Coolidge is a city in Pinal County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the city's population is 11,825. Coolidge is home of the Casa Grande Ruins National Monument; the monument was the first historic site to receive protected status by the United States Government in 1892. Coolidge is home to Central Arizona College. Coolidge was founded in 1925 and incorporated as a city in 1945, it is named for the 30th President of the United States. The town was home to a station for Amtrak. Coolidge is located at 32°58′38″N 111°31′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, all of it land. Arizona Highway 87 and Arizona Highway 287 pass through the town. Coolidge is 56 miles southeast of Phoenix, 69 miles northwest of Tucson, it is 21 miles northeast of Casa Grande and 11 miles southwest of Florence. Picacho Reservoir is just 11 miles south of town; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,786 people, 2,585 households, 1,938 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,549.1 people per square mile. There were 3,212 housing units at an average density of 639.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.85% White, 8.30% Black or African American, 5.63% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 23.58% from other races, 3.88% from two or more races. 39.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,585 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 19.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.44. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,049, the median income for a family was $33,536. Males had a median income of $29,159 versus $21,472 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,663. About 20.9% of families and 24.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.9% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over. In 2010 Coolidge had a population of 11,825; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 43.6% non-Hispanic white, 7.3% non-Hispanic black, 0.5% Hispanic blacks, 3.8% non-Hispanic Native American, 1.9% Hispanic or Latino Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanic from some other race, 5.0% from two or more races and 42.0% Hispanic or Latino. The Coolidge Public Library offers many resources to the community, including public access computers, new materials, an extensive DVD catalog, as well as frequent author signings from bestselling authors.
Duane Eddy, Rock & Roll guitarist and record producer, Coolidge High School graduate Waylon Jennings – singer, Country Music Hall of Fame Sammi Smith, Country music recording artist and songwriter Coolidge Municipal Airport Coolidge Dam Official website Casa Grande Ruins National Monument @ the National Park Service Casa Grande Ruins @ OnlineHighways.com
Superior is a town in Pinal County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 2,837. Superior was founded as a mining town for the Silver Queen and the Magma mines; such films as U Turn by Oliver Stone, Eight Legged Freaks, How the West Was Won, Blind Justice, The Prophecy, The Gauntlet with Clint Eastwood, Young Billy Young are set in Superior. In 2005, a sci-fi film named The Salena Incident called Alien Invasion Arizona, was filmed in Superior. During the 1870s, at the height of the American Indian Wars. After losing 50 men. Accepting defeat. Superior was called Queen Hastings, under the latter name was platted in 1900. Queen had a population of around 100 circa 1880. There was a general store, 2 hotels, numerous saloons, a post office; the Queen post office closed Sept. 15, 1881. The Superior townsite was laid out in 1902, named after the Lake Superior and Arizona Copper Company; the Superior post office opened on December 29, 1902. The first claims here were staked in 1875, the Silver Queen Mining Company was organized in 1880.
With depth, rich copper ore was discovered. Boyce Thompson bought the old Silver Queen mine in 1910, by 1912, the Magma Copper Company was in production. A narrow gauge railroad connecting to the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad was built in 1915, converted to standard gauge. A smelter was built in 1924. A new concentrator replaced the original one in 1946. After 71 years of production, the Magma mine closed in August 1982 due to high operating costs and declining copper prices. Operations resumed in September 1990, but the mine closed again on June 28, 1996. During its the 86-year life; the Magma mine produced 27.6 million short tons of ore averaging about 4.9% copper, recovering 1,299,718 short tons of copper, 36,550 short tons of zinc 686,000 ounces of gold and 34.3 million ounces of silver. The old Magma No. 9 shaft atop Apache Leap is being used to explore the huge Resolution Copper deposit below. Superior is located 70 miles east of Phoenix and the same distance north of Tucson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,254 people, 1,237 households, 847 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,684.6 people per square mile. There were 1,470 housing units at an average density of 761.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 72.68% White, 0.46% Black or African American, 1.63% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 23.05% from other races, 1.75% from two or more races. 69.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,237 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.20. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,069, the median income for a family was $31,250. Males had a median income of $34,297 versus $21,607 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,490. About 22.5% of families and 27.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.0% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over. The Boyce Thompson Arboretum State Park is a 323-acre botanical collection that includes a wide range of habitats and a 1.5-mile walking trail. Founded in 1925, the arboretum is the oldest botanical garden in Arizona. Superior has a hot semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 61 °F with a low of 43 °F. In July, the average high temperature is 98 °F with a low of 76 °F. Annual precipitation is higher at greater altitudes. Despite its high precipitation due to favourable aspect, Superior is too low for significant snow in winter.
Resolution Copper List of historic properties in Superior, Arizona History of Mining at Superior by Gladys Walker & TG Chilton, Mining Foundation of the Southwest, 1991. The Human Habitation in the Superior, Arizona Region: A Selected Cultural and Historical Timeline by Christine Marin, Ph. D, Barriozona Magazine, 2006. Superior Chamber of Commerce
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Maricopa is a city in the Gila River Valley in Arizona. With an estimated 51,977 residents as of 2018, Maricopa is the second most populous incorporated city in Pinal County and eighteenth most populous in Arizona. Maricopa forms part of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Maricopa has had three locations over the years: Maricopa Wells and Maricopa Junction, it started as an oasis around a series of watering holes eight miles north of present-day Maricopa, about a mile west of Pima Butte. European-American traders and travelers called it Maricopa Wells. Several of Arizona’s rivers, the Gila, Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa provided this oasis in the desert with an ample supply of water during this period of time. During the late 1800s, Maricopa Wells was one of the most important relay stations along the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and the more famous Butterfield Overland Mail Route. Although little remains of this once bustling community, it played an important part in the progress and development of the Southwest.
