Countess Palatine Eleonora Catherine of Zweibrücken
Eleonora Catherine of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken, was a cousin and foster sister of Queen Christina of Sweden and sister of King Charles X of Sweden. After her brother's accession to the throne and her siblings were all considered royal princesses and princes of Sweden; as the wife of Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Eschwege, she was by marriage Landgravine of Hesse-Eschwege, after her husband's death acted as regent and administrator of his lands. Eleonora was born at Stegeborg Palace in Östergötland, Sweden to Princess Catharina of Sweden and John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg, her mother was an elder half-sister of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and the firstborn daughter of King Charles IX. Her parents, who were second cousins, had lived in Sweden since 1622, Eleonora and her siblings, including her sister Maria Eufrosyne, grew up in Sweden as foster siblings of their cousin, Queen Christina of Sweden. Eleonora was only about seven months older than Christina and had the same teacher, Johannes Matthiæ.
The negotiations concerning her marriage with Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Eschwege, son of Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, started in 1643. The landgrave was nine years her senior; the negotiation process was difficult, but completed in June 1646. She was granted a fortune of 20,000 gulden by her father; the marriage took place at Tre Kronor in Stockholm on 6 September 1646. After the wedding, Eleonora confessed before her husband, "on her knees", that she had had an affair with a French lute-player and actor, named Beschon, from the French court theatre of Antoine de Beaulieu, was pregnant with his child. Frederick decided to act like nothing happened and hide the matter. Beschon wrote a composition to Eleonora which he sent her along with a letter dated 28 February 1647, but she gave it to her brother. In 1648, she referred to the queen's head lady-in-waiting Margareta Brahe as her "Dearest Protection" because Margareta Brahe had defended her when she gave birth to an illegitimate child.
The marriage has been described as unhappy. Frederick took part in the war of his brother-in-law in Poland, where he was shot in 1655. Eleonora never remarried, it is said she was too embarrassed by the scandal with Beschon to return to the Swedish court, so she preferred to live in her fief Osterholz, where she founded a pharmacy and hired the first teacher and doctor of the town. Eleonora was the regent of her husband's possessions in the Holy Roman Empire. Eleonora sent her daughter Juliana to be brought up at the Swedish royal court, where she was regarded as a prospective bride for Charles XI until she became pregnant in 1672. Eleonora did in fact visit Sweden a couple of times: in 1661, in 1674 and in 1681. During her 1674 visit, Lorenzo Magalotti described her as "a wicked, strange and melancholic woman" who spent most of her time in pious devotions. Eleonora died in Osterholz, Bremen and is buried at the Altstädter Kirche in Eschwege where now stands the Marktkirche; some of her notable descendants are Wilhelm II, German Emperor.
Margarete. Christine, married in 1667 to Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern. Elizabeth. Juliana, prospective bride of Charles XI of Sweden. Charlotte, married firstly in 1673 with Prince August of Saxe-Weissenfels and secondly in 1679 with John Adolph, Count of Bentheim-Tecklenburg. Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Eschwege. Eleonora Katarina av Pfalz på Projekt Runeberg http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/womeninpower/Womeninpower1640.htm http://runeberg.org/nfbg/0204.html
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern was queen of Denmark and Norway between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784. King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her. Born as daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, she held the rank of a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel with the style Princess. Juliana Maria was given the simple but strict upbringing usual at many of the smaller princely German courts; as a child, she appears to have stuttered. The marriage between Juliana Maria and Frederick was arranged by Count Moltke, who thought it best that the king remarried as soon as possible, in an attempt of stabilizing his behavior. In 1751-52 the king had a wish to marry Moltke's own daughter, maid-of-honor Catharine Sophie Wilhelmine Moltke, a match Moltke did not wish and prevented by having her married.
The king was unwilling to remarry a foreign princess, unless it was with an English princess, none of whom were available at the time. However, after having seen the portrait of Juliana Maria, after having made some additional investigations and met with satisfying answers, he expressed himself willing to marry her. On 8 July 1752 at Frederiksborg Palace, Juliana Maria married King Frederick V of Denmark, just over six months after the death of his first wife Louise of Great Britain, was crowned the same day, she was given a household headed by queen Louise's old chamberlain Carl Juel and head lady-in-waiting Christiane Henriette Louise Juel. The wedding was celebrated by a number of court festivities on the royal palaces around North Zealand during the following summer months, but "among the common men the mood was more still, as this seems to them to be so sudden after the mourning of queen Louise". Queen Juliana Maria was described as shy and somewhat stuttering when first introduced to the Danish royal court as its new queen.
