Motorcycle testing and measurement
Motorcycle testing and measurement includes a range of more than two dozen statistics giving the specifications of the motorcycle, the actual performance, expressed by such things as the output of the engine, the top speed or acceleration of the motorcycle. Most parameters are uncontroversial and claims made by manufacturers are accepted without verification; these might include simple measurements like rake, trail, or wheelbase, or basic features, such as the type of brakes or ignition system. Other measurements are doubted or subject to misunderstandings, the motorcycling press serves as an independent check on sometimes unrealistic sales and marketing claims. Many of these numbers are subject to variable methods of measurements, or disagreement as to the definition of the statistic; the parameters most in contention for motorcycles are the weight, the engine output, the overall performance acceleration, top speed, fuel economy. With electric motorcycles and scooters, the range between charges is a pivotal measurement.
Motorcycle speed tests at high speeds, are prone to variation due to human error, limitations in equipment, atmospheric factors like wind and altitude. The published results of two otherwise identical tests could vary depending on whether the result is reported with or without industry standard correction factors calculated to compensate for test conditions. Rounding errors are possible as well when converting to/from kilometers per hour. With power being the product of force and speed, a motorcycle's power and torque ratings will be indicative of its performance. Reported numbers for power and torque may however vary from one source to another due to inconsistencies in how testing equipment is calibrated, the method of using that equipment, the conditions during the test, the location that force and speed are being measured at; the power of the engine alone called crankshaft power, or power at the crankshaft, will be greater than the power measured at the rear wheel. The amount of power lost due to friction in the transmission depends on the details of the design and construction.
Generalizing, a chain drive motorcycle may have some 5-20% less power at the rear wheel than at the crankshaft, while a shaft drive model may lose a little more than that due to greater friction. While the crankshaft power excludes these transmission losses, still the measurement is made elsewhere in the drive-train at the rear wheel. A correction for the transmission losses is applied to the measured values to obtain the crankshaft values. For motorcycles, the reported power and torque numbers pertain to the crankshaft. In directive 92/61/EEC of 30 June 1992 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheel motor vehicles, it is referred to as "maximum engine power", manufacturers use similar terms; this convention may have come from the pre-unit construction, wherein the crankshaft was directly accessible for measurements, the gearbox might have come from a different manufacturer. However, when the engineering details of the transmission are known, the losses therein can be quantified & corrected for.
Explicit guidance on the homologation measurements and transmission corrections is given in directive 95/1/EC. A main source of ambiguity and differences comes from the conditions; these conditions include details like atmospheric conditions, tire pressure, but most importantly: the conditions of the motorcycle itself. Examples thereof are: was the alternator fitted?. One would hope that manufacturers would test their motorcycles in normal running order, so the condition that they are sold in, for which they obtained type-approval, but this is not always the case. Ducati, for instance, has chosen to publish more positive values, stating that "Technical data referring to power and torque was measured on an engine test stand at Ducati", their published values are 5% higher than the homologation values, in normal running order. Motorcycle weight is expressed in three ways: gross vehicle weight rating, dry weight and wet weight. GVWR is the maximum total weight of the motorcycle including all consumables, the rider, any passenger, any cargo.
It is well-understood and standardized, being defined by law and overseen by agencies such as the US Department of Transportation. In contrast and dry weight are unstandardized measurements that refer to the weight of the motorcycle without rider, passengers or cargo, either with or without a varying set of fluids such as fuel or lubricants, the battery. Wet and dry weight are used to make comparisons between different motorcycles, because all else being equal, a lighter motorcycle will perform and handle better than a heavier one; the difference between GVWR and wet weight is how much the motorcycle can safely carry, including the rider and other load. As its weight changes during riding, the dry weight of a motorcycle excludes the gasoline. Dry weight, in this sense, can directly be used for comparison with weight limits, which pertain to the motorcycle in operating condition, it is part of the homologation tests, it is found on the EC Certificate of Conformity as unladen mass. This dry weight could be useful in comparing different models, with different fuel tank capacities.
However, manufacturers may exclude some or all of the following: engine oil, coolant, or brake fluid, this makes such a comparison difficult. When any of these is exclu
Ducati Monster 696
The Ducati Monster 696 is a standard or "naked" motorcycle, made by Ducati from 2008 through 2014. Since its launch in 1993, Ducati had sold over 200,000 Monsters, which at one time amounted to 60% of Ducati's production; the initial Monster has remained so during its long life. Ducati's "less-is-more" rationale of the Monster range aimed to combine high performance in a compact motorcycle. Ducati updated the Monster range, with redesigned components to improve performance and appearance; the engine is the "Desmodue", a 90° L-twin, 696 cc 58.8 kW air-cooled engine with desmodromic valve actuation. A slipper clutch prevents locking of the rear wheel through clumsy down-shifting. Although Ducatis use a dry clutch, this model has a 21-plate oil-bath "wet clutch" which weighs less, gives quieter operation, needs less maintenance; the Monster has a lightweight aluminum subframe. The claimed dry weight is 161 kg; the seat height is 770 mm, which may make it easier for some riders to plant their feet on the ground.
