Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt
Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt was the last ruler of the Duchy of Anhalt. He was born in Dessau, the son of Duke Eduard of Anhalt and Princess Louise Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg and he succeeded his father as Duke of Anhalt on 13 September 1918. However, due to his age his uncle Prince Aribert of Anhalt was appointed regent and his brief reign came to an end on 12 November 1918 with his uncle abdicating in his name following the German revolution. The duchy became the Free State of Anhalt, Duke Joachim Ernst died at the Buchenwald concentration camp after World War II as a prisoner of the Soviet Union, when it was called NKVD special camp Nr.2. Following his death the headship of the Ducal House of Anhalt was disputed between his elder son Prince Friedrich and brother Prince Eugen, in Ballenstedt Castle on 3 March 1927, Joachim Ernst married firstly Elisabeth Strickrodt, a daughter of an opera singer. She was created Countess of Askanien, but they were divorced in 1929 and they had five children, Marie Antoinette Elisabeth Alexandra Irmgard Edda Charlotte, married firstly 1957 Karl-Heinz Guttmann and secondly 1974 Max Riederer.
Anna Luise Marie Friederike Elisabeth Alice, married 1966 Thomas Birch, leopold Friedrich Franz Sieghard Hubertus Erdmann. Edda Adelheid Antoinette Emma Elisabeth, married 1974 Albert Darboven, Eduard Julius Ernst August Erdmann House of Anhalt-Askanien
Saxony-Anhalt is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg and Thuringia. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle, Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres and has a population of 2.34 million. Saxony-Anhalt should not be confused with Saxony or Lower Saxony, German states, Saxony-Anhalt is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. It is located in the part of eastern Germany. By size, it is the 8th largest state in Germany and it borders four fellow Bundesländer, Lower Saxony to the north-west, Brandenburg to the north-east, Saxony to the south-east, and Thuringia to the south-west. In the north, the Saxony-Anhalt landscape is dominated by plain, the old Hanseatic towns Salzwedel, Gardelegen and Tangermünde are located in the sparsely populated Altmark. The Colbitz-Letzlingen Heath and the Drömling near Wolfsburg mark the transition between the Altmark region and the Elbe-Börde-Heath region with its fertile, sparsely wooded Magdeburg Börde.
Notable towns in the Magdeburg Börde are Haldensleben, Wanzleben, Schönebeck, the Harz mountains are located in the south-west, comprising the Harz National Park, the Harz Foreland and Mansfeld Land. The highest mountain of the Harz is Brocken, with an elevation of 1,141 meters, in this area, one can find the towns of Halberstadt, Thale and Quedlinburg. The wine-growing area Saale-Unstrut and the towns of Zeitz, Weißenfels, the metropolitan area of Halle forms an agglomeration with Leipzig in Saxony. This area is known for its highly developed industry, with major production plants at Leuna, Schkopau. Finally, in the east, Dessau-Roßlau and Wittenberg are situated on the Elbe in the Anhalt-Wittenberg region, the capital of Saxony-Anhalt is Magdeburg. It is the second-largest city in the state, closely after Halle, from 1994 to 2003, the state was divided into three regions, Dessau and Magdeburg, below the regional level,21 districts. Since 2004, this system has replaced by 11 rural districts.
