Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages; some countries ban such activities but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014. Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, improves sociability. In higher doses, it causes drunkenness, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, alcoholism. Alcohol is one of the most used recreational drugs in the world with about 33% of people being current drinkers; as of 2016 women on average drink 0.7 drinks and males 1.7 drinks a day. In 2015, among Americans, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, 70% had drunk it in the last year, 56% in the last month.
Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. Many animals consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash, it is made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".
Mead is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%; the defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Pulque is the Mesoamerican fermented drink made from the "honey water" of maguey cacti; the drink distilled from pulque is mescal. Wine is a fermented beverage produced from sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process, resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. "Fruit wines" are made from fruits other than grapes, such as cherries, or apples. Sake is a popular example of "rice wine". Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.
Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%; the term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones. Vodka, baijiu, whiskey and soju are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with fusel alcohols in applejack. Fortified wine is wine, such as sherry, to which a distilled beverage has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, madeira, marsala and the aromatized wine vermouth. Rectified spirit called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol, purified by means of "rectification"; the term neutral refers to the spirit's lack of the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity.
Rectified spirit lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation. Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV, it is used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants, it is used in mixed drinks and tinctures, as a household solvent. Alcohol has significant negative health effects, including increased risk of cancer. Negative effects are related to the amount consumed with no safe lower limit seen. Wine, distilled spirits and other alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and alcohol consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person; the effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine, beer or spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an indiv
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Mons is a Walloon city and municipality, the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut. The Mons municipality includes the former communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Hyon, Obourg, Ciply, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Nouvelles, Saint-Denis, Saint-Symphorien and Villers-Saint-Ghislain. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons was the European Capital of Culture in 2015; the first signs of activity in the region of Mons are found at Spiennes, where some of the best flint tools in Europe were found dating from the Neolithic period. When Julius Caesar arrived in the region in the 1st century BC, the region was settled by the Nervii, a Belgian tribe. A castrum was built in Roman times. In the 7th century, Saint Ghislain and two of his disciples built an oratory or chapel dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul near the Mons hill, at a place called Ursidongus, now known as Saint-Ghislain. Soon after, Saint Waltrude, daughter of one of Clotaire II’s intendants, came to the oratory and was proclaimed a saint upon her death in 688.
She was canonized in 1039. Like Ath, its neighbour to the north-west, Mons was made a fortified city by Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut in the 12th century; the population grew trade flourished, several commercial buildings were erected near the Grand’Place. The 12th century saw the appearance of the first town halls; the city had 4,700 inhabitants by the end of the 13th century. Mons succeeded Valenciennes as the capital of the county of Hainaut in 1295 and grew to 8,900 inhabitants by the end of the 15th century. In the 1450s, Matheus de Layens took over the construction of the Saint Waltrude church from Jan Spijkens and restored the town hall. In 1515, Charles V took an oath in Mons as Count of Hainaut. In this period of its history, the city became the target of various occupations, starting in May 1572 with the Protestant takeover by Louis of Nassau, who had hoped to clear the way for the French Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny to oppose Spanish rule. After the murder of de Coligny during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the Duke of Alba took control of Mons in September 1572 in the name of the Catholic King of Spain.
This spelled the arrest of many of its inhabitants. On 8 April 1691, after a nine-month siege, Louis XIV’s army stormed the city, which again suffered heavy casualties. From 1697 to 1701, Mons was alternately Austrian. After being under French control from 1701 to 1709, the Dutch army gained the upper hand in the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1715, Mons returned to Austria under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, but the French did not give up easily. After the Battle of Jemappes, the Hainaut area was annexed to France and Mons became the capital of the Jemappes district. Following the fall of the First French Empire in 1814, King William I of the Netherlands fortified the city heavily. In 1830, Belgium gained its independence and the decision was made to dismantle fortified cities such as Mons and Namur; the actual removal of fortifications only happened in the 1860s, allowing the creation of large boulevards and other urban projects. The Industrial Revolution and coal mining made Mons a center of heavy industry, which influenced the culture and image of the Borinage region as a whole.
