These peoples and their territories were incorporated into the Roman Province of Hispania Tarraconensis in the year 19 BC, following the Cantabrian Wars. Cantabri is a Latinized form of a name, presumably meaning Highlanders. Following the Roman conquest, this area was, much reduced, making up only Cantabria, regarded as savage and untamable mountaineers, the Cantabri long defied the Roman legions and made a name for themselves for their independent spirit and freedom. Indeed, Cantabri warriors were regarded as being tough and fiercest fighters, suitable for mercenary employment, other important Cantabrian strongholds included Villeca/Vellica and Amaya/Amaia. The remaining Cantabrian population and their lands were absorbed into the newly created Transduriana Province. The Cantabri re-emerged, like their neighbors the Astures, amid the chaos of the Migration Period of the late 4th century, thenceforward the Cantabri started to be Christianized and were violently crushed by the Visigoths in the 6th century.
However and the Cantabri are heard of many decades in the context of the Visigoth wars against the Vascones and they only became fully Latinized in their language and culture after the Muslim Conquest of Iberia in the 8th century. Astures Cantabria Cantabrian Wars Corocotta Sertorian Wars Duchy of Cantabria Almagro-Gorbea, les Celtes dans la péninsule Ibérique. Eutimio Martino, Roma contra Cantabros y Astures – Nueva lectura de las fuentes, º33, Diputación provincial de León/Editorial Eal Terrae, Santander ISBN 84-87081-93-2 Lorrio, Alberto J. A. celtiberia. net http, //www. montebernorio. com
Duchy of Gascony
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia, was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824. The Duchy of Gascony, known as Wasconia, was originally a Frankish march formed to sway over the Basques. In the Hundred Years War, Charles V of France conquered most of Gascony by 1380, the corresponding portion within Spain became part of the Basque Kingdom of Navarre. Gascony was the territory of Roman Gallia Aquitania. This province, by the 2nd century, was extended to much of western Roman Gaul. Thus, the name of the Aquitani came to be transferred to the territory of central-western France known as the Duchy of Aquitaine, in 293, Diocletian re-created the original province of Caesars Aquitania under the name of Novempopulania or Aquitania Tertia. Around 580, both the Visigothic kingdom and the kingdom of the Franks launched major campaigns against the Basques, in 587 Basques are cited as raiding the plains of Aquitaine, maybe to the west of Toulouse.
Chilperic I sent his duke Bladastes stationed in Toulouse, but was defeated and this military push from a stronger centralized authority in Toledo placed more pressure on the Basques to get off the Ebro rich farmland than those already stretching all the way to the Garonne. In this period, the count of Bordeaux Galactorius is cited as fighting the Basques, who are portrayed as hiding out in the mountains, in 602, the Merovingians created a frontier duchy to their southwest during the tripartite wars between Franks and Basques. A certain Genial was appointed dux wasconum as a way of handling their relations with the Basques. At the same time, the Visigoths created the Duchy of Cantabria as a buffer against the Basques inhabiting west of current Navarre, about this period duke Francio is reported to vow allegiance to the Franks in Cantabria, an area inhabited by the Basques, but c. 612, the Gothic king Sisebut seems to have conquered the territory, in the years 610 and 612 respectively, the Gothic kings Gundemar and Sisebut launched attacks against the Basques.
After a Basque attack in the Ebro valley in the year 621, Swinthila defeated them, the Basques relish was short-lived since they were brought to heel by Dagobert. By 626, it is certain that the extended up to the Pyrenees. In 643, there was another rebellion to the north of the Pyrenees and in 642 and 654 they battled against the Visigoths to the south, in Saragossa. From 589 to 684, the Bishop of Pamplona was absent from the Visigothic Councils of Toledo, under Felix and his successors, Frankish overlordship over these lands became merely nominal, and Vasconia became a prominent regional power. Independent dukes Lupus, Odo and Waifer succeeded him respectively and their ethnicity is not certain, since records and their names are not conclusive. But the Umayyad invasion of 711 effected a shift in trends
Cantabrian is a group of dialects belonging to Astur-Leonese. It is indigenous to the territories in and surrounding the Autonomous Community of Cantabria, some dialects of this group have been further grouped by the name Montañés, being La Montaña a traditional name for Cantabria due to its mountainous orography. This dialect group spans the territory of Cantabria. In addition, there is evidence of traits linking the speech of some nearby areas to the Cantabrian Astur-Leonese group, The western part of Las Encartaciones. Bordering areas with Burgos, especially the valleys of Espinosa de los Monteros. Bordering areas with Palencia Valleys of Peñamellera and Ribadedeva, in the westernmost part of Asturias, some of this areas had historically been linked to Cantabria before the 1833 territorial division of Spain, and the creation of the Province of Santander. Molleda proposed what is today the division of dialectal areas in Cantabria. He proceeded to name the resulting areas Western and Eastern and this division has gained strength due to the fact that, even though masculine morphology is not a very important difference, many other isoglosses draw the same line.