In April 1945 the US Army took control of most of the western and northern area of the future Saxony-Anhalt, group Control Council, Germany appointed the first non-Nazi officials in leading positions in the area. So Erhard Hübener, furloughed by the Nazis, was reappointed Landeshauptmann. By early July the US Army withdrew from the former Prussian Province of Saxony to make way for the Red Army to take it as part of the Soviet occupation zone, the previously Saxon Erfurt governorate had become a part of Thuringia. For the earlier history see the articles of these entities before 1945
Principality of Anhalt-Aschersleben
Anhalt-Aschersleben was a short-lived principality of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Aschersleben in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It emerged as a subdivision from the Principality of Anhalt from 1252 to 1315 and it was created when the Anhalt territory was divided among the sons of Prince Henry I into the Principalities of Anhalt-Aschersleben, Anhalt-Bernburg and Anhalt-Zerbst in 1252. Prince Henry II the Fat, the eldest son of Henry I, had been co-ruler of his father since 1244. In the course of the partition he chose the Anhalt ancestral homeland north of the Harz mountain range around the Ascanian residence of Aschersleben, which he granted town privileges in 1266. When in 1315 Henrys grandson Otto II died without male heirs, 1252–1266 Henry II 1266–1304 Otto I 1266–1283 Henry III, brother and co-regent 1304–1315 Otto II
The period is usually considered to have begun with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Luther in 1517 to the Thirty Years War and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Protestant position, would come to incorporate doctrinal changes such as sola scriptura, the initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenbergs printing press provided the means for the dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and Calvinists, Lutheran churches were founded mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia, while the Reformed ones were founded in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The new movement influenced the Church of England decisively after 1547 under Edward VI and Elizabeth I, there were reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation, which gave rise to the Anabaptist and other Pietistic movements. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent, much work in battling Protestantism was done by the well-organised new order of the Jesuits.
In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while Central Europe was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years War, which left it devastated. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, the Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Churchs hierarchy, which included the pope. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church, New perspectives came from John Wycliffe at Oxford University and from Jan Hus at the Charles University in Prague.
Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone, the Roman Catholic Church officially concluded this debate at the Council of Constance by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning despite a promise of safe-conduct. Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428, the Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the century and could not prevent schism. Pope Sixtus IV established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, Pope Alexander VI was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia, in response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses. The Reformation was born of Luthers dual declaration – first, the discovering of Jesus and salvation by faith alone, the Protestant reformers were unanimous in agreement and this understanding of prophecy furnished importance to their deeds.
It was the point and the battle cry that made the Reformation nearly unassailable
North German Confederation
The North German Confederation was a confederation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the German Empire, after several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation, the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between states on one hand and southern states led by Austria on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia, at first, it was a military alliance between independent states, the so-called August Alliance, but the states already had the intention to form a federation or confederation with a constitution. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany, many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire, the North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists today.
On January 1,1871, the received a new constitution that gave it the name German Empire. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the German princes. The sovereignty remained with the individual German states, there were several attempts to create a modern nation state, most prominently in the Revolution of 1848. A major issue in the struggle was the rivalry between Austria, the principal power in Germany, and the ascending Prussia. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 demonstrated the superiority of Prussia, led by its ingenious. The alliance had 15 members then, with 80 percent of the living in Prussia. A notable exclave of the North German Confederation was the Prussian territory of Hohenzollern in the south, hesse-Darmstadt was part of the new Confederation only with its northern part. A South German Confederation, as mentioned in the Peace of Prague, from the beginning the alliance was supposed to become a nation state with a federal constitution. On 15 December 1866, Bismarck presented a proposal to the representatives of the allied governments and their complaints did not seriously alter the proposal.
On 7 February 1867, the proposal of the governments was ready. It was the not to impose the new constitution but to stipulate it together with a representation of the people. To this end a parliament was elected on 12 February and this Konstituierender Reichstag accepted the constitution, with relatively minor changes, on 16 April 1867. Then, the state parliaments adopted it, the first North German Reichstag was elected, the only one during the existence of the North German Confederation
Bernburg is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, capital of the Salzlandkreis district. The former residence of the Anhalt-Bernburg princes is known for its Renaissance castle, the town centre is situated in the fertile Magdeburg Börde lowland on the Saale river, approx. 40 km downstream from Halle and 45 km up stream from Magdeburg and it is dominated by huge Bernburg Castle featuring a museum as well as a popular, recently updated bear pit in its moat. The municipal area comprises the villages of Baalberge, Biendorf, Gröna, Peißen, Preußlitz, Bernburg is a stop on the scenic Romanesque Road. Several archaeological sites in the area refer to the Walternienburg-Bernburg Culture, agriculture on the fertile Loess soil was already common in prehistoric times. Around 150 AD, a settlement named Luppia was mentioned in the Geography by Ptolemy. In the Early Middle Ages, the Saale river marked the border between the German stem duchies in the west and the lands of the Polabian Slavs in the east, Bernburg itself was first mentioned as civitas Brandanburg in a 961 deed issued by King Otto I of Germany.
