB Edition car accessories, Rockstar Games' Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition video game; the term "DUB" is street slang for custom wheels 20" or larger in diameter and was popularized through hip hop music. DUB was founded by Myles Kovacs, Haythem Haddad, Herman Flores, who continue to head the company located in Industry, California. Dub DUB Magazine website DUB Show Tour website Back issues
The Dub is a lost 1919 American silent comedy film directed by James Cruze and written by Edgar Franklin and Will M. Ritchey; the film stars Wallace Reid, Charles Ogle, Ralph Lewis, Raymond Hatton, Winter Hall, Nina Byron. The film was released on January 1919, by Paramount Pictures. Wallace Reid as John Craig Charles Ogle as George Markham Ralph Lewis as Frederick Blatch Raymond Hatton as Phineas Driggs Winter Hall as Burley Hadden Nina Byron as Enid Drayton Guy Oliver as Robbins Harry O'Connor as James William Elmer as Burglar Bill Clarence Geldart as Craig's Clerk The Dub on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Lantern slide