Juliana Maria was described as good-looking and sensible, but the marriage was not popular in Denmark, where it was considered to have taken place too soon after the death of her predecessor, the popular queen Louise, it was a difficult task for her to replace her popular predecessor. Despite the constant infidelity of King Frederick V, she was regarded to have illustrated an ideal of a spousal duty, accepting his infidelity without complaint and nursing him during his illnesses, such as during his illness in 1760 and his final illness in 1765-66, which ended in his death, she nursed him in parallel with his long-term-mistress Charlotte Amalie Winge. She noted each day of his progressing illness in her diary, upon his death, she referred to him as "le meilleur des rois", she had several stepchildren by marriage. She did exchange visits with them, referred to her stepchildren as "My daughters", "My son", "My children" and "The Good Children", her diaries are full with notations of how she spent time with them.
On 4 August 1760, for example, she noted "The dear crown prince visited Hirschholm for the first time after his illness", on 8 October 1766, she accompanied her stepdaughter Sophia Magdalena of Denmark when she departed for Sweden for her wedding to the Swedish crown prince: "The queen and I left for Kronborg, to which Sophie Magdalene and the rest of the family had arrived the previous day, eleven o'clock, the good child embarked and sailed across the water, the king, the queen and the family returned to Fredensborg". Her relationship with her mother-in-law Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene, was a close one, the two queens visited each other and spent time together. While she had no influence upon the upbringing of her stepchildren, she was given much freedom in the education of her own son, had two Danes in succession, J. Schielderup Sneedorff and Guldberg, appointed governors responsible for the tutelage of her son, Hereditary Prince Frederick, who thereby became the first Danish prince in generations to speak the Danish language as his mother tongue.
Her selection of Tyge Rothe, J. S. Sneedorff and O. H. Guldberg were to have great significance on: her son's tutors were all members of the Danish patriotic movement, Guldberg is known to have influenced her to a point where she became the leader of this court fraction during her time as queen dowager. While she lacked all influence in politics, as her own son progressed in age, she came to the conclusion that he would be more suitable as ruler than her stepson, the crown prince. Juliana Maria was not mentioned much during her years as queen consort, it was noted that she lived a quiet life devoting herself to domestic duties and family life and considered honorable and virtuous but insignificant. While Frederick V was notorious for his drunken parties and debauched life style, these parties did not take place at court, the court life of Juliana Maria was by contrast described as correct, her diary as queen describe a number of days dominated by a quiet family life exchanging visits with members of the royal family, illustrated by one line: "Everything was as yesterday."
She did her best to accustom herself to Denmark and make herself popular as queen, although she never mastered the Danish language, s
Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Louis Rudolph, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1731 until his death. Since 1707, he ruled as an immediate Prince of Blankenburg. Louis Rudolph was the youngest son of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his consort Elizabeth Juliane, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg, he became a major general in the service of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I in 1690 and was promptly captured in the Battle of Fleurus by the forces of King Louis XIV of France. After being released the same year, his father gave him the Brunswick County of Blankenburg as a present, with the consent of his eldest son Augustus William, insofar violating the primogeniture principle laid down by the late Duke Henry V; when in 1707 Prince Anthony Ulrich managed to betroth Louis Rudolph's daughter Elisabeth Christine to the Habsburg archduke Charles VI, his elder brother Emperor Joseph I raised the County of Blankenburg to an immediate principality.
Louis Rudolph's status as an Imperial prince, was limited as his vote in the Imperial Diet was not hereditary and depending on the Welf Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg. On the death of brother Augustus William in 1731, Louis Rudolph inherited Wolfenbüttel, thus ruling both principalities in personal union, he relocated his residence to the capital of the inherited bigger principality. In the few years of his rule, Louis Rudolph managed to restore the finances, after Augustus William had ruined the state. Louis Rudolph died without male issue in 1735, he was succeeded by his first cousin, Duke Ferdinand Albert II, who had married Louis Rudolph's youngest daughter, Antoinette Amalie. Louis Rudolph married Christine Louise, daughter of Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen, at Aurich in 1690, they had the following children who reached adulthood: Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, married Archduke Charles VI of Austria, crowned Holy Roman Empress in 1711, mother of Empress Maria Theresa Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, married Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia and heir of Peter the Great and was mother to Emperor Peter II of Russia Antoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, married Duke Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick-Lüneburg who succeeded her father in 1735.
