Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States, for dominance in spaceflight capability. It had its origins in the missile-based nuclear arms race between the two nations that occurred following World War II, aided by captured German missile technology and personnel from the Aggregat program; the technological superiority required for such dominance was seen as necessary for national security, symbolic of ideological superiority. The Space Race spawned pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, uncrewed space probes of the Moon and Mars, human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon; the Space Race began on August 2, 1955, when the Soviet Union responded to the US announcement four days earlier of intent to launch artificial satellites for the International Geophysical Year, by declaring they would launch a satellite "in the near future". The Soviet Union beat the US to the first successful launch, with the October 4, 1957, orbiting of Sputnik 1, beat the US to have the first human in earth orbit, Yuri Gagarin, on April 12, 1961.
The "race" peaked with the July 20, 1969, US landing of the first humans on the Moon with Apollo 11. The USSR attempted several crewed lunar missions but canceled them and concentrated on Earth orbital space stations. A period of détente followed with the April 1972 agreement on a co-operative Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, resulting in the July 1975 rendezvous in Earth orbit of a US astronaut crew with a Soviet cosmonaut crew; the end of the Space Race is harder to pinpoint than its beginning, but it was over by the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, after which spaceflight cooperation between the US and Russia flourished. The Space Race has left a legacy of Earth communications and weather satellites, continuing human space presence on the International Space Station, it has sparked increases in spending on education and research and development, which led to beneficial spin-off technologies. The origins of the Space Race can be traced to Germany, beginning in the 1930s and continuing during World War II when Nazi Germany researched and built operational ballistic missiles capable of sub-orbital spaceflight.
Starting in the early 1930s, during the last stages of the Weimar Republic, German aerospace engineers experimented with liquid-fueled rockets, with the goal that one day they would be capable of reaching high altitudes and traversing long distances. The head of the German Army's Ballistics and Munitions Branch, Lieutenant Colonel Karl Emil Becker, gathered a small team of engineers that included Walter Dornberger and Leo Zanssen, to figure out how to use rockets as long-range artillery in order to get around the Treaty of Versailles' ban on research and development of long-range cannons. Wernher von Braun, a young engineering prodigy, was recruited by Becker and Dornberger to join their secret army program at Kummersdorf-West in 1932. Von Braun dreamed of conquering outer space with rockets and did not see the military value in missile technology. During the Second World War, General Dornberger was the military head of the army's rocket program, Zanssen became the commandant of the Peenemünde army rocket center, von Braun was the technical director of the ballistic missile program.
They led the team that built the Aggregate-4 rocket, which became the first vehicle to reach outer space during its test flight program in 1942 and 1943. By 1943, Germany began mass-producing the A-4 as the Vergeltungswaffe 2, a ballistic missile with a 320 kilometers range carrying a 1,130 kilograms warhead at 4,000 kilometers per hour, its supersonic speed meant there was no defense against it, radar detection provided little warning. Germany used the weapon to bombard southern England and parts of Allied-liberated western Europe from 1944 until 1945. After the war, the V-2 became the basis of early Soviet rocket designs. At war's end, American and Soviet scientific intelligence teams competed to capture Germany's rocket engineers along with the German rockets themselves and the designs on which they were based; each of the Allies captured a share of the available members of the German rocket team, but the United States benefited the most with Operation Paperclip, recruiting von Braun and most of his engineering team, who helped develop the American missile and space exploration programs.
The United States acquired a large number of complete V2 rockets. The German rocket center in Peenemünde was located in the eastern part of Germany, which became the Soviet zone of occupation. On Stalin's orders, the Soviet Union sent its best rocket engineers to this region to see what they could salvage for future weapons systems; the Soviet rocket engineers were led by Sergei Korolev. He had been involved in space clubs and early Soviet rocket design in the 1930s, but was arrested in 1938 during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge and imprisoned for six years in Gulag. After the war, he became the USSR's chief rocket and spacecraft engineer the Soviet counterpart to von Braun, his identity was kept a state secret throughout the Cold War, he was identified publicly only as "the Chief Designer." In the West, his name was only revealed when he died in 1966. After a year in the area around Peenemünde, Soviet officials conducted Operation Osoaviakhim and moved more than 170 of the top captured German rocket specialists to Gorodomlya Island on Lake Seliger, about 240 kilometers northwest of Moscow.
They were not allowed to participate in final Soviet missile design, but were used as problem-solving consultants to the Soviet engineers. They helped in the following
Saint Blandina was a Christian martyr who died at Lyon, France during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was the local Roman officials who were responsible for the persecution of Christians. In the second century, the emperors treated Christianity as a local problem to be dealt with by their subordinates; the number and severity of persecutions of Christians in various locations of the empire increased during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The extent to which Marcus Aurelius himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians; the traditional account regarding Blandina is reported by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica. She belongs to the band of martyrs of Lyon who, after some of their number had endured frightful tortures, suffered martyrdom in 177 in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. All we know of Blandina comes from a letter sent from the Church of Lyon to the Churches of Asia Minor.
