Caviar tongue, is a condition characterized by purplish venous ectasias found on the ventral of the tongue after the age of fifty. It is normal for there to be veins visible underneath the tongue because the mucous membrane is so thin and translucent in this region, but where these vessels become dilated and tortuous, they may appear round and black like caviar. Varicose veins Varices
Lingual papillae are the small, nipple-like structures on the upper surface of the tongue that give it its characteristic rough texture. The four types of papillae on the human tongue have different structures and are accordingly classfied as circumvallate, fungiform and foliate. All except the filiform papillae are associated with taste buds. In living subjects, lingual papillae are more seen when the tongue is dry. There are four types of papillae present on the tongue: Filiform papillae are the most numerous of the lingual papillae, they are fine, cone-shaped papillae covering most of the dorsum of the tongue. They are responsible for giving the tongue its texture and are responsible for the sensation of touch. Unlike the other kinds of papillae, filiform papillae do not contain taste buds, they cover most of the front two-thirds of the tongue's surface. They appear as small, conical or cylindrical surface projections, are arranged in rows which lie parallel to the sulcus terminalis. At the tip of the tongue, these rows become more transverse.
Histologically, they are made up of irregular connective tissue cores with a keratin–containing epithelium which has fine secondary threads. Heavy keratinization of filiform papillae, occurring for instance in cats, gives the tongue a roughness, characteristic of these animals; these papillae have a whitish tint, owing to the density of their epithelium. This epithelium has undergone a peculiar modification as the cells have become cone–like and elongated into dense, brush-like threads, they contain a number of elastic fibers, which render them firmer and more elastic than the other types of papillae. The larger and longer papillae of this group are sometimes termed papillae conicae; the fungiform papillae are club shaped projections on the tongue red in color. They are found on the tip of the tongue, scattered amongst the filiform papillae but are present on the tip and sides of the tongue, they have taste buds on their upper surface which can distinguish the five tastes: sweet, bitter and umami.
They have a core of connective tissue. The fungiform papillae are innervated by the seventh cranial nerve, more via the submandibular ganglion, chorda tympani, geniculate ganglion ascending to the solitary nucleus in the brainstem. Foliate papillae are present on each side of the tongue, they are located on the sides at the back of the tongue, just in front of the palatoglossal arch of the fauces, There are four or five vertical folds, their size and shape is variable. The foliate papillae leaf -- like ridges of mucosa, they are covered with epithelium, lack keratin and so are softer, bear many taste buds. They are bilaterally symmetrical. Sometimes they appear small and inconspicuous, at other times they are prominent; because their location is a high risk site for oral cancer, their tendency to swell, they may be mistaken as tumors or inflammatory disease. Taste buds, the receptors of the gustatory sense, are scattered over the mucous membrane of their surface. Serous glands clean the taste buds.
Lingual tonsils are found behind the foliate papillae and, when hyperplastic, cause a prominence of the papillae. The circumvallate papillae are dome-shaped structures on the human tongue that vary in number from 8 to 12, they are situated on the surface of the tongue in front of the foramen cecum and sulcus terminalis, forming a row on either side. Each papilla consists of a projection of mucous membrane from 1 to 2 mm. wide, attached to the bottom of a circular depression of the mucous membrane. The papilla is shaped like a truncated cone, the smaller end being directed downward and attached to the tongue, the broader part or base projecting a little above the surface of the tongue and being studded with numerous small secondary papillæ and covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Ducts of lingual salivary glands, known as Von Ebner's glands empty a serous secretion into the base of the circular depression, which acts like a moat; the function of the secretion is presumed to flush materials from the base of circular depression to ensure that taste buds can respond to changing stimuli rapidly.
The circumvallate papillae get special afferent taste innervation from cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve though they are anterior to the sulcus terminalis. The rest of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue gets taste innervation from the chorda tympani of cranial nerve VII, distributed with the lingual nerve of cranial nerve V. Lingual papillae filiform papillae, are thought to increase the surface area of the tongue and to increase the area of contact and friction between the tongue and food; this may increase the tongue's ability to manipulate a bolus of food, to position food between the teeth during mastication and swallowing. In some diseases, there can be depapillation of the tongue, where the lingual papillae are lost, leaving a smooth and sore area. Examples of depapillating oral conditions include geographic tongue, median rhomboid glossitis and other types of glossitis; the term glossitis atrophic glossitis is used synonymously with depapillation. Where the entire dorsal surface of the tongue has lost its papillae, this is sometimes termed "bald tongue".
Nutritional deficiencies of iron, folic acid, B vitamins may cause depapillation of the tongue. Pa
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy; the upper and lower lips are referred to as the "Labium superius oris" and "Labium inferius oris", respectively. The juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, the reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone; the vermilion border of the upper lip is known as the cupid's bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the upper lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the "tuberculum labii superioris", the "labial tubercle"; the vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the nasal septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five cellular layers, is thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers.
With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes. Because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring. With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in this case the skin of the lips contains more melanin and thus is visually darker; the skin of the lip forms the border between the exterior skin of the face, the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin does not have sweat glands. Therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips become chapped more easily; the lower lip is formed from a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the anterior body of the mandible, it is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly. The upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla, its upper half is of usual skin color and has a depression at its center, directly under the nasal septum, called the philtrum, Latin for lower nose, while its lower half is a markedly different, red-colored skin tone more similar to the color of the inside of the mouth, the term vermillion refers to the colored portion of either the upper or lower lip.