Louis Rudolph's descendants include monarchs of World War I Allied Powers George V of the United Kingdom, Nicholas II of Russia, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Albert I of the Belgians, Ferdinand I of Romania. His descendants included the last rulers of several defunct kingdoms and empires including Francis II the last Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I of Austria, Ludwig III of Bavaria, Frederick Augustus III of Saxony, William II of Württemberg, Francis II of the Two Sicilies, Maximilian I of Mexico, Manuel II of Portugal, Pedro II of Brazil, Constantine II of Greece, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Napoleon II and Louis XVII of France. At the House of Welf site
Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg
Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg was a German poet and composer. She began studying music at the court of her father, Duke John Albert II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, where there was an orchestra known for its use of fine English musicians, such as William Brade, she moved to the court of Kassel, which had a strong musical tradition, when the Thirty Years War threatened her court in 1628. In 1635 she married the learned Augustus the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, they had two children: Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Marie Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Elisabeth Sophie was charged with organizing the court orchestra, at times worked with Heinrich Schütz, appointed absentes Kapellmeister in 1655, she may have collaborated with him on arias in his Theatralische neue Vorstellung von der Maria Magdalena. Most of Elisabeth Sophie's compositions are devotional arias; some of these were published in 1651 and 1667. The one printed in 1651, Vinetum evangelicum, Evangelischer Weinberg, is believed to have been the first music published by a woman in Germany.
She played a major role in establishing large court entertainments, including masquerades and ballets, to which she at times wrote librettos and music. Her additional involvement in these entertainments is unclear. Two of her dramatic works survive: Friedens Glückwünschende Freudensdarstellung. Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg was her stepdaughter. Horst Walter. "Sophie Elisabeth, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Judith Tick. "Women in music, §II: Western classical traditions in Europe & the USA 3. 1500–1800.". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press
Prince Augustus William of Prussia
Augustus William of Prussia was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother and general of Frederick II. Augustus was the second surviving son of Frederick William Sophia Dorothea, his older siblings included Frederick II, Friedrike Louise and Louisa Ulrika. Augustus was popular at the Prussian court; when his brother Frederick became king in 1740, Augustus became heir presumptive and moved into the Fredrick's former residence, the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin. When his older sister Louisa Ulrika married the King of Sweden in 1744, she founded the Ordre de l'Harmonie, of which Augustus was one of the first recipients. Augustus served his brother as a general in the War of the Austrian Succession, distinguished himself in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, but in the Seven Years' War, owing to the fatal retreat of Zittau during the Battle of Kolin in 1757, he incurred the wrath of his brother the King, withdrew from the army. This conflict between the two brothers led to a correspondence, published in 1769.
Augustus died in 1758 at Oranienburg, according to some of "a broken heart", in reference to his brother Frederick II's harsh treatment of him for his incompetent military leadership in the Battle of Kolin. In reality, he died from a brain tumor. Augustus married Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; because his older brother had no children, Augustus's oldest son inherited the throne as Frederick William II of Prussia on Frederick's death. Frederick William II of Prussia married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, they had one child Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia, who married Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the second son of George III of the United Kingdom. Married Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt and had issue. Prince Henry of Prussia died unmarried. Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia had issue. Prince Emil of Prussia died in infancy. German nobility Junker Media related to Prince Augustus William of Prussia at Wikimedia Commons
Holzminden is a town in southern Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Holzminden, it is located on the river Weser, which at this point forms the border with the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Holzminden is first mentioned in the 9th century as Holtesmeni. However, the name did not at this time refer to the present city, but to the village of Altendorf, the "old village", incorporated into the city in 1922. During the reign of Louis the Pious, monks from the Abbey of Corbie in France came to this part of Germany and founded a daughter house at Hethis in the Solling; as it became clear that this site was unviable it was abandoned, a new monastery, Corbeia nova, opened close to the river. Old documents show; the settlement is believed to have come into being, along with other settlements in the vicinity, in the 6th-7th centuries. Other villages were subsequently abandoned as Holzminden was granted municipal liberties, allowing greater privileges to its inhabitants, attracting new settlers from the surrounding hinterland.
