Dubbing, mixing, or re-recording is a post-production process used in filmmaking and video production in which additional or supplementary recordings are lip-synced and "mixed" with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. The process takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all the necessary tracks – dialogue, automated dialogue replacement, Foley, music – the dubbing mixers proceed to balance all of the elements and record the finished soundtrack. Dubbing is sometimes confused with ADR known as "additional dialogue replacement", "automated dialogue recording" and "looping", in which the original actors re-record and synchronise audio segments. Outside the film industry, the term "dubbing" refers to the replacement of the actor's voices with those of different performers speaking another language, called "revoicing" in the film industry. In the past, dubbing was practiced in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of audiovisual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production.
Films and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series and anime. Automated Dialog Replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. In India the process is known as "dubbing", while in the UK, it is called "post-synchronisation" or "post-sync"; the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer generated imagery or animated cartoons, is referred to as ADR although it does not replace existing dialogue. The ADR process may be used to: remove extraneous sounds such as production equipment noise, wind, or other undesirable sounds from the environment change the original lines recorded on set to clarify context improve diction or modify an accent improve comedic timing or dramatic timing correct technical issues with synchronisation use a studio-quality singing performance or provide a voice-double for actors who are poor vocalists add or remove content for legal purposes add or remove a product placement correct a misspoken line not caught during filming.
Replace foul language for TV broadcasts of a movie or other programIn conventional film production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a supervising sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film and decides which lines must be re-recorded. ADR is recorded during an ADR session; the actor the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound attempts to recreate the performance. Over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene; the ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio. The process may be recorded with mobile equipment. ADR can be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but by having them listen to the performance, since some actors believe that watching themselves act can degrade subsequent performances. Sometimes, an actor other than the original actor is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader, portrayed by David Prowse.
Other examples include: Jean Hagen provided Debbie Reynolds' voice in two scenes of Singin' in the Rain. The film's story has Reynolds' character, Kathy Seldon, dubbing the voice for Hagen's character, Lina Lamont, due to Lina's grating voice and strong New York accent. Hagen used her own normal melodious voice to portray Kathy dubbing for Lina; the film, which takes place in Hollywood as talking pictures are taking over from silent films portrays another character, Cosmo Brown, played by Donald O'Connor, as inventing the idea of using one actor to provide the voice for another. Marni Nixon provided the singing voice for the character Eliza Doolittle, otherwise played by Audrey Hepburn, in the 1964 musical film My Fair Lady. Nixon was the singing voices for Deborah Kerr in The King and I and Natalie Wood in West Side Story, among many others. Ray Park, who acted as Darth Maul from Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace had his voice dubbed over by Peter Serafinowicz Frenchmen Philippe Noiret and Jacques Perrin, who were dubbed into Italian for Cinema Paradiso Austrian bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger, dubbed for Hercules in New York Argentine boxer Carlos Monzón, dubbed by a professional actor for the lead in the drama La Mary Gert Frobe, who played Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, dubbed by Michael Collins Andie MacDowell's Jane, in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, dubbed by Glenn Close Tom Hardy, who portrayed Bane in The Dark Knight Rises, re-dubbed half of his own lines for ease of viewer comprehension Harvey Keitel was dubbed by Roy Dotrice in post production for Saturn 3 Dave Coulier dubbed replacement of swear words for Richard Pryor in multiple TV versions of his movies The tasks involved are performed by three different agents in the dubbing process: translation take segmentation insertion of dubbing symbols lip-sync dialogue writing and the emulation of natural discourseSometimes the translator performs all five tasks.
In other cases, the translator just sub
Quindaro Townsite is an archaeological district in the vicinity of North 27th Street and the Missouri Pacific Railroad tracks in Kansas City, Kansas. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 22, 2002; the settlement was established by abolitionists in late 1856, with construction starting in 1857. The town was settled by migrants aided by the New England Emigrant Aid Company, who were trying to help secure Kansas as a free territory. One of a number of villages hugging the narrow bank of the Missouri River under the bluffs, the town was a free state port-of-entry for abolitionist forces of Kansas, it was established as part of the resistance to stop the westward spread of slavery. Quindaro's people aided escaped slaves from Missouri and linked them to the Underground Railroad. After Kansas was established as a free state, there was less unique need for the port and the growth slowed in the commercial district. At the same time the economy in Kansas suffered from over-speculation.