It was one of the best-known spots in Arizona during this period of time because it had a reliable source of water, offered an abundant supply of food. The peaceful Pima and Maricopa farmers who lived and farmed nearby sold supplies to travelers and migrants; the most prosperous period of time for Maricopa Wells was in the 1870s. During this time the trading center at the Wells provided water and food for not only the east-west travelers, but those who traveled to the north to Phoenix. Good roads had been built by James A. Moore, the proprietor at Maricopa Wells, to all points north, the Wells was a constant hubbub of activity. Maricopaville developed south and west of the Wells, following construction of a railroad line from this terminus to Phoenix. In 1879, the Southern Pacific Railroad was in the process of building a railroad line from Yuma to Tucson, a second railroad line was to be built from Maricopaville, wrapping around the western edge of South Mountain into Phoenix. With the railroad, Maricopaville took on the appearance of a gold rush California boom town, as men worked day and night building hotels, warehouses, theaters, etc.
One newspaper of the time reckoned that with its thousands of people and good location, Maricopaville would be an ideal choice for the location of the state capital. But the railroad never built the anticipated line from Maricopaville into Phoenix. Tempe wanted to be on the railroad line and lobbied the territorial government to gain a stop. Officials agreed; the settlement known as Maricopaville was rebuilt three miles to the east in the early 1880s, in order to accommodate the Maricopa & Phoenix line, planned to go through Kyrene and Tempe to the north on the way to Phoenix. The first train departed from Maricopa for Phoenix on July 4, 1887. All east-west rail travelers had to stop at Maricopa, those who wanted to go north had to shift to the M & P Railroad. Maricopa was incorporated as a city on October 15, 2003, becoming the 88th incorporated city in Arizona. Between 2000 and 2010, the city's population grew from 1,040 residents to 43,482, an increase of 4080%. In 2018, estimates approved by the US Census Bureau and Arizona State Demographer's Office put Maricopa's population at 51,977 pushing the city over the 50,000 mark for the first time.
A part of the city is within the boundaries of the Ak-Chin Indian Community. The small, federally recognized tribe has developed Harrah's Ak-Chin Casino and related resort, a multi-entertainment cinema complex, operates a golf course. In addition the tribe operates an industrial park. A 2011 study said that its casino and resort made up a large part of the economy of Pinal County, in terms of number of jobs and revenue generated. Maricopa is located at 33°3′24″N 112°2′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles, all of it land. The topography in Maricopa is flat with several mountain ranges 10 to 20 miles away; the elevation of Maricopa is 1190 feet. As of the census of 2010, there were 43,482 people, 14,359 households, 11,110 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,356.8 people per square mile. There were 17,240 housing units at an average density of 540.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.2% White, 9.7% Black or African American, 2.0% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 8.5% from other races, 5.3% from two or more races.
24.4 % of the population is Latino of any race. There were 14,359 households out of which 47.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 15.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.38. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.5% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 35% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. According to 2009 Census Bureau estimates, the median income for a household in the city was $67,692, the median income for a family was $69,818; the per capita income for the city was $27,618. About 3.7% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line.
Highways to Maricopa include Arizon
Eloy is a city in Pinal County, United States, about 50 miles northwest of Tucson and about 65 miles southeast of Phoenix. According to the U. S. Census estimates in 2017, the population of the city is 19,168. According to the U. S. Census of 2000, the city has a total area of 98.9 square miles. The city offers a varied range of community facilities for its citizens. Outside the city limits, the city has a planning area of 560 square miles; as of the census of 2011, there were 16,964 people, 2,492 households, 1,988 families residing in Eloy. The population density was 144.8 people per square mile. There were 2,734 housing units at an average density of 38.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58% Hispanic or Latino, 5.32% Black or African American, 41% White, 4.48% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 31.48% from other races, 4.71% from two or more races. There were 2,492 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.2% were non-families.
15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 3.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.7% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 137.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 154.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,518, the median income for a family was $28,494. Males had a median income of $25,295 versus $21,088 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,194. About 27.9% of families and 31.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.6% of those under age 18 and 24.6% of those age 65 or over. The largest employer is Corrections Corporation of America, those CCA prisoners are included in the census. CCA operates the Eloy Detention Center, the Red Rock Correctional Center, the Saguaro Correctional Center, the La Palma Correctional Center.
As of 2010 the CCA-operated Saguaro Correctional Center, located in Eloy, houses the majority of Hawaii's male prison inmate population. It is home to the world's largest skydive dropzone, Skydive Arizona, bills itself as the skydiving capital of the world. According to Eloy's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: The Eloy Elementary School District provides elementary education in grades K through 8 through its four schools: Curiel Annex School Curiel Primary School Eloy Intermediate School Eloy Junior High School The one high school in the town, Santa Cruz Valley Union High School, is separately administered, it has about 440 students. Levi Jones – professional football player Mossy Cade – professional football player Official website Eloy City Limits
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820