It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lower lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. Thinning of the vermilion of the upper lip and flattening of the philtrum are two of the facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome, a lifelong disability caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy; the skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium. The mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, is therefore sensitive; the Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip. The Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch, it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose. The mental nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch, it supplies the skin and mucous membrane of labial gingiva anteriorly. The facial artery is one of the six non-terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
This artery supplies both lips by its inferior labial branches. Each of the two branches bifurcate and anastomose with their companion branch from the other terminal; the muscles acting on the lips are considered part of the muscles of facial expression. All muscles of facial expression are derived from the mesoderm of the second pharyngeal arch, are therefore supplied by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve; the muscles of facial expression are all specialized members of the panniculus carnosus, which attach to the dermis and so wrinkle, or dimple the overlying skin. Functionally, the muscles of facial expression are arranged in groups around the orbits and mouth; the muscles acting on the lips: Buccinator Orbicularis oris Anchor point for several muscles Modiolus Lip elevation Levator labii superioris levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Levator anguli oris Zygomaticus minor Zygomaticus major Lip depression Risorius Depressor anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Mentalis Because they have their own muscles and bordering muscles, the lips are movable.
Lips are used for eating functions, like holding food. In addition, lips serve to close the mouth airtight shut, to hold food and drink inside, to keep out unwanted objects. Through making a narrow funnel with the lips, the suction of the mouth is increased; this suction is essential for babies to breast feed. Lips can be used to suck in other contexts, such as sucking on a straw to drink liquids; the lips serve for creating different sounds—mainly labial and labiodental consonant sounds as well as vowel rounding—and thus are an important part of the speech apparatus. The lips enable whistling and the performing of wind instruments such as the trumpet, clarinet and saxophone. People who have hearing loss may unconsciously or consciously lip read to understand speech without needing to perceive the actual sounds; the lip reacts as part of the tactile senses. Lips are sensitive to touch and cold, it is therefore
Heck's disease is an asymptomatic, benign neoplastic condition characterized by multiple white to pinkish papules that occur diffusely in the oral cavity. Can present with pale, smooth or roughened surface morphology, it is caused by the human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. It exhibits surface cells with vacuolated cytoplasm around irregular, pyknotic nuclei and occasional cells with mitosis-like changes within otherwise mature and well-differentiated epithelium. A distinguishing histologic feature is elongated rete ridges with mitosoid bodies present, it was first identified in the Aboriginal population of North America. Over time, they will spontaneously regress without treatment. Possible treatment may be excisional biopsy for lesions of functional or aesthetic concern
Gingival cyst is a type of cysts of the jaws that originates from the dental lamina and is found in the mouth parts. It is a superficial cyst in the alveolar mucosa, it can be seen inside the mouth as whitish bulge. Depending on the ages in which they develop, the cysts are classified into gingival cyst of newborn and gingival cyst of adult. Structurally, the cyst is lined by thin epithelium and shows a lumen filled with desquamated keratin containing inflammatory cells; the nodes are formed as a result of cystic degeneration of epithelial rests of the dental lamina. Gingival cyst was first described by a Czech physician Alois Epstein in 1880. In 1886, a German physician Heinrich Bohn described another type of cyst. Alfred Fromm introduced the classification of gingival cysts in 1967. According to him, gingival cysts of newborns can be further classified based on their specific origin of the tissues as Epstein’s pearls, Bohn’s nodules and dental lamina cysts. Gingival cysts of infants are found in groups, but are found as single nodules.
They are present on the alveolar ridges. They are formed from fragments of dental lamina that remains within the alveolar ridge mucosa during tooth formation, they emerge when the process of formation extends into the abnormal sites to form small keratinized cysts. They are harmless and do not cause discomfort, they degenerate and involutes or rupture into the oral cavity within 2 weeks to 5 months after birth. Hence, they are not recognized and do not require medical treatment, it is estimated. Depending on their exact occurrence, the cysts can be classified into alveolar cysts. Palatine cysts are those located at the mid-palatine raphe, while alveolar cysts are found on the buccal, lingual or crest of alveolar ridge. Epstein’s pearls were discovered by Alois Epstein in 1880, they are palatal cysts found along the median palatal raphae and arise from the epithelium entangled along the line of fusion. They are small white or yellow cystic vesicles seen in the median palatal raphe of the mouth of newborn infants.
They are seen on the roof of the mouth and are filled with fluid. They are caused by entrapped epithelium during the development of the palate. Bohn’s nodules, described by Heinrich Bohn in 1886 as "mucous gland cysts", are distributed over the junction of the hard and soft palate, they are derived from minor salivary glands. They are found at the junction of the hard and soft palate, along lingual and buccal parts of the dental ridges, away from the midline; these nodules are 1–3 mm in size, filled with keratin. Bohn classified cysts in the alveolar ridges as mucous gland cysts. However, a century it was shown that these cysts are microkeratocysts. Gingival cyst of adult is a rare condition; the incidence is less than 0.5%. It is formed from the rests of dental lamina, it is found in the soft tissues on the labial portions of the jaw. It occurs on the facial gingiva as a single small flesh colored swelling, sometimes with a bluish hue due to the cystic fluid. Sometimes, it may occur in cluster, either unilaterally or bilaterally or on the lingual surface of the alveolar process.
It is most seen in the canine and premolar regions of the mandible, are sometimes confused with lateral periodontal cysts. It is not problematic, but when it grows larger, it can cause some discomfort, it can be removed by simple surgical excision. They are developed late in life up to the sixth decade of age. Gingival Cyst of Adult and Newborn at JuniorDentist.com Gingival Cyst of Adult at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry Gingival cyst at PathologyOutlines.com Gingival cyst of the adult at the Bauer Dentistry and Orthodontics