Eusebius gives significant space of her life and death in his book as he quotes from the aforementioned epistle to Asia Minor. The fanaticism of the Roman populace in Lyon had been excited against the Christians so that the latter, when they ventured to show themselves publicly, were harassed and ill-treated. While the imperial legate was away, the chiliarch, a military commander, the duumvir, a civil magistrate, threw a number of Christians, who confessed their faith, into prison; when the legate returned, the imprisoned believers were brought to trial. Among these Christians was Blandina, a slave, taken into custody along with her master a Christian, her companions feared that on account of her bodily frailty she might not remain steadfast under torture. But although the legate caused her to be tortured in a horrible manner, so that the executioners became exhausted "as they did not know what more they could do to her", still she remained faithful and repeated to every question "I am a Christian, we commit no wrongdoing."
Through fear of torture slaves had testified against their masters that the Christians when assembled committed cannibalism and incest, the legate desired to wring confession of this misconduct from the Christian prisoners. In his report to the emperor the legate stated that those who held to their Christian belief were to be executed and those who denied their faith were to be released, the legate received instructions from the Emperor Marcus Aurelius allowing the Roman citizens who persisted in the faith to be executed by beheading, but those without citizenship were to be tortured. Blandina was therefore subjected to new tortures with a number of companions in the town's amphitheater at the time of the public games, she was bound to a stake and wild beasts were set on her. According to legend, they did not, touch her. After enduring this for a number of days, in an effort to persuade her to recant, she was led into the arena to see the sufferings of her companions; as the last of the martyrs, she was scourged, placed on a red-hot grate, enclosed in a net and thrown before a wild steer who tossed her into the air with his horns.
In the end, she was killed with a dagger. Her feast is celebrated June 2. Two communes in France are named after her. See Sainte-Blandine. Persecution in Lyon Scillitan Martyrs Acts of the Martyrs List of Christian women of the patristic age Goodine, Elizabeth. 2014. Standing at Lyon: An examination of the Martyrdom of Blandina of Lyon. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. Santa Blandina Icons of St. Blandina, martyr All-Merciful Savior Orthodox Mission website Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Blandina
Times Union (Albany)
The Times Union is an American daily newspaper, serving the Capital Region of New York. Although the newspaper focuses on Albany and its suburbs, it covers all parts of the four-county area, including the cities of Troy and Saratoga Springs, it is owned by Hearst Communications. The paper was founded in 1857 as the Morning Times, becoming Times-Union by 1891, was purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1924; the newspaper has been online since 1996. The editor of the Times Union is Rex Smith, who has held the post since July 2002, he had been the paper's managing editor. George Hearst is the publisher; the newspaper is printed in its Colonie headquarters by the Hearst Corporation's Capital Newspapers Division. The daily edition costs $2 and the Sunday/Thanksgiving Day edition costs $3. Home delivery prices are lower; the Times Union announced in May 2006 that it would pay $3.5 million over 10 years for the naming rights of the Pepsi Arena in downtown Albany. On January 1, 2007, the arena was renamed the Times Union Center.
Front Section: The Times Union's A section contains national, world and celebrity news, editorials, an editorial cartoon and letters to the editor. In 2007, the paper reorganized its daily sections and began placing late-breaking local news stories in the front section. Capital Region: The local section contains news relating to the Capital District, obituaries, a calendar of events, the weather report, it contains columns by Fred LeBrun, Paul Grondahl and Chris Churchill. Sports: The sports section covers local and national sports events at high school and professional levels. Outdoor activities are represented. Business: The business section contains local and national business news and mutual fund tables, classified advertisements, a crossword puzzle. Perspective: The Perspective section includes editorials and letters to the editor. In addition to the above, the Thursday edition contains: Preview: A tabloid section covering movies, dance and other entertainment topics, it contains movie reviews in brief, a calendar of events, a review of an inexpensive restaurant.
In addition to the daily sections, the Sunday edition contains: Perspective: Contains opinion commentaries, editorials, an editorial cartoon, letters to the editor, a report of Congressional votes. Spaces: A tabloid section with real estate listings and articles on housing topics. Travel/Books: A two-part section with the first portion covering travel and the second covering books, it contains travel articles, weekly airfares, book reviews, the New York Times Bestseller List. Parade Magazine: The Sunday Times Union includes this national magazine covering lifestyle and celebrity topics. Arts/Events: The arts section has articles on classical music, the visual arts, theater, it contains a calendar of events and gallery listings, a Broadway theater directory. The Sunday paper has numerous advertising circulars and coupon pages; the Times Union's editorial board consists of: George R. Hearst III—Publisher Rex Smith—Editor Jay Jochnowitz—Editorial Page Editor Michael V. Spain—Associate Editor Tena Tyler—Senior Editor.