In 1200 the town was brought under the protection of the prince’s castle of Everstein, by 1245 it had received a charter. This was granted by the count of Everstein; the town's coat of arms shows the Everstein lion rampant within the open town gate. From 1408 the town belonged to the Welfen princes. From the 16th century until 1942, Holzminden therefore lay within Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1640, during the Thirty Years' War, the town was destroyed by the Imperial troops, a blow from which it only recovered; until the 20th century Holzminden remained a provincial town of small holdings. During World War I, Holzminden was the site of a large civilian internment camp on the outskirts of the town, which held up to 10,000 Polish, Russian and French nationals, including women and children. Crafts and farming have long ceased to be the main town's sources of income. Holzminden is now a industrial town. In the late 19th century, Dr Wilhelm Haarmann began developing the scent and flavours industry. In 1874, with Ferdinand Tiemann, he succeeded in synthesising vanillin from coniferyl alcohol.
More products were subsequently developed. The modern successor of their enterprise is the Symrise factory: Holzminden is a centre of the flavour and fragrance ingredient industry, its products being used throughout the world in cosmetic and food manufacture; the large Stiebel Eltron company, which produces heating and hot water products, has its headquarters in Holzminden. Owens-Illinois conducts a glassworks in the town; as a part of the former territory of Brunswick, Holzminden maintains a Protestant tradition. The church of St. Pauls in Altendorf, dating from before 1200, is the oldest of the town's churches. In its unadorned simplicity it offers a serene place for contemplation. Other churches in the town are named after St. Michael, St. Thomas and St. Joseph; the Tilly House of 1609 is located on the Johannis Square. It has a fine Renaissance door. Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Imperial forces, is said to have spent a night here; the Reichspräsidentenhaus links the old part of the town with the Hafendamm and was opened in 1929.
The beautiful Glockenspiel is popular, plays well known tunes at set times. The steeple of the Lutheran church has become a symbol of Holzminden; the interior was remodelled in 1577. The Severinsche Haus is a richly decorated house dating from 1683, it is the largest of the bourgeois houses, is decorated with a distinctive weathercock, is known for its slanting floors. There is a good viewing platform on the Emperor William Tower, south of the town; the town museum The doll and toy museum HAWK, the Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, was founded in 1831/32 by Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann as the first college of architecture in Germany. The Bauschule is now a prominent feature of the town, many student activities, such as the traditional master's procession, are regular events on the Holzminden calendar. LSH, the Internat Solling, is a private boarding school founded in 1909 as part of an educational reform movement that sought to cultivate "Mind and Hand" equally; the campus occupies large parklike grounds on a western slope of the Solling.
Campe-Gymnasium. A Gymnasium is a top school for emphasizes academic learning and comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States; the other secondary schools are the Johannes-Falk-Schule. There are a Förderschule, Schule an der Weser and Anne-Frank-Schule. Holzminden is twinned with: Leven, Scotland August Hampe, German politician, Minister of Justice of the Braunschweig District. Erwin Böhme, World War I flying ace. Leopold Scherman, architect. Carl Wilhelm Gerberding and founder of Dragoco. Adolf Heusinger, German general and Chairman of the NATO Military Committee. Eberhard Itzenplitz, film director. Ulrich Brinkhoff Photographer and writer Robert Bunsen, chemist. Wilhelm Konrad Hermann Müller, a philologist of Germanic studies. Wilhelm Raabe, nov
Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Sophia Louisa of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was Queen consort in Prussia by marriage to King Frederick I of Prussia. She was famed for her beauty. Sophia Louise was the fourth child of Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow, Christine Wilhelmine of Hesse-Homburg, she was an aunt of Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia, herself mother of Ivan VI. Sophia Louise was of a vivid and extrovert personality and "allowed the utmost liberty as regarded her conduct" by her brother, which had caused some gossip. Sophia Louise's marriage was arranged by the powerful Prussian Minister-President Johann Kasimir Kolbe von Wartenberg, who pressured King Frederick to marry for the sake of the succession after he had been widowed for a second time. In 1708, the firstborn son of the crown princess died in infancy, the physicians expressed doubt that she would be able to conceive again; this was lifted as a reason for the king to marry again, suggested to the king during his journey to Carlsbad by his sister half-sister the Duchess of Saxe-Zeitz, induced to do so by chamberlain Wittgenstein, foreign minister Ilgen and minister Biberstein, who wished to balance the growing influence of the crown prince with a queen who owed her position to them.