This is a benefit for inexperienced motorcyclists. The Monster's brake system components including master cylinders and discs are supplied by Brembo; the front radially mounted 4 piston Brembo p4.32 calipers. The 245 mm rear solid disc have a two-piston p34 caliper. Anti-lock braking system is optional. Ducati Monster 696 review Road test of the Ducati Monster 696
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
A V-twin engine called a V2 engine, is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine where the cylinders are arranged in a V configuration. Although associated with motorcycles, V-twin engines are produced for the power equipment industry and are found in riding lawnmowers, small tractors and electric generators. Gottlieb Daimler built a V-twin engine in 1889, it was used to power boats. It was used in Daimler's second automobile, the 1889 Stahlradwagen; the engine was manufactured under licence in France by Panhard et Levassor. In November 1902 the Princeps AutoCar Co advertised a V-twin engined motorcycle, in 1903 V-Twins were produced by other companies, including the 90 degree XL-ALL. In 1903, Glenn Curtiss in the United States, NSU in Germany began building V-twin engines for use in their respective motorcycles. Peugeot, which had used Panhard-built Daimler V-twins in its first cars, made its own V-twin engines in the early 20th century. A Norton motorcycle powered by a Peugeot V-twin engine won the first Isle of Man Tourist Trophy twin-cylinder race in 1907.
Most V-twin engines have a single crankpin, shared by both connecting rods. The connecting rods may sit side-by-side with offset cylinders, or they may be "fork & blade" items with cylinders in the same plane without an offset; some notable exceptions include the Moto Guzzi 500cc that Stanley Woods rode to win the 1935 Isle of Man TT. A two-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged at any angle greater than zero degrees and less than 180 degrees may be classified as a V-twin, although an angle that approaches zero is not practical. Despite Ducati referring to its 90 degree twin cylinder engine as an "L-twin"—with the front cylinder nearly horizontal and the rear cylinder vertical, there is no technical distinction between V-twin and L-twin engines. Assuming correct counterweighting, a 90 degree V-twin will achieve perfect primary balance. However, the 90 degree layout will produce an uneven firing interval, with the second cylinder firing 270 degrees of crankshaft rotation after the first cylinder, followed by 450 degrees of rotation before the first cylinder again fires.
A V-twin with an angle of less than 90 degree cannot achieve perfect primary balance unless offset crankpins, a balance shaft, or both are employed to counteract reciprocating forces. However, the firing interval will not be as uneven as with the 90 degree layout; the terms longitudinal engine and transverse engine are most used to refer to the crankshaft orientation, some sources, most prominently Moto Guzzi, use the terminology in the opposite way. A Moto Guzzi Technical Services representative tried to explain to LA Times columnist Susan Carpenter that Moto Guzzi engines are "called'transverse' because the engine is mounted with the crankshaft oriented front to back instead of left to right." In spite of this, it could be assumed that those who call V-twin motorcycle engines "transverse" when they are mounted with the crankshaft front-to-back and the cylinders sticking out the sides are saying that to them, the engine's axis is the line passing from one cylinder to the other, at a right angle to the crankshaft, rather than going by the crankshaft's axis.
Technical sources, such as V. Cossleter's Motorcycle Dynamics, or Gaetaeno Cocco's Motorcycle Design and Technology are careful not to use the terms "longitudinal engine" or "transverse engine," but rather to specify that they mark the engine's orientation based on the crankshaft, so they will say "transverse crankshaft engine" or "longitudinal crankshaft engine", or, conversely, "transversely mounted cylinders" in referenced to the classic BMW orientation, with a longitudinal crankshaft and cylinders at a right angle to the axis of the frame; the engine can be mounted in transverse crankshaft position as on Harley-Davidsons and many recent Japanese motorcycles. This layout produces a twin cylinder motorcycle engine, little or no wider than a single. A narrower engine can be mounted lower in the frame with handling benefits. A disadvantage of this configuration for air-cooled engines is that the two cylinders receive different air-flows and cooling of the rear cylinder tends to be restricted.
Cooling problems are somewhat mitigated by having all "four" sides of each cylinder exposed to air flow. This differs from a parallel-twin cylinder engine which has a distinct front and sides, but the inside of each cylinder is not exposed to airflow as the cylinders are joined together with a cam chain running up through the block in-between the cylinders; some transverse V-twins use a single carburettor in the middle of the V-angle to feed both cylinders. While this allows an economy of parts, it creates further cooling problems for the rear cylinder by placing its hot exhaust port and pipe at the back of the cylinder, where it may be exposed to less cooling airflow; some cooling strategies of transverse-crankshaft 90° V-twins The longitudinal crankshaft two-cylinder V as seen on Moto-Guzzis and some Hondas is less common. This orientation is suited to shaft drive, eliminating the need for a 90° bevel gear at the transmission end of the shaft. A longitudinal crankshaft engine fits neatly into a typical motorcycle frame, leaving ample room for the transmission, cooling is facilitated by cylinder heads and exhausts protruding into the air stream.
Pierre Terblanche is a South African motorcycle designer born in 1956 in Uitenhage, Eastern Cape. He felt the need to move into the design world. After moving to Germany and working with Volkswagen design he worked at Cagiva's Research Center at San Marino under the direction of Massimo Tamburini; when Cagiva decided to sell Ducati to US-based Texas Pacific Group, Pierre Terblanche chose to follow Ducati. In December 2007, he left Ducati to pursue other interests believing that he should be a designer, not a manager, he has designed boats for the South African shipyard Bobkat. Subsequently, Pierre Terblanche worked for Piaggio on the Moto Guzzi and other brands, along with former colleague Miguel Angel Galluzzi who designed the Ducati Monster. Terblanche left Piaggio to join Norton Motorcycle Company in January 2011. In early 2013, it was announced that Terblanche had joined Confederate Motors in Alabama, United States, as head of product development, in August 2014 his first Confederate design, the X132 Hellcat Speedster, was shown.
In late 2014, Terblanche left Confederate to join Royal Enfield in India. After working for 20 months at Royal Enfield, on August 2, 2016 Terblanche resigned from his post for reasons unknown. Terblanche designed the following motorcycles: Ducati 888 Royal Enfield Himalayan Cagiva 600 Canyon Cagiva 900 Gran Canyon Ducati Multistrada Ducati Hypermotard Ducati Supermono 1999–2007 Ducati SuperSport Ducati MH900e Ducati 749/999 Ducati SportClassics Moto Guzzi Concepts Eicma 2014 Confederate X132 Hellcat Speedster
Electronic throttle control
Electronic throttle control is an automobile technology which electronically "connects" the accelerator pedal to the throttle, replacing a mechanical linkage. A typical ETC system consists of three major components: an accelerator pedal module, a throttle valve that can be opened and closed by an electric motor, a powertrain or engine control module; the ECM is a type of electronic control unit, an embedded system that employs software to determine the required throttle position by calculations from data measured by other sensors, including the accelerator pedal position sensors, engine speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, cruise control switches. The electric motor is used to open the throttle valve to the desired angle via a closed-loop control algorithm within the ECM; the benefits of electronic throttle control are unnoticed by most drivers because the aim is to make the vehicle power-train characteristics seamlessly consistent irrespective of prevailing conditions, such as engine temperature and accessory loads.
Electronic throttle control is working'behind the scenes' to improve the ease with which the driver can execute gear changes and deal with the dramatic torque changes associated with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Electronic throttle control facilitates the integration of features such as cruise control, traction control, stability control, precrash systems and others that require torque management, since the throttle can be moved irrespective of the position of the driver's accelerator pedal. ETC provides some benefit in areas such as air-fuel ratio control, exhaust emissions and fuel consumption reduction, works in concert with other technologies such as gasoline direct injection. A criticism of the early ETC implementations was that they were "overruling" driver decisions. Nowadays, the vast majority of drivers have no idea. Much of the engineering involved with drive-by-wire technologies including ETC deals with failure and fault management. Many ETC systems have redundant pedal and throttle position sensors and controller redundancy as complex as independent microprocessors with independently written software within a control module whose calculations are compared to check for possible errors and faults.
There is no mechanical linkage between the accelerator pedal and the throttle valve with electronic throttle control. Instead, the position of the throttle valve is controlled by the ETC software via the electric motor, but just opening or closing the throttle valve by sending a new signal to the electric motor is an open loop condition and leads to inaccurate control. Thus, most if not all current ETC systems use closed loop feedback systems, such as PID control, whereby the ECU tells the throttle to open or close a certain amount; the throttle position sensor are continually read and the software makes appropriate adjustments to reach the desired amount of engine power. There are two primary types of throttle position sensors: a potentiometer or a non-contact sensor Hall Effect sensor. A potentiometer is a satisfactory way for non-critical applications such as volume control on a radio, but as it has a wiper contact rubbing against a resistance element and wear between the wiper and the resistor can cause erratic readings.