Engagement Harry Rosenfeld—Editor-at-LargeSource: TimesUnion.com The paper is mentioned as the employer of Jane Fonda's character in the film, "Sundays in New York". She states. Alan Chartock The Media Project Times Union Center WAMC "Guide to the Times Union opinion pages". Archived from the original on Sep 27, 2007. Official website Legacy of Change, History of the TU on its 150th anniversary Editor's Column Capitaland Quarterly Times Union profile at Hearst Corporation
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
Union University (New York)
Union University is a federation of several graduate and undergraduate institutions which are located in New York State, United States. Its constituent entities include Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany Law School, Albany Medical College, Dudley Observatory, Union Graduate College, Union College, it was established in 1873. The motto on its seal is In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas; each member institution has its own governing board, is fiscally independent, is responsible for its own programs
Albany Law School
Albany Law School is a private, American Bar Association-accredited law school founded in 1851 in Albany, New York making it the oldest law school in New York. It has an affiliation agreement with University at Albany; the school is located near New York's highest court, federal courts, the executive branch and the state legislature. Albany Law School is the oldest independent law school in the United States, it was founded in 1851 by Amos Dean, Amasa J. Parker, Ira Harris, others. Beginning in 1878, the Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany Law School, Albany Medical College, Dudley Observatory, Graduate College of Union University, Union College created the loose association today known as Union University; each member institution has its own governing board, is fiscally independent, is responsible for its own programs. Albany Law School has a close relationship with the New York Court of Appeals. One of the original members of the court, Greene C. Bronson, helped to found the law school. Since that time, Albany Law School alumni have been members of the court nine times with two serving as Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals.
In addition, the school hosts the Fund for Modern Courts' Hugh R. Jones Memorial Lecture, given by a current or former member of the court; the law school inducted its first permanent female President & Dean, Penelope Andrews, on July 1, 2012. On July 1, 2015, Alicia Ouellette became Dean. Albany Law is the only law school located within 90 miles of New York's Capital District, it is within two miles of the New York State Legislature, New York Court of Appeals, the Appellate Division 3rd Department, the Federal District Court for the Northern District of New York, the New York State Bar Association, several state agencies, a number of private law firms. Albany Law School offers 14 concentrations for J. D. candidates, as well as an L. L. M program, joint J. D./M. B. A, J. D./M. P. A. J. D./M. R. P. J. D./M. S. and J. D./M. S. W. Programs. Albany Law School is home to several centers of legal study: The Government Law Center, The Center for Excellence in Law Teaching, The Institute of Legal Studies, The Institute for Financial Market Regulation, The Center for Judicial Process.
In addition, under the auspices of its Law Clinic and Justice Center, Albany Law School operates several public interest clinics. Some of the clinics available include the Health Law Clinic, Community Development Clinic, Domestic Violence Prosecution, Family Violence Litigation. Albany Law School's Schaffer Law Library holds a collection of more than 730,000 volumes and equivalents, including videotapes of oral arguments before the New York State Court of Appeals dating back to 1989. Albany Law School offers courses and concentrations for the following degree programs: J. D. Three-year program, J. D. Two-year accelerated program, LL. M. LL. M. for International Law Graduates, M. S. in Legal Studies with Concentrations in: Cyber-security & Data Privacy, Government Affairs & Advocacy, Health Law & Health Law Compliance, Social Entrepreneurship. Joint degrees: J. D./ Master of Business Administration with The College of Saint Rose, Union Graduate College, The Sage Colleges or University at Albany, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, J.
D./ Master of Business Administration in Healthcare Management with Union Graduate College, J. D./ Master of Science in Bioethics with Alden March Bioethics Institute at Albany Medical College. D./ Master of Public Administration & Policy with University at Albany, J. D./ Master of Social Work with University at Albany, J. D./ Master of Regional Planning with University at Albany, J. D./ Master of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Albany Law School has an affiliation agreement with University at Albany that includes shared programs, access for students and faculty to learn from one another. In 1875, Albany Law published the nation's first student-edited legal periodical, the Albany Law School Journal, which existed for only one academic year before being discontinued; the school publishes three journals, which are listed in order of their founding and combined national ranking: Albany Law Review Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology Albany Government Law Review Full Time faculty: Alicia Ouellette and Dean Ira Mark Bloom, Trusts and Property lawyer Vincent M. Bonventre and Constitutional Law lawyer and commentator Raymond H. Brescia, Public Interest Law lawyer and commentator Patrick M. Connors, New York Civil Practice and Legal Ethics lawyerAdjunct faculty: Mae D'Agostino, United States District Judge for the Northern District of New York Lawrence E. Kahn, Senior United States District Judge for the Northern District of New York Eleanor Stein, Administrative Law Judge, former member of Weather Underground and Students for a Democratic Society Matthew Tully, columnistFormer faculty: Penelope Andrews, Dean of the faculty of law at the University of Cape Town Learned Hand, United States Judge and legal philosopher Patricia Salkin, Dean of Touro Law Center David D. Siegel, commentator on New York Civil Practice Albany Law School has numerous notable alumni.
It is one of only twelve law schools in the United States to have graduated two or more justices of the United States Supreme Court: Robert H. Jackson and David Josiah Brewer. Nine judges of the New York State Court of Appeals, United States President William McKinley, current New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, former Fox News anchor Megyn Kelly, over a dozen members of the United States Congress can call Albany Law School their alma mater; the first woman admitted to the New York State Bar, Kate Stoneman, the first Afric