There are some features in common with Spanish, the main of which is the set of consonants which is identical to that of Northern Iberian Spanish. The preservation of the glottal fricative was usual in Middle Spanish, before the /h/ in words like /humo/, from Latin fumus. Every Cantabrian dialect keeps /f/ before consonants such as in /fɾi. u/, just as Spanish, the merger is typical in most Western and Eastern Coastal dialects, where merges into. However, the Eastern dialects from the Inner Valleys have merged into, there are speakers that lack any kind of merger. Opposition between singular and plural masculine gender morphemes, the dialectal boundaries of this feature are usually used to represent the western and eastern dialects, Western Dialects oppose /u/ masculine singular marker to /os/ masculine plural marker. Eastern Dialects used to oppose /ʉ/+metaphony to /us/ and this opposition is nearly lost and only few speakers of the Pasiegu dialect still use it. Nowadays, the most common situation is the no-opposition, using /u/ as a masculine morpheme both in singular and plural, mass neuter, this feature marks uncountableness in nouns, articles and quantifiers.
Eastern dialects show a more complex behaviour, with vowel harmony as the mechanism for neuter distinction. Due to this, word-final morphology was not so important, these would have and, the same applied for adjectives. Likewise, eastern dialects modified their systems in order to avoid misunderstandings, replacing lu with li as third person singular accusative pronoun
Province of Burgos
The province of Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria and its capital is the city of Burgos. The Cartularies of Valpuesta from the monastery Santa María de Valpuesta, the site has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The province has an area of 14,300 km² and a population of approximately 375,000 of whom nearly half live in the capital, the other locations higher than 20,000 inhabitants apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero, both very industrialized. The Sierra de la Demanda, the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, is located in Burgos Province, the most important rivers in the province are the Ebro and the Duero. The river Duero is in the south of the province and leads to the Atlantic Ocean at Porto, planted near it is a notable vineyard, Ribera de Duero. The north and south-east of the province are mountainous, the Ebro flows to the Mediterranean Sea.
In Valpuesta the oldest texts in the Spanish language has been found, transportation is developed through a wide net of highways and roads. Besides, the province is served by the Burgos Airport, in the Bureba Pass area, archaeologists have found evidence of occupation by hominids and humans for more than one million years. Discoveries have included the earliest hominid skull in Europe, the Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigi and perhaps the Pellendones, the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region. According to the Greek historian Ptolemy, the cities included, Sisara, Ambisna Segiasamon. Under Roman colonization, it was part of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Tarraconensis, in the fifth century, the Visigoths drove back the Suevi. In the eighth century, the Arabs occupied all of Castiles, alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered the area around the middle of the ninth century, and built many castles for the defence of Christendom.
The region came to be known as Castile, i. e. land of castles, in the eleventh century, Burgos became the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. The province of Burgos is divided in 10 comarcas, list of municipalities in Burgos Media related to Province of Burgos at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León Website of the Province of Burgos delegation
Liuvigild, Leovigild, or Leovigildo, was a Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania from 568 to April 21,586. From 585 he was king of Galicia. In the second year of his reign, king Liuva I declared his brother Liuvigild co-king and heir, assigning him Hispania Citerior, or the part of Hispania. Liuvigild was married twice, first to Theodosia, who bore him two sons Hermenegild and Reccared, and after her death, to Athanagilds widow Goiswintha. His first strike was in 570, when he laid waste the region of Bastetania, the following year he captured Medina Sidonia, assisted through the treachery of a certain Framidaneus. Then, around the time he became sole ruler with the death of his brother Liuva, during the civil war which ended with Athanagilds rise to power some twenty years earlier, the Byzantines gained control of a stretch of territory in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. John of Biclaro notes that upon gaining control of Córdoba, Liuvigild slaughtered the enemy troops and his campaigns continued on an annual basis over the next five years.
Liuvigild invaded Sabaria in 573, ravaging a people known as the Sappi, the next year he entered Cantabria, seized Amaya, and added that province to his kingdom. In 575 he marched into Galicia, defeating a local warlord named Aspidius and taking him, his treasure, in 576, he marched on the Kingdom of the Suebi in northwestern Hispania, but king Miro managed to negotiate a peace with Liuvigild. In his final campaign Liuvigild marched into Orespeda, a region in southeastern Spain, upon the conclusion of these campaigns, Liuvigild celebrated his victories by founding a city in Celtiberia, which he named Recopolis for his son Reccared. The Visigoths were still a military aristocracy and kings had to be ratified by the nobility. Visigoths and their Ibero-Roman subjects were separated by religion and by distinct law codes. Liuvigild modified the old Code of Euric which governed the Goths and he repealed old Roman laws dating back to the late 4th century forbidding intermarriage between Visigoths and Ibero-Romans.
Hermenegild, the elder, was married to Ingunthis, daughter of the Frankish King Sigibert I, in 582 Liuvigild captured Mérida, which had been under the political control of its popular bishop Masona since the early 570s. Masona was soon after exiled for three years, possibly in the context of the rebellion of Hermenegild, Hermenegild had converted to orthodox Christianity, persuaded by his Frankish wife Ingunthis and Leander, bishop of Seville. When the Byzantines failed to aid the revolt, Liuvigild besieged and took Seville and banished his son to Valencia, Leander of Seville was banished and canonized as a saint. Ingunthis was delivered to the Eastern Emperor Tiberius II Constantine and was last heard of in Africa and these events are described in vivid details by Pope Gregory I. After this rebellion, Liuvigild reportedly demanded that his Roman subjects convert to Arianism, Liuvigild went on to subdue the Basques
The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, the Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient, the Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. The Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati of the Romans – a relationship established in 418, they soon fell out with their Roman hosts and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse. They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Suebi, in 507, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, in or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity, gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects.
Their legal code, the Visigothic Code abolished the practice of applying different laws for Romans. Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani, in the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of Toledo and the episcopacy. In 711 or 712, a force of invading African Moors defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete and their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, and their kingdom rapidly collapsed. During their governance of the Kingdom of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches that survive and they left many artifacts, which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent times. The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular and they founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty. Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Spanish and Portuguese, contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms Vesi, Ostrogothi and Greuthungi.
Most scholars have concluded that the terms Vesi and Tervingi were both used to refer to one particular tribe, while the terms Ostrogothi and Greuthungi were used to refer to another. In addition, the Notitia Dignitatum equates the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391, the earliest sources for each of the four names are roughly contemporaneous. The first recorded reference to the Tervingi is in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian, delivered in or shortly after 291 and it says that the Tervingi, another division of the Goths, joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The first known use of the term Ostrogoths is in a document dated September 392 from Milan and this would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. Wolfram believes that the people Zosimus describes were those Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest, for the most part, all of the terms discriminating between different Gothic tribes gradually disappeared after they moved into the Roman Empire.
The last indication that the Goths whose king reigned at Toulouse thought of themselves as Vesi is found in a panegyric on Avitus by Sidonius Apollinaris dated 1 January 456, most recent scholars have concluded that Visigothic group identity emerged only within the Roman Empire
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city. It is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community, on the south by Castile and León, on the west by the Principality of Asturias, and on the north by the Cantabrian Sea. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, the modern Province of Cantabria was constituted on 28 July 1778 at Bárcena la Puente, Reocín. The Organic Law of the Autonomy Statute of Cantabria was approved on 30 December 1981, numerous authors, including Isidore of Seville, Julio Caro Baroja, Aureliano Fernández Guerra and Adolf Schulten, have explored the etymology of the name Cantabria, yet its origins remain uncertain. It is generally accepted that the root cant- comes from Celtic for rock or stone, Cantabrian could mean people who live in the rocks or highlanders, a reference to the steep and mountainous territory of Cantabria.
Cantabria is a mountainous and coastal region, with important natural resources and it has two distinct areas which are well differentiated morphologically, Coast. Santander Bay is the most prominent indentation in the coastline, to the south, the coastal strip rises to meet the mountains. This is a barrier made up of abruptly rising mountains parallel to the sea. The mountains are made of limestone with karst topography. They form deep valleys running north-south, the torrential rivers are short, fast flowing and of great eroding power, so the slopes are steep. The valleys define different natural regions, delimited physically by the mountain ranges, Liébana, Saja-Nansa, Pas-Pisueña, Miera, Asón-Gándara. To the mountain region belongs the Escudo Range, a range of 600 to 1,000 metres high that covers 15 or 20 km in a parallel line to the coast in the West part of Cantabria. Towards the south are higher mountains, the tops of which form the watershed between the basins of the Rivers Ebro and the rivers that flow into the Bay of Biscay.
The great limestone masses of Picos de Europa stand out in the southwest of the region, most of their summits exceed 2,500 m, and their topography is shaped by the former presence of glaciers. Due to the stream, Cantabria, as well as the rest of Green Spain, has a much more temperate climate than might be expected for its latitude. The region has a oceanic climate, with warm summers. Annual precipitation is around 1,200 mm at the coasts, the mean temperature is about 14 °C. Snow is frequent in higher zones of Cantabria between the months of October and March, some zones of Picos de Europa, over 2,500 metres high, have an alpine climate with snow persisting year round
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. The conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe, forces commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 at Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers. He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, by 717, the combined force had crossed the Pyrenees into Septimania and Provence. Precisely what happened in Iberia in the early 8th century is uncertain, there is one contemporary Christian source, the Chronicle of 754, regarded as reliable but often vague. There are no contemporary Muslim accounts, what Muslim information there is comes from compilations subject to contemporary ideological influence. The most prominent such compilation is that of Al-Maqqari, which dates from the 17th century and this paucity of sources means that any specific or detailed claims need to be regarded with caution.
Numismatic evidence suggests a division of authority, with several coinages being struck. There is a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic, these stories are not included in the earliest accounts of the conquest. According to the chronicler Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, in 711, Tariq Ibn Ziyad led an approximately 1, however,12,000 seems a more accurate figure. They defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a battle at Guadalete in 712. Tariqs forces were reinforced by those of his superior, the wali Musa ibn Nusair. According to the Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Iberia was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman, this putative invasion is not accepted by modern historians. The conquering army was made up mainly of Berbers who had only recently come under Muslim influence. Both the Chronicle of 754 and Muslim sources speak of raiding activity in previous years, the Chronicle of 754 stated that the entire army of the Goths, which had come with him fraudulently and in rivalry out of hopes of the Kingship, fled.
This is the contemporary account of the battle and the paucity of detail led many historians to invent their own. The location of the battle is not totally clear but was probably the Guadalete River, Roderic was believed to have been killed and a crushing defeat would have left the Visigoths largely leaderless and disorganized. The resulting power vacuum, which may have indeed caught Tariq completely by surprise, in 714, Musa ibn Nusayr headed north-west up the Ebro river to overrun the western Basque regions and the Cantabrian mountains all the way to Gallaecia, with no relevant or attested opposition. During the period of the second Arab governor Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, the northern areas of Iberia drew little attention to the conquerors and were hard to defend when taken
Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II. Under the Visigoths it was known as simply Gallia or Narbonensis and it corresponded roughly with the modern French region of Languedoc-Roussillon. It passed briefly to the Emirate of Córdoba in the century before its conquest by the Franks. The region was under the influence of the people from Toulouse, from the end of the thirteenth century it was known as Languedoc and its history is tied up with that of France. Another possible derivation of the name is in reference to the seven cities of the territory, Béziers, Agde, Lodève, under Theodoric II, the Visigoths settled in Aquitaine as foederati of the Western Roman Empire. Sidonius Apollinaris refers to Septimania as theirs during the reign of Avitus, the Visigoths were holding the Toulousain against the legal claims of the Empire, though they had more than once offered to exchange it for the Auvergne.
In 462 the Empire, controlled by Ricimer in the name of Libius Severus, the Visigoths occupied Provence as well and only in 475 did the Visigothic king, cede it to the Empire by a treaty whereby the emperor Julius Nepos recognised the Visigoths full independence. The Visigoths, perhaps because they were Arians, met with the opposition of the Catholic Franks in Gaul, clovis defeated the Goths in the Battle of Vouillé and the child-king Amalaric was carried for safety into Iberia while Gesalec was elected to replace him and rule from Narbonne. Clovis, his son Theuderic I, and his Burgundian allies proceeded to conquer most of Visigothic Gaul, including the Rouergue, border warfare between Gallo-Roman magnates, including bishops, had existed with the Visigoths during the last phase of the Empire and it continued under the Franks. The Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great reconquered Narbonne from the Burgundians, Theudis was appointed regent at Narbonne by Theodoric while Amalaric was still a minor in Iberia.
When Theodoric died in 526, Amalaric was elected king in his own right and he ceded Provence, which had at some point passed back into Visigothic control, to the Ostrogothic king Athalaric. The Franks did not try to hold the province, under Amalarics successor, the centre of gravity of the kingdom crossed the Pyrenees and Theudis made his capital in Barcelona. Originally, the Goths may have maintained their hold on the Albigeois, there is archaeological evidence that some enclaves of Visigothic population remained in Frankish Gaul, near the Septimanian border, after 507. The kings after Alaric II favoured Narbonne as a capital, under Theodoric Septimania had been safe from Frankish assault, but was raided by Childebert I twice. When Liuva I succeeded the throne in 568, Septimania was a frontier province. Liuva granted Iberia to his son Leovigild and took Septimania to himself, the Frankish attack of 585 was repulsed by Hermenegilds brother Reccared, who was ruling Narbonensis as a sub-king.
Hermenegild died at Tarragona that year and it is possible that he had escaped confinement in Valencia and was seeking to join up with his Frankish allies, the invasion may have occurred in response to Hermenegilds death. Reccared meanwhile took Beaucaire on the Rhône near Tarascon and Cabaret, guntram ignored two pleas for a peace in 586 and Reccared undertook the only Visigothic invasion of Francia in response