A railway signal is a visual display device that conveys instructions or provides advance warning of instructions regarding the driver’s authority to proceed. The driver interprets the signal's indication and acts accordingly. A signal might inform the driver of the speed at which the train may safely proceed or it may instruct the driver to stop. Signals displayed simple stop or proceed indications; as traffic density increased, this proved to be too limiting and refinements were added. One such refinement was the addition of distant signals on the approach to stop signals; the distant signal gave the driver warning that he was approaching a signal which might require a stop. This allowed for an overall increase in speed, since train drivers no longer had to drive at a speed within sighting distance of the stop signal. Under timetable and train order operation, the signals did not directly convey orders to the train crew. Instead, they directed the crew to pick up orders stopping to do so if the order warranted it.
Signals are used to indicate one or more of the following: That the line ahead is clear or blocked That the driver has permission to proceed That points are set Which way points are set The speed the train may travel The state of the next signal That the train orders are to be picked up by the crew Signals can be placed: At the start of a section of track On the approach to a movable item of infrastructure, such as points or switches or a swingbridge In advance of other signals On the approach to a level crossing At a switch or turnout Ahead of platforms or other places that trains are to be stopped At train order stations'Running lines' are continuously signalled. Each line of a double track railway is signalled in one direction only, with all signals facing the same direction on either line. Where bidirectional signalling is installed, signals face in both directions on both tracks. Signals are not provided for controlling movements within sidings or yard areas. Signals have indications.
The aspect is the visual appearance of the signal. In American practice the indications have conventional names, so that for instance "Medium Approach" means "Proceed at not exceeding medium speed. Different railroads assigned different meanings to the same aspect, so it is common as a result of mergers to find that different divisions of a modern railroad may have different rules governing the interpretation of signal aspects. For example, stop aspect refers to any signal aspect that does not allow the driver to pass the signal, it is important to understand that for signals that use coloured aspects, the colour of each individual light is subsumed in the overall pattern. In the United States, for example, it is common to see a "Clear" aspect consisting of a green light above a red light; the red light in this instance does not indicate "Stop". Operating rules specify that when there is some imperfection in the display of an aspect, the indication should be read as the most restrictive indication consistent with what is displayed.
Signals control motion into the next section of track. They may convey information about the state of the next signal to be encountered. Signals are sometimes said to "protect" the points or switches, section of track, etc. that they are ahead of. The term "ahead of" can be confusing, so official UK practice is to use the terms in rear of and in advance of; when a train is waiting at a signal it is "in rear of" that signal and the danger being protected by the signal is "in advance of" the train and signal. A distinction must be made between absolute signals, which can display a "Stop" indication, permissive signals, which display a "Stop & Proceed" aspect. Furthermore, a permissive signal may be marked as a Grade Signal where a train does not need to physically stop for a "Stop & Proceed" signal, but only decelerate to a speed slow enough to stop short of any obstructions. Interlocking signals are absolute, while automatic signals are permissive. Drivers need to be aware. In current British practice for example, automatic signals have a white rectangular plate with a black horizontal line across it.
In US practice a permissive signal is indicated by the presence of a number plate. In the Australian states of New South Wales and South Australia, as well as New Zealand, a permissive signal has the lower set of lights offset from the upper lights; some types of signal display separate absolute stop aspects. In Germany, the rules which apply to the respective signal are indicated by a vertical plate on the signal's post. Operating rules dictate that a dark signal must be interpreted as displaying its most restrictive aspect. Signals differ both in the manner in which they display aspects and in the manner in which they are mounted with respect to the track; the oldest forms of signal displayed their different indications by a part of the signal being physically moved. The earliest types comprised a board, either turned face-on and visible to the driver, or rotated away so as to be practica
Northwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Northern Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. It includes most of subarctic Ontario, its western boundary is the Canadian province of Manitoba, which disputed Ontario's claim to the western part of the region. Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In 1912, the Parliament of Canada by the Ontario Boundaries Extension Act gave jurisdiction over the District of Patricia to Ontario, thereby extending the northern boundary of the province to Hudson Bay. For some purposes, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario are treated as separate regions, while for other purposes they are grouped together as Northern Ontario. Northwestern Ontario consists of the districts of Rainy River and Thunder Bay. Major communities in the region include Thunder Bay, Dryden, Fort Frances, Sioux Lookout, Red Lake and Atikokan.