According to the Annalista Saxo, Berneburch Castle, a possession of the Ascanian prince Albert the Bear, was set on fire by his enemies in 1138, in 1252 the rebuilt castle became the residence of Alberts great-grandson Prince Bernhard I of Anhalt-Bernburg in 1252. In the Nazi era during World War II, a wing of the mental hospital was used for the so-called T-4 Euthanasia Programme. The site today houses a memorial to commemorate the suffering of more than 14,000 victims, February 24,1950, Johannes R. Becher 19 February 1953, Hermann Henselmann February 5,1967 -. de Bernburg Castle
Aschersleben is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated approximately 22 km east of Quedlinburg, and 45 km northwest of Halle, Aschersleben was first mentioned in 753, making it the oldest town of Saxony-Anhalt. The Latin name of the castle, provided the name of the House of Ascania. From 1252–1315 Aschersleben was the capital of Anhalt-Aschersleben, after which it passed to the Bishopric of Halberstadt, after the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, it became part of the Principality of Halberstadt. Aschersleben became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony in 1815, a Junkers serial fuselage production facility was located in Aschersleben during the time of Nazi Germany. In April 1935 tools were transferred to Aschersleben, and by May 1935 the first fuselages were built there, the facility was located in the Wilslebener Strasse 9 near the so-called Seewiesen, where an airfield was erected as well. The Aschersleben shop area reached 564,000 square metres and about 6,000 people were employed at it, during World War II, a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp was located in the town.
It was established to provide labour for Junkers and Motorenwerk. Since July 1944 about 950 KZ prisoners were forced to work at the Junkers Flugzeugwerke in Aschersleben, in April 1945 the production was ceased. On 17 April U. S. forces occupied Aschersleben, but on 23 May the city was handed over to the British forces, Aschersleben was bombed on the following dates during the war,1 April 1942 first British bomb attack 20 February 1944 U. S. Most installations were dismantled and transferred to Kiev in the Soviet Union by the Soviets in 1946, the remaining facility buildings at Aschersleben were used by VEB Kombinat Fritz Heckert. Today the area is used by Schiess AG, Aschersleben was part of East Germany until 1990, when it became part of Saxony-Anhalt during German reunification. On 1 January 2008, the municipalities of Drohndorf and Mehringen were incorporated into Aschersleben, several architectural styles are represented in Aschersleben. The historic centre is dominated by romanesque, renaissance, there is a ring of buildings in neoclassical and Jugendstil styles around the historic Old Town.
This, in turn, is surrounded and interspersed with buildings of early modernism like the Heckner-Bauten, large new areas are mainly in the north and south-east of the city. Aschersleben is one of few German towns showing large segments of the city wall preserved through the centuries. The city wall defines a ring around the historic Old Town. In the 19th century, several city gates and towers had been demolished, there are few half-timbered buildings in the old town of Aschersleben
Principality of Anhalt
The Principality of Anhalt was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, located in Central Germany, in what is today part of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. The Anhalt territory stretched from the Harz mountain range in the west to the Elbe River, upon the 1315 loss of Anhalt-Aschersleben, the lands around Ballenstedt formed a western exclave. The area of the duchy was 906 miles². In the west, the land is undulating and in the extreme northwest, from the Harz the country gently shelves down to the Saale, the land between this river and the Elbe is particularly fertile. East of the Elbe, the land is mostly a flat plain, with extensive pine forests, interspersed with bog-land. The Elbe is the river, intersecting the eastern portion of the former duchy, from east to west. The navigable Saale takes a northerly direction through the portion of the territory and receives, on the right, the Fuhne and, on the left, the Wipper. The climate is mild, less so in the higher Harz regions to the south-west. In the 11th century, it came under the rule of Count Esico of Ballenstedt, possibly a descendant of the Saxon margrave Odo, he owned large allodial lands around Ballenstedt in the Schwabengau as well as in the adjacent Gau Serimunt in the former Saxon Eastern March.