The more reliable solution is the magnetic coupling, which makes no physical contact, so will never be subject to failing by wear. This is an insidious failure. All cars having a TPS have what is known as a'limp-home-mode'; when the car goes into the limp-home-mode it is because the accelerator and engine control computer and the throttle are not talking to each other in a way that they can understand. The engine control computer shuts down the signal to the throttle position motor and a set of springs in the throttle set it to a fast idle, fast enough to get the transmission in gear but not so fast that driving may be dangerous. Software or electronic failures within the ETC have been suspected by some to be responsible for alleged incidents of unintended acceleration. A series of investigations by the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration were unable to get to the bottom of all of the reported incidents of unintended acceleration in 2002 and model year Toyota and Lexus vehicles.
A February 2011 report issued by a team from NASA did not rule out software malfunctions as a potential cause. In October 2013, the first jury to hear evidence about Toyota's source code found Toyota liable for the death of a passenger in a September 2007 unintended acceleration collision in Oklahoma
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion. In a reciprocating engine, it translates reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion. In order to do the conversion between two motions, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach, it is connected to a flywheel to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal. The earliest hand-operated cranks appeared in China during the Han Dynasty, they were used for silk-reeling, hemp-spinning, for the agricultural winnowing fan, in the water-powered flour-sifter, for hydraulic-powered metallurgic bellows, in the well windlass.
The rotary winnowing fan increased the efficiency of separating grain from husks and stalks. However, the potential of the crank of converting circular motion into reciprocal motion never seems to have been realized in China, the crank was absent from such machines until the turn of the 20th century. Al-Jazari described a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine in two of his water-raising machines, his twin-cylinder pump incorporated a crankshaft, including both the crank and shaft mechanisms. The 15th century saw the introduction of cranked rack-and-pinion devices, called cranequins, which were fitted to the crossbow's stock as a means of exerting more force while spanning the missile weapon. In the textile industry, cranked reels for winding skeins of yarn were introduced. Around 1480, the early medieval rotary grindstone was improved with a crank mechanism. Cranks mounted on push-carts first appear in a German engraving of 1589. Crankshafts were described by Leonardo da Vinci and a Dutch farmer and windmill owner by the name Cornelis Corneliszoon van Uitgeest in 1592.
His wind-powered sawmill used a crankshaft to convert a windmill's circular motion into a back-and-forward motion powering the saw. Corneliszoon was granted a patent for his crankshaft in 1597. From the 16th century onwards, evidence of cranks and connecting rods integrated into machine design becomes abundant in the technological treatises of the period: Agostino Ramelli's The Diverse and Artifactitious Machines of 1588 depicts eighteen examples, a number that rises in the Theatrum Machinarum Novum by Georg Andreas Böckler to 45 different machines. Cranks were common on some machines in the early 20th century. Reciprocating piston engines use cranks to convert the linear piston motion into rotational motion. Internal combustion engines of early 20th century automobiles were started with hand cranks, before electric starters came into general use; the 1918 Reo owner's manual describes how to hand crank the automobile: First: Make sure the gear shifting lever is in neutral position. Second: The clutch pedal is unlatched and the clutch engaged.
The brake pedal is pushed forward as far as possible setting brakes on the rear wheel. Third: See that spark control lever, the short lever located on top of the steering wheel on the right side, is back as far as possible toward the driver and the long lever, on top of the steering column controlling the carburetor, is pushed forward about one inch from its retarded position. Fourth: Turn ignition switch to point marked "B" or "M" Fifth: Set the carburetor control on the steering column to the point marked "START." Be sure there is gasoline in the carburetor. Test for this by pressing down on the small pin projecting from the front of the bowl until the carburetor floods. If it fails to flood it shows that the fuel is not being delivered to the carburetor properly and the motor cannot be expected to start. See instructions on page 56 for filling the vacuum tank. Sixth: When it is certain the carburetor has a supply of fuel, grasp the handle of starting crank, push in endwise to engage ratchet with crank shaft pin and turn over the motor by giving a quick upward pull.
Never push down, because if for any reason the motor should kick back, it would endanger the operator. Large engines are multicylinder to reduce pulsations from individual firing strokes, with more than one piston attached to a complex crankshaft. Many small engines, such as those found in mopeds or garden machinery, are single cylinder and use only a single piston, simplifying crankshaft design. A crankshaft is subjected to enormous stresses equivalent of several tonnes of force; the crankshaft is connected to the fly-wheel, the engine block, using bearings on the main journals, to the pistons via their respective con-rods. An engine loses up to 75% of its generated energy in the form of friction and vibration in the crankcase and piston area; the remaining losses occur in blow by. The crankshaft has a linear axis about which it rotates with several bearing journals riding on replaceable bearings held in the engine block; as the crankshaft undergoes a great deal of sideways load from each cylinder in a multicylinder engine, it must be supported by several such bearings, not just one at each end