There are several dozen First Nations in Northwestern Ontario. Northwestern Ontario is divided between the Central Time Zone. Northwestern Ontario is the province's most sparsely populated region — 54 per cent of the region's entire population lives in the Thunder Bay census metropolitan area alone. Aside from the city of Thunder Bay, Kenora is the only other municipality in the entire region with a population of greater than 10,000 people; the overall population of Northwestern Ontario has been in decline over the past decade due to a downturn in the forestry sector, although some individual municipalities within the region have seen modest population growth over the period. Northwestern Ontarians tend to lean left politically due to the history and influence of labour unions, a growing environmental ethic, a large Aboriginal population. At the federal level, Northwestern Ontario is represented by Liberal MPs Bob Nault in the Kenora District, Don Rusnak in Thunder Bay—Rainy River, Patty Hajdu in Thunder Bay—Superior North.
Provincially, PC Greg Rickford represents Kenora—Rainy River, NDP Judith Monteith-Farrell represents Thunder Bay—Atikokan, Liberal Michael Gravelle represents Thunder Bay—Superior North. In 2005, some residents of the region expressed dissatisfaction at the level of attention paid to the region by the provincial government. Some, most notably former Kenora mayor Dave Canfield, Fort Frances town councillor Tannis Drysdale, have proposed the idea of the region as a whole, or parts of it, seceding from Ontario to join Manitoba, although the campaign did not attract widespread public support. Northern Ontario Northeastern Ontario Gateway to Northwestern Ontario History
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand. Rationing controls the size of the ration, one's allowed portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time. There are many forms of rationing, in western civilization people experience some of them in daily life without realizing it. Rationing is done to keep price below the equilibrium price determined by the process of supply and demand in an unfettered market. Thus, rationing can be complementary to price controls. An example of rationing in the face of rising prices took place in the various countries where there was rationing of gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. A reason for setting the price lower than would clear the market may be that there is a shortage, which would drive the market price high. High prices in the case of necessities, are undesirable with regard to those who cannot afford them. Traditionalist economists argue, that high prices act to reduce waste of the scarce resource while providing incentive to produce more.
Rationing using ration stamps is only one kind of non-price rationing. For example, scarce products can be rationed using queues; this is seen, for example, at amusement parks, where one pays a price to get in and need not pay any price to go on the rides. In the absence of road pricing, access to roads is rationed in a first come, first served queueing process, leading to congestion. Authorities which introduce rationing have to deal with the rationed goods being sold illegally on the black market. Rationing has been instituted during wartime for civilians. For example, each person may be given "ration coupons" allowing him or her to purchase a certain amount of a product each month. Rationing includes food and other necessities for which there is a shortage, including materials needed for the war effort such as rubber tires, leather shoes and fuel. Rationing of food and water may become necessary during an emergency, such as a natural disaster or terror attack. In the U. S. the Federal Emergency Management Agency has established guidelines for civilians on rationing food and water supplies when replacements are not available.
According to FEMA standards, every person should have a minimum of 1 US quart per day of water, more for children, nursing mothers and the ill. Military sieges have resulted in shortages of food and other essential consumables. In such circumstances, the rations allocated to an individual are determined based on age, race or social standing. During the Siege of Lucknow a woman received three quarters the food ration a man received and children received only half. During the Siege of Ladysmith in the early stages of the Boer War in 1900 white adults received the same food rations as soldiers while children received half that. Food rations for Indian people and black people were smaller; the first modern rationing systems were brought in during the First World War. In Germany, suffering from the effects of the British blockade, a rationing system was introduced in 1914 and was expanded over the following years as the situation worsened. Although Britain did not suffer from food shortages, as the sea lanes were kept open for food imports, panic buying towards the end of the war prompted the rationing of first sugar and meat.
It is said to have in the most part benefited the health of the country, through the'levelling of consumption of essential foodstuffs'. To assist with rationing, ration books were introduced on 15 July 1918 for butter, lard and sugar. During the war, average calories intake decreased only three percent, but protein intake six percent. Food rationing appeared in Poland after the First World War, ration stamps were in use until the end of the Polish–Soviet War. Rationing became common during the Second World War. Ration stamps were used; these were redeemable stamps or coupons, every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children and income. The British Ministry of Food refined the rationing process in the early 1940s to ensure the population did not starve when food imports were restricted and local production limited due to the large number of men fighting the war. Rationing on a scientific basis was pioneered by Elsie Widdowson and Robert McCance at the Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Cambridge.