He was suggested to marry the Princess of Hesse Homberg, Charlotte Dorothea of Brandenburg-Culmbach, or the Princess of Nassau-Dietz, sister of the Prince of Orange, favored, but dropped: after this, the king's half sister suggested Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, which could strengthen Frederick's claim to the Mecklenburg succession. A meeting was arranged between Frederick I and Sophia Louise at Ilosenthal, where she was escorted by her mother; the king was pleased with her beauty, after half an hours conversation, the meeting was discontinued, after which the proposal was formally made to the Duke of Mecklenburg and accepted. In November 1708 she became the last spouse of Frederick I of Prussia; the wedding took place by proxy in Mecklenburg with minister Wittgenstein acting in place of the king. The next day she was escorted to the border in the company of her family, greeted by Frederick I outside Berlin. On the 27th she made her state entry to the capital, followed the next day by the wedding.
The wedding was described as magnificent, with the king dressed in gold brocade and the queen with a crown escorted by the crown prince and her brother-in-law and the princesses dressed in silver brocade with streets covered in crimson carpeting: however, shortly before, the king had been informed that his daughter-in-law was pregnant, answered that had he been aware of this, he would not have married again, which put a damp on the celebrations. Queen Sophia Louise was not regarded to play her role as queen well at a court were ceremony and representation was given a great part, she had received no education except in French and music, was not able to replace her brilliantly cultivated predecessor at court, Queen Sophia Charlotte. Her staff was regarded to be ill composed and dominated by the king's court chamberlain Wittgenstein, he selected his sister-in-law was appointed the chief of her maids of honour, his mother-in-law the Countess of Wittgenstein Valendar as chief lady-in-waiting, regarded a bad choice according to Pollnitz: "She had never left the depths of Wetteravia, save to go to the fair of Frankfort, where she had contracted all the pride of the Countesses of the empire, though she had the best will in the world to act her part, she was far better fitted to figure at Wetzlar, than at Court", the queen's chamberlain count Schwerin was not regarded to be a suitable adviser.
Sophia Louise made no friends in her new court and her only confidante was the lady-in-waiting she brought with her from Mecklenburg, a Mdlle. Gravenitz, who became her influential favorite and adviser. Sophia Louise was not equal to the intrigues of the Berlin court, she came in conflict with, Catharina Rickert, was both the wife of the Count of Wartenberg and the king's mistress. One incident was known. During an absence by the king at the Jahr Markt at Leipsic in 1710, the queen summoned the ladies at court to assist her embroidering a gift for the king, among them Catharina Rickert. During this, they were interrupted by the valet of Catharina Rickert, bringing her coffee, a great offence to etiquette, when the queen commanded Rickert to leave, she commented: "I think I see myself doing so", with a laugh, which added to the etiquette offence and infuriated the queen so that she ordered Rickert to be thrown out of the window; the queen complained to the king, who ordered Rickert to apologize, which she consented to, though she managed to avoid doing so.
Sophia Louise made a great impression upon her marriage and became known as the "Mecklenburg Venus", the king was charmed by her beauty and her original extrovert vivacity. However, aware of the fact that the liberty she had enjoyed at her brother's court had caused gossip about her, she took the advise from Gravenitz to take on a dignified gravity of manner and adherence to religion, which repelled the king, himself of an extrovert character and saw her behavior as coldness, her Lutheran confessor Porst introduced her to Pietist August Hermann Francke, under whose guidance Sophie Louise grew more serious and strict in her manner, spending her time in a routine of prayers and sermons, managed a court which according to Pollnitz likened to a convent, was regarded to neglect her representational and social duties as the first lady of the court and female role model. Sophia Louise, along with Mademoiselle von Graeven