Count Esico was succeeded by his son Adalbert II of Ballenstedt, Adalbert joined the Saxon Rebellion against King Henry IV and was slain in a feud with Egeno II of Konradsburg in 1180. His son Count Otto the Rich appeared as a Count of Ballenstedt from 1106, on the eve of the 1115 Battle of Welfesholz, Otto campaigned the lands of the Polabian Slavs, gaining large estates around Zerbst up to the Hevelli lands ruled by the Hevelli princes. Until his death in 1123, Count Otto had Anhalt Castle built in the Harz mountains near Harzgerode, however, he effectively only ruled over the Eastphalian territories, while the Westphalian and Engern parts of Saxony fell under the control of the Prince-Archbishops of Cologne. The County of Anhalt finally arose upon the death of Duke Bernhard in 1212, the younger Albert I became Duke of Saxony, while the elder Henry I went on to rule the Ascanian lands, now definitely separated from Saxony, as Count of Anhalt. In 1218, Henry I assumed the title of a prince, on Henrys death in 1252, his three sons partitioned the principality and founded, the lines of Aschersleben and Zerbst.
The last prince of the line of Anhalt-Bernburg died in 1468 and his lands were inherited by the princes of the sole remaining line. The territory belonging to this branch of the family had divided in 1396. Early in the 16th century, owing to the death or abdication of several princes, wolfgang of Anhalt, called the Confessor, who became prince of Anhalt-Köthen in 1508, was the second ruler in the world to introduce the Reformation to his country. He was a co-signer of the Augsburg Confession in 1530, and after the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547 was placed under Imperial ban and deprived of his lands by Emperor Charles V
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Duchy of Anhalt
The Duchy of Anhalt was a historical German duchy. The territory is now part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt. Anhalts origins lie in the Principality of Anhalt, a state of the Holy Roman Empire, during the 9th century, most of Anhalt was part of the duchy of Saxony. In the 12th century, it came under the rule of Albert the Bear, Albert was descended from Albert, count of Ballenstedt, whose son Esico appears to have been the first to bear the title of count of Anhalt. Esicos grandson, Otto the Rich, count of Ballenstedt, was the father of Albert the Bear, when Albert died in 1170, his son Bernard, who received the title of duke of Saxony in 1180, became count of Anhalt. Bernard died in 1212, and Anhalt, separated from Saxony, passed to his son Henry I, on Henrys death in 1252, his three sons divided the principality and founded the respective lines of Aschersleben and Zerbst. The family ruling in Aschersleben became extinct in 1315, and this district was incorporated with the neighbouring Bishopric of Halberstadt.
The last prince of the line of Anhalt-Bernburg died in 1468 and his lands were inherited by the princes of the remaining line. The territory belonging to this branch of the family had divided in 1396. Early in the 16th century, owing to the death or abdication of several princes, after the peace of Passau in 1552, Prince Wolfgang bought back his principality, but as he was childless he surrendered it in 1562 to his kinsmen, the princes of Anhalt-Dessau. Around 1546, the three brothers divided their principality and founded the lines of Zerbst, Plötzkau and Dessau, the first united principality of Anhalt was short-lived, and in 1603, it was split up into the mini-states of Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Zerbst and Anhalt-Plötzkau. Joachim Ernest died in 1586 and his five sons ruled the land in common until 1603, when Anhalt was again divided, the principality was ravaged during the Thirty Years War, and in the earlier part of this struggle Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg took an important part.
In 1635, an arrangement was made by the princes of Anhalt, which gave a certain authority to the eldest member of the family. This proceeding was due to the necessity of maintaining an appearance of unity in view of the disturbed state of European politics. In the same year the princes of Anhalt decided that, if any branch of the family became extinct and this arrangement was carried out after the death of Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1793, and Zerbst was divided between the three remaining princes. During these years the policy of the different princes was marked, perhaps intentionally, once or twice, Calvinism was favoured by a prince, but in general the house was loyal to the doctrines of Martin Luther. The growth of Prussia provided Anhalt with a neighbour. In 1806, Napoleon elevated the states of Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau