The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I, her legacy became cemented after her extraordinary 1807 meeting with French Emperor Napoleon I at Tilsit – she met with the emperor to plead unsuccessfully for favorable terms after Prussia's disastrous losses in the Napoleonic Wars. She was well loved by her subjects, but her meeting with Napoleon led Louise to become revered as "the soul of national virtue", her early death at the age of thirty-four "preserved her youth in the memory of posterity", caused Napoleon to remark that the king "has lost his best minister". The Order of Louise was founded by her grieving husband four years as a female counterpart to the Iron Cross. In the 1920s conservative German women founded the Queen Louise League, Louise herself would be used in Nazi propaganda as an example of the ideal German woman.
Duchess Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was born on 10 March 1776 in a one-storey villa, just outside the capital in Hanover. She was the fourth daughter and sixth child of Duke Charles of Mecklenburg and his wife Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt, her father Charles was a brother of Queen Charlotte and her mother Frederike was a granddaughter of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Her maternal grandmother, Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, her paternal first-cousin Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom served as sponsors at her baptism. At the time of her birth, Louise's father was not yet the ruler of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she was not born in a court, but rather in a less formal home. Charles was field marshal of the household brigade in Hanover, soon after Louise's birth he was made Governor-General of that territory by his brother-in-law George III, king of the United Kingdom and Hanover; the family subsequently moved to Leineschloss, the residence of Hanoverian kings, though during the summer they lived at Herrenhausen.
Louise was close to her sister Frederica, two years younger, as well as with their only brother George. Louise and her siblings were under the care of their governess Fraulein von Wolzogen, a friend of their mother's; when Louise was only six years old, her mother died in childbirth, leaving a permanent mark on the young duchess. After Duchess Friederike's death, the family left Leineschloss for Herrenhausen, sometimes called a "miniature Versailles". Duke Charles remarried two years to his first wife's younger sister Charlotte, producing a son, Charles. Louise and her new stepmother became close until Charlotte's early death the year after their marriage; the twice widowed and grieving duke went to Darmstadt, where he gave the children into the care of his mother-in-law and Louise's godmother, the widowed Landgravine Marie Louise. Their grandmother preferred to raise them and they made their own clothes. A new governess from Switzerland, Madame Gelieux, was appointed, giving the children lessons in French.
She received religious instruction from a clergyman of the Lutheran Church. Complementary to her lessons was an emphasis on charitable acts, Louise would accompany her governess when visiting the houses of the poor and needy. Louise was encouraged to give out as much as was in her means, although she got into trouble with her grandmother for donating too much for charity. From the age of ten until her marriage at 17, Louise spent most of her time in the presence of her grandmother and governess, both well-educated and refined; when only nine years old, Louise was present when the poet Friedrich Schiller read from the first act of "Don Carlos" for the entertainment of the assembled court, thus sparking her love for German as a literary language works of Schiller. Louise loved history and poetry, not only enjoyed reading Schiller, but came to like the works of Goethe, Paul and Shakespeare, as well as ancient Greek tragedies. In 1793, Marie Louise took the two youngest duchesses with her to Frankfurt, where she paid her respects to her nephew King Frederick William II.
Louise had grown up into a beautiful young woman, possessing "an exquisite complexion" and "large blue eyes," and was graceful. Louise's uncle, the Duke of Mecklenburg, hoped to strengthen ties between Prussia. On one evening planned by the Duke, seventeen-year-old Louise met the king's son and heir, Crown Prince Frederick William; the crown prince was twenty-three, serious-minded, religious. She made such a charming impression on Frederick William that he made his choice, desiring to marry her. Frederica caught the eye of his younger brother Prince Louis Charles, the two families began planning a double betrothal, celebrating a month on 24 April 1793 in Darmstadt. Frederick and Louise were subsequently married on 24 December that same year, with Louis and Frederica marrying two days later. In the events leading up to her marriage, Louise's arrival in Berlin, the Prussian capital, caused quite a sensation, she was greeted with a grand reception by the city's joyful citi
Mecklenburg-Güstrow was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in Northern Germany, that existed on three separate occasions ruled by the House of Mecklenburg at Güstrow. A first short-lived predecessor existed after the death of Henry IV, Duke of Mecklenburg in 1477 and the subsequent partition of his lands among his sons in 1480. Albert VI received the estates of the former Lordship of Werle around Güstrow. However, Albert died without issue in 1483 and his lands were inherited by his younger brother Magnus II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; when Magnus died in 1503, his sons Henry V and Albert VII at first ruled jointly over the entire Mecklenburg duchy until its renewed division by the 1520 Neubrandenburg Treaty. Albert, a fierce opponent of the Protestant Reformation, had insisted on the partition and became duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, while his brother Henry retained Mecklenburg-Schwerin; however Mecklenburg de jure remained undivided. At this time John Albert and Ulrich had ruled jointly over the Güstrow lands, but now came into conflict over the inherited Schwerin part.
The controversy was decided in 1556 by the Ruppin dictum of Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg: John Albert I received Schwerin while Ulrich remained Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. Ulrich died without heirs in 1603 and Güstrow fell back to John Albert's grandchildren Adolf Frederick I and John Albert II, joint rulers of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1610 onwards. Mecklenburg-Güstrow was created for a third and final time with the partition of 1621, when John Albert II received the Güstrow part of Mecklenburg. In 1628 he and his brother at Schwerin were stripped off their duchies by order of Emperor Ferdinand II von Habsburg in favour of his Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein; the dukes were reproached for having secretly sided with Christian IV, King of Denmark, while in fact Mecklenburg was given in compensation of the enormous expenses Wallenstein had paid in building up Imperial troops. He took his residence at Güstrow but was dismissed by the Emperor three years under pressure from the Prince-electors, while the dukes with the support of Swedish troops were restored.
The House of Mecklenburg-Güstrow had assumed the administration of the former Catholic Prince-Bishopric of Ratzeburg after its conversion to Lutheranism in 1554. By the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the diocese was secularised and adjudicated to the last administrator, Duke Gustav Adolph. Gustav Adolph's death in 1695 led to an inheritance dispute between his son-in-law Adolphus Frederick II, younger son of Adolf Frederick I and his nephew Frederick William, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, which would lead to the creation of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1701. Albert VI 1480–1483Güstrow reunited with Mecklenburg 1483–1520 Albert VII 1520–1547 John Albert I 1547–1556, son Ulrich III 1556–1603, brother Charles I 1603–1610, custodian for: John Albert II 1610–1628, jointly with his brother Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1610–1621 Albrecht von Wallenstein 1628–1631 John Albert II 1631–1636 Gustav Adolph 1636–1695, sonTo Mecklenburg-Schwerin Regnal chronologies Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Mecklenburg".
Genealogy. EU. Map of Mecklenburg-Güstrow in 1600, Euratlas.net
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg residing in Neustrelitz. Like the neighbouring Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, it was a sovereign member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation and of the German Empire upon the unification of 1871. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 it was succeeded by the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, it consisted of two detached parts of the Mecklenburg region: the larger Lordship of Stargard with the residence of Neustrelitz to the southeast of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and the Principality of Ratzeburg on the west. The first was bounded by the Prussian provinces of Pomerania and Brandenburg, the second bordered on the Duchy of Lauenburg and the territory of the Free City of Lübeck. Major towns beside Neustrelitz included Neubrandenburg, Woldegk, Stargard, Fürstenberg, Wesenberg.
The Grand Duchy comprised the former commandries of the Knights Hospitaller in Mirow and Nemerow. The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, established according to the dynastic Treaty of Hamburg in 1701, adopted the corporative constitution of the sister Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin by an act of September 1755. During the Napoleonic Wars it was spared the infliction of a French occupation through the good offices of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his minister Maximilian von Montgelas, he joined the German Confederation established after the 1815 Congress of Vienna to succeed the dissolved Holy Roman Empire. Though Grand Duke Frederick William rejected the Prussian annexation of the Kingdom of Hanover, the Prussian Army had been aided by soldiers from Mecklenburg-Strelitz in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Thereupon, the Grand Duchy joined the reconstituted Zollverein. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, the Kingdom of Prussia received valuable assistance from Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1871 both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became States of the German Empire.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz returned one member to the Bundesrat chamber of states. However, the Grand Duke was still styled Prince of the Wends and the internal government of Mecklenburg-Strelitz remained unmodernized. Mocked by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as a safe haven in the face of threatening apocalypse "as everything there happens 50 years later", the Grand Duchy had always been a government of feudal character; the Grand Dukes exercised absolute power through their ministers, with an antiquated type of diet representing social classes. It met for a short session each year, at other times was represented by a committee consisting of the proprietors of knights' estates, known as the Ritterschaft, of the Landschaft, composed of burgomasters of selected towns. There was now a renewal of agitation for a more democratic constitution, the German Reichstag gave some countenance to this movement. In 1904 Adolphus Frederick V, a son of Grand Duke Frederick William and his wife Princess Augusta of Cambridge, daughter of Prince Adolphus, became grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
In 1907, the grand duke promised a constitution to the duchy's subjects, but this was met with opposition from the nobility. The Mecklenburg-Strelitz dynasty ended just prior to the loss of the monarchy in developments associated with World War I. At that time, there existed only two surviving recognized male dynasts of Strelitz, the young Grand Duke Adolphus Frederick VI, his cousin Charles Michael, in Russian service, being a son of Grand Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna. In 1914, before the proclamation of war between Germany and Russia, Duke Charles Michael renounced his Mecklenburgish citizenship. On 23 February 1918, Grand Duke Adolf Frederick VI committed suicide, leaving his cousin Charles Michael as heir to the Strelitz throne. Being in Russia, Charles Michael did not assume the throne, in 1918 he wrote to Grand Duke Frederick Francis IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, acting as regent in Strelitz, stating that he wished to renounce his rights of succession to Strelitz, though the letter was only received by Frederick Francis in 1919 after the end of the German monarchies, so the issue of succession could not be resolved at the time.
The House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz survives to this day, descending from Duke George, the morganatic son of Duke George Alexander with Countess Natalia Carlow and nephew of Duke Charles Michael, who adopted him in 1928. George subsequently assumed the title "Duke of Mecklenburg", acknowledged by Grand Duke Frederick Francis IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, he was given the style of "Highness" by the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. George's grandson Borwin is the present head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; the county of Mecklenburg in the U. S. state of North Carolina, which includes the city of Charlotte, is named after the duchy. The City of Charlotte, known as "The Queen City" was named for Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III of Great Britain. Queen Charlotte was Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, born on 19 May 1744, she was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow and his wife Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen. This article incorporates text from a publication
Adolphus Frederick III, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adolphus Frederick III was a Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was born in Strelitz the son of Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg, his wife Princess Maria of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, his father founded the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1701 after reaching an agreement with the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He succeeded his father as Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on 12 May 1708. In 1712 the ducal family's the town of Strelitz burnt down; because of this Adolphus Frederick and his family were forced to live in their hunting lodge. Around this place the new town of Neustrelitz was constructed. In 1733 he founded the new city, which became the official capital of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1736. Adolphus Frederick died at Neustrelitz and was succeeded as Duke by his nephew Adolphus Frederick IV. Adolphus Frederick was married to Princess Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön on 16 April 1709 at Reinfeld, they had two children: Duchess Marie Sofia Duchess Madalena Cristina
Bishopric of Ratzeburg
The Bishopric of Ratzeburg, centered on Ratzeburg in Northern Germany, was a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Hamburg, which transformed into the Archdiocese of Bremen in 1072. Ratzeburg was one of the dioceses formed c. 1050 by Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg, who appointed St. Aristo, who had just returned from Jerusalem, to the new see. Aristo seems to have been but a wandering missionary bishop. In 1066, the pagan Wends rose against their German masters, on 15 July 1066, St. Ansverus, Abbot of St. George's, several of his monks are said to have been stoned to death, it was not until 1154, that Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, Hartwich I, Archbishop of Hamburg, refounded the episcopal see of Ratzeburg, Evermodus became its first bishop. A disciple of St Norbert and provost of the Monastery of Our Lady at Magdeburg, Evermodus was, like many of his successors, a Premonstratensian canon. In 1157, a chapter was attached to Ratzeburg cathedral by Pope Adrian IV. In 1236 Bishop Peter was invested by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, with temporal jurisdiction over the land of Butin and a number of villages outside it, making the see a prince-bishopric.
The succeeding prince-bishops retained this jurisdiction in spite of the frequent attempts which the dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg made to deprive them of it. The cathedral of Ratzeburg dates from the beginning of the 12th century, it was restored, additions were made to it in the 15th century. The cathedral and pertaining premises such as the chapter and further episcopal manors formed the cathedral immunity district, an extraterritorial enclave of the Prince-Bishopric of Ratzeburg within the city of Ratzeburg, else belonging to Saxe-Lauenburg; the diocese contained a number of other beautiful churches at Mölln, Wismar, Büchen and elsewhere. Besides the cathedral chapter of Ratzeburg with its provost or dean and twelve canons, there were in the diocese the Benedictine Abbeys of St. George, of Wismar, where Benedictines expelled from Lübeck founded a monastery in 1239. There were Franciscans and Dominicans at Wismar. In 1504, during the episcopate of Prince-Bishop Johann V von Parkentin, the Premonstratensian regular canons of Ratzeburg cathedral were, with papal consent, made secular canons.
Prince-Bishop Georg von Blumenthal, who feuded with Thomas Aderpul, was the last Roman Catholic bishop. In 1552, the cathedral was plundered by Count Volrad von Mansfeld. In 1554, the dean and chapter converted to Lutheranism; the cathedral is a proto-cathedral since and is owned by a Lutheran congregation within the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church. Most other churches in the former diocesan territory house Lutheran congregations today belonging to the North Elbian or the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg. After 1554 the now Lutheran chapter elected Lutheran princes, lacking any canonical qualification, as administrators of the prince-bishopric; the capitulars deliberately ignored the ducal Saxe-Lauenburgian candidates, sons of the duke, fearing the prince-bishopric would be incorporated into Saxe-Lauenburg. The prince-bishopric was secularized by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, becoming the Principality of Ratzeburg under the control of the Dukes of Mecklenburg. In 1701 the principality became an exclave of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the diocesan historical territory in the German Empire corresponded to the district of Duchy of Lauenburg, the bishop's own Principality of Ratzeburg in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the western part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, including Wismar but not Schwerin. The whole of it was included in the Diocese of Osnabrück and forms since January 7, 1995 part of the new Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg, with most of today's Catholic churches in the region built since the 19th century, it has been suggested. Aristo — c. 1051 Evermode — 1154–1178 vacancy — 1178–1180 Isfried — 1180–1204 Philipp — 1204–1215 Heinrich I — 1215–1228 Lambert von Barmstede — 1228 Gottschalk — 1229–1235 Petrus — 1236 Ludolph I of Ratzeburg — 1236–1250 Friedrich — 1250–1257 Ulrich von Blücher — 1257–1284 Konrad — 1284–1291 Hermann von Blücher — 1291–1309 Marquard von Jossow — 1309–1335 Volrad von dem Dorne — 1335–1355 Otto von Gronow — 1355–1356 Wipert von Blücher — 1356–1367 Heinrich II. von Wittorf — 1367–1388 Gerhard Holtorp — 1388–1395 Detlef von Berkentin — 1395–1419 Johannes I. von Trempe — 1419–1431 Paridam von dem Knesebeck — 1431–1440 Johannes II.
Prohl — 1440–1454 Johann III. von Preen — 1454–1461 Ludolf II. of Ratzeburg — 1461–1466 Johannes IV. Stalkoper — 1466–1479 Johannes V. von Berkentin — 1479–1511 Heinrich III. Bergmeier — 1511–1524 Georg von Blumenthal — 1524–1550 Christopher I von der Schulenburg — 1550–15541554 Protestant Reformation 1554–1592: Christopher II of Mecklenburg 1592–1610: Charles of Mecklenburg 1610–1636: Augustus of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Celle line 1636–1648: Gustavus Adolphus of Mecklenburg-Güstrow This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Bishopric of Ratzeburg on the Catholic Encyclopedia Map of the Bishopric in 1789
Wesenberg is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated 11 km southwest of Neustrelitz, at the south-west end of the Woblitzsee. Wesenberg Castle is located just outside the town. Heinrich Plütschau, one of the first Evangelical priests to India Media related to Wesenberg at Wikimedia Commons Website of Wesenberg