It was to become an integral part of the industrial backbone of Wallonia. On 17 April 1893, between Mons and Jemappes, seven strikers were killed by the civic guard at the end of the Belgian general strike of 1893; the proposed law on universal suffrage was approved the day after by the Belgian Parliament. This general strike was one of the first general strikes in an industrial country. On 23–24 August 1914, Mons was the location of the Battle of Mons—the first battle fought by the British Army in World War I; the British were forced to retreat with just over 1,600 casualties, the town remained occupied by the Germans until its liberation by the Canadian Corps during the final days of the war. Within the front entrance to the City hall, there are several memorial placards related to the WW1 battles and in particular, one has the inscription: During the Second World War, as an important industrial centre, the city was bombed and several skirmishes took place in September 1944 between the American troops and the retreating German forces.
After the war, most industries went into decline. NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe was relocated in Casteau, a village near Mons, from Roquencourt on the outskirts of Paris after France's withdrawal from the military structure of the alliance in 1967; the relocation of SHAPE to this particular region of Belgium was a political decision, based in large part on the depressed economic conditions of the area at the time with the view to bolstering the economy of the region. A riot in the prison of Mons took place in April 2006 after prisoner complaints concerning living conditions and treatment. Today, the city is commercial centre; the Doudou is the name of a week-long series of festivities or Ducasse, which originates from the 14th century and takes place every year on Trinity Sunday. Highlights include: The entrusting of the reliquary of Saint Waltrude to the mayor of the city on the eve of the proc
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Filtered beer refers to any ale, lager, or fermented malt beverage in which the sediment left over from the brewing process has been removed. Ancient techniques included the use of straw mats, cloth, or straws, left some sediment in the drink. Modern filtration, introduced at the end of the 19th century, uses a mechanical process that can remove all sediment, including yeast, from the beer; such beer is known as bright beer and requires force carbonation before bottling or serving from a keg. In the United Kingdom, a beer, filtered in the brewery is known as "brewery-conditioned", as opposed to unfiltered cask ales. Beer is mechanically filtered by flowing the beer through layers of filter material. Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids left in the beer, to filters fine enough to strain colour and body from the beer; the normal filtration ratings are defined as fine or sterile. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer, but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer.
Fine filtration yields a beer, nearly transparent and not cloudy, although observation of the scattering of light through the beer will reveal the presence of some small particles. As its name implies, sterile filtration is fine enough that all microorganisms in the beer have been removed. Beer, filtered is held in "bright tanks" at the brewery before bottling or additional treatment. A beer, filtered is stable, so all conditioning has stopped - as such it is termed "brewery-conditioned". Beers which are in contact with the yeast are known as cask-conditioned. Sheet filters use pre-made media and are straightforward; the sheets are manufactured to allow only particles smaller than a given size through, the brewer is free to choose how finely to filter the beer. The sheets are placed into the filtering frame and used to filter the beer; the sheets can be flushed if the filter becomes blocked, the sheets are disposable and are replaced between filtration sessions. The sheets contain powdered filtration media to aid in filtration.
Pre-made filters have two sides: one with loose holes, the other with tight holes. Flow goes from the side with loose holes to the side with the tight holes, with the intent that large particles get stuck in the large holes while leaving enough room around the particles and filter medium for smaller particles to go through and get stuck in tighter holes. Sheets are sold in nominal ratings, 90% of particles larger than the nominal rating are caught by the sheet. For sterile filtration, a typical size is less. Filters that use a powder medium are more complicated to operate, but can filter much more beer before needing to be regenerated. Common media include diatomaceous earth, or kieselguhr, perlite. Though all filtering is done cold, the term cold filtering is used for a filtering process in which the beer is chilled so the protein molecules clump together and are easier to filter out. Breweries tend to differentiate cold filtered beers from those; when a beer has been left to allow the yeast to settle at the bottom of the vessel in which it is held, it has "dropped bright".
Finings can be introduced during the production of beer in order to induce it to drop bright more readily. Beer filtration is common on a small scale, it is not uncommon for homebrewers to filter their own beer. While they lack the sophisticated equipment of large-scale breweries, they can achieve satisfactory results using canister filters with successive, replaceable filter cartridges or pads. Most homebrewers will only filter their beer down to 5 µm to remove the majority of yeast and sediment, although some may filter their beer down to 1.0 or 0.5 µm. Anything smaller introduces risk of removing flavor and beneficial compounds
Beer in Belgium
Beer in Belgium varies from pale lager to amber ales, lambic beers, Flemish red ales, sour brown ales, strong ales and stouts. In 2016, there were 224 active breweries in Belgium, including international companies, such as AB InBev, traditional breweries including Trappist monasteries. On average, Belgians drink 84 liters of beer each year, down from around 200 each year in 1900. Most beers are bought or served in bottles, rather than cans, every beer has its own branded, sometimes uniquely shaped, glass. In 2016, UNESCO inscribed Belgian beer culture on their list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity. Brewing in Belgium dates back to at least the 12th century. Under the Catholic Church's permission, local French and Flemish abbeys brewed and distributed beer as a fund raising method; the low-alcohol beer of that time was preferred as a sanitary option to available drinking water. What are now traditional, artisanal brewing methods evolved, under abbey supervision, over the next seven centuries.
The Trappist monasteries that now brew beer in Belgium were occupied in the late 18th century by monks fleeing the French Revolution. However, the first Trappist brewery in Belgium did not start operation until 10 December 1836 fifty years after the Revolution; that beer was for the monks and is described as "dark and sweet." The first recorded sale of beer was on 1 June 1861. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a beer termed. Other kinds of beer brewed in Ghent were klein bier, dubbel bier, dubbele clauwaert and dusselaer. In Belgium, four types of fermentation methods are used for the brewing of beer, unique in the world. However, for good understanding of labels of Belgian beer and reference works about Belgian beer use different terms for the fermentation methods based on archaic or traditional jargon: Spontaneous fermentation with beers that are unique in Europe, "lambic" and the derived faro and kriek beers Warm fermentation is referred to as top or high fermentation for Trappist beers, white beers, most other special beers mixed fermentation for the type'old-brown' beers Cool fermentation is referred to as low fermentation for lager or pilsner Belgian beers have a range of colours, brewing methods, alcohol levels.
Beers brewed in Trappist monasteries are termed Trappist beers. For a beer to qualify for Trappist certification, the brewery must be in a monastery, the monks must play a role in its production and the policies and the profits from the sale must be used to support the monastery or social programs outside. Only twelve monasteries meet these qualifications, six of which are in Belgium, two in the Netherlands, one in Austria, one in the United States, one in Italy and one in England. Trappist beer is a controlled term of origin: it tells where the beers come from, it is not the name of a beer style. Beyond saying they are warm fermented, Trappist beers have little in common stylistically; the current Belgian Trappist producers are: Achel sells Achel 5 Blonde, Achel 5 Brune, Achel 8 Blonde, Achel 8 Brune, Extra Blonde, Extra Brune. Chimay sells Red Label, White Label and Blue Label, Chimay dorée Gold cap. Orval sells a "unique" dry-hopped 6.2% amber beer. Rochefort sells three dark beers, "6". "8" and "10".
Westmalle sells Dubbel and Tripel, Westvleteren sells Blue Cap and Yellow Cap. In addition to the above, a lower-strength beer is sometimes brewed for consumption by the brothers or sold on site; the designation "abbey beers" applied to any monastic or monastic-style beer. After introduction of an official Trappist beer designation by the International Trappist Association in 1997, it came to mean products similar in style or presentation to monastic beers. In other words, an Abbey beer may be: produced by a non-Trappist monastery—e.g. Benedictine; the requirements for registration under the logo include the monastery having control over certain aspects of the commercial operation, a proportion of profits going to the abbey or to its designated charities. Monastic orders other than the Trappists can be and are included in this arrangement; the "Abbey beer" logo and quality label is no longer used for beers given the name of a fictitious abbey, a vaguely monastic branding or a saint name without mentioning a specific monastery.
Some brewers may produce abbey-style beers such as dubbel or tripel, using such names but will refrain from using the term Abbey beer in their branding. What connoisseurs now recognize as Trappist breweries began operations in 1838. Several monasteries, maintained "working" breweries for 500+ years before the French regime disrupted religious life; some Abbey beers such as Affligem Abbey, whose name now appears on beers made by the Heineke