In 1862 classes were started for children of former slaves, in 1865 a group of men chartered Quindaro Freedman's School, the first black school west of the Mississippi River. Former slaves continued to gather in the residential community, which became African American by the late 19th century; the area was incorporated into Kansas City in the early 20th century. The lower commercial townsite was abandoned and became overgrown; the townsite was rediscovered during archaeological study in the late 1980s, which revealed many aspects of the 1850s town. Quindaro was founded in the 1850s by abolitionists, settlers sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Society and freedmen; the Society had aided more than 1,200 settlers in their migration, hoping to secure Kansas as a free territory. The decision was to be left to the vote of the territory's residents. Quindaro was one of several competing small ports on the Missouri River. Planners seeking to establish a Free-State port noted the site's advantages: At a point six miles above the mouth of the Kansas river, on Wyandotte Indian land, they found a fine natural rock ledge where the river ran along the bank six to twelve feet deep, making a convenient landing.
Plenty of wood and rock were at hand for building purposes and fertile land was adjacent. Abelard Guthrie, credited as the founder who purchased land for the settlement, named it after his wife Quindaro Nancy Quindaro Brown Guthrie, she had persuaded them to sell land to her husband. Construction started in January 1857, the town soon contained numerous stone houses and starts of several businesses, its sawmill was the largest in Kansas. The lower townsite near the river was the commercial core, most residences were higher on the bluff, at the upper townsite. In the first year there were 100 buildings completed, with many of stone and brick, "including hotels, Dry Goods and Grocery stores, a Church and School house."John Morgan Walden was one of many young men attracted to Quindaro, where he founded a Free-Soil paper called Quindaro Chindowan. The name Chindowan was a Wyandot word for "leader". Walden was a missionary to freedmen and became a bishop in the Methodist Church. After the Kansas–Nebraska Act was passed in 1854, a western branch of the Underground Railroad was developed in Kansas.
Quindaro was linked to the Lane Trail. It provided a new route of escape for slaves from Missouri, it was most important in the years before Kansas was established as a free state in 1861. Quindaro became a legendary port for fugitive slaves and blacks arriving as contraband during the American Civil War. Clarina Nichols was a writer for the Quindaro Chindowan, a friend of Susan B. Anthony and fellow crusader for the rights of children, she was an important Station Master of the Underground Railroad in Quindaro. She left a letter telling about a time when a Freedom Seeker named Caroline was brought to her house. Caroline's slave master and other slave hunters were looking for her. Clarina tells of hiding Caroline in an empty cistern overnight and sending her on the road North as soon as it was safe. Due to economic pressures that afflicted much of Kansas, the commercial townsite declined. Later-arriving African-American residents settled in the upper town on the bluff; the economy declined because of over-speculation in Kansas, in 1862 the legislature withdrew the town charter, putting the town company out of business.
Difficulties in reaching the interior from below the bluff hampered commerce, changes after the war reduced the need for the port. In addition, the topography was difficult, surrounding Wyandot land limited expansion, problems with land titles inhibited growth. After being abandoned, the early lower commercial townsite became overgrown, with some areas covered by earth falling from the bluffs. In the early 20th century, all of the townsite was incorporated into Kansas City Even before the war ended, Eben Blachly, a Presbyterian, in 1862 started classes in his home for the children of former slaves; the Reverend Eben Blachly had been a farmer in Dane County, one of the early pioneers who had migrated from Pennsylvania. According to Blachly family legend, he was nearly hung as a "northern spy" while trying to find his oldest son, a Union soldier, captured by the Confederates. With the noose around his neck he asked to say some final words, a wish, granted by the rebels. After praying out loud for the welfare of their souls, they took the noose off his neck and sent him home to Wisconsin.
Leslie John "Les" Perry was an Australian long-distance runner. Perry finished sixth in the 5000 m event at the 1952 Summer Olympics, he ran the marathon at the 1956 Summer Olympics and 10,000 m in 1952, but did not complete both races. He was the national champion in the 3 miles in 1949–1953, placed seventh in this event at the 1950 British Empire Games. After the completion of his international career, Perry was instrumental in the establishment and success of the Ringwood Athletics Club. Leslie Perry at the Australian Olympic Committee Leslie John Perry at the International Olympic Committee Leslie John Perry at the Olympic Channel Leslie John Perry at the Commonwealth Games Federation