They worked on the chemical composition of the human body, on the nutritional value of different flours used to make bread. Widdowson studied the impact of infant diet on human growth, they studied the differing effects from deficiencies of salt and of water and produced the first tables to compare the different nutritional content of foods before and after cooking. They co-authored The Chemical Composition of Foods, first published in 1940 by the Medical Research Council, their book "McCance and Widdowson" became known as the dietician's bible and formed the basis for modern nutritional thinking. In 1939, they tested whether the United Kingdom could survive with only domestic food production if U-boats ended all imports. Using 1938 food-production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers a limited diet, while simulating the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would have to perform; the scientists found that the subjects' health and performance remained good after three months. They headed the first mandated addition of vitamins and mineral to food, beginning with adding calcium to bread.
Their work became the basis of the wartime austerity diet promoted by the Minister of Food Lord Woolton. Britons'
Dugald is a community in Manitoba, located 22 kilometers east of Winnipeg at the junction of PTH 15 and Provincial Road 206 in the Rural Municipality of Springfield. It was the site of a railway accident in 1947. In the Dugald train disaster of September 1947, a Canadian National Railway passenger train consisting of older wooden-bodied passenger cars collided with a transcontinental passenger train made up of newer steel cars, resulting in severe damage and fatalities on the older train; this accident led to the retirement of the less crashworthy wooden cars. Dugald was the home to the Costume Museum, a museum dedicated to Canadian fashion; the museum relocated to downtown Winnipeg in 2006. Dugald is the birthplace of former National Hockey League goaltender Trevor Kidd, who played in 387 regular season games for four teams. Lists of rail accidents
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec that serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States. CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, is Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across about 20,400 route miles of track. CN is a public company with 24,000 employees and as of September 2018 it had a market cap of $84 billion Canadian dollars. CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding to its privatization in 1995. In 2011, Bill Gates was the largest single shareholder of CN stock; the railway was referred to as the "Canadian National Railways" between 1918 and 1960, as "Canadian National"/"Canadien National" from 1960 to the present. The Canadian National Railways was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into federal government hands, along with some railways owned by the government.
On November 17, 1995, the federal government privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others. Now a freight railway, CN operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail; the only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains in Newfoundland, a several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area. The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's AMT. In response to public concerns fearing loss of key transportation links, the government of Canada assumed majority ownership of the near bankrupt Canadian Northern Railway on September 6, 1918, appointed a "Board of Management" to oversee the company. At the same time, CNoR was directed to assume management of Canadian Government Railways, a system comprising the Intercolonial Railway of Canada, National Transcontinental Railway, the Prince Edward Island Railway, among others.
On December 20, 1918, the federal government created the Canadian National Railways – a title only with no corporate powers – through a Canadian Privy Council Order in Council as a means to simplify the funding and operation of the various railway companies. The absorption of the Intercolonial Railway would see CNR adopt that system's slogan The People's Railway. Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government; the federal government's Department of Railways and Canals took over operation of the GTPR until July 12, 1920, when it too was placed under the CNR. The Canadian National Railway was organized on October 10, 1922; the bankrupt GTR itself was placed under the care of a federal government "Board of Management" on May 21, 1920, while GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action. After several years of arbitration, the GTR was absorbed into CNR on January 30, 1923.
In subsequent years, several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR as they went bankrupt, or it became politically expedient to do so, however the system was more or less finalized following the addition of the GTR. Canadian National Railways was born out of both domestic urgency. Railways, until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada for many years; as such, their operation consumed a great deal of political attention. Many countries regard railway networks as critical infrastructure and at the time of the creation of CNR during the continuing threat of the First World War, Canada was not the only country to engage in railway nationalization. In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes; this political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada.
The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military intervention. CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company; when Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.
In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna, created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP
CN U-1-a and U-1-b
The CN U-1-a and U-1-b class locomotives were two subclasses of thirty-seven 4-8-2 Mountain-type steam locomotives built for the Canadian National Railways between 1923 and 1924. They were retired between 1951 and 1962; the locomotives were equipped with steam air signal lines for working passenger trains. They were coal fired, although some U-1-a locomotives were converted to oil firing; the first to be retired was 6004, damaged a head-on collision with S-2-a 3538 at Canoe River, British Columbia, in November 1950. It was scrapped in June 1951. There was a gap of four years before the next U-1-a or U-1-b went: two were scrapped in 1955, four in 1957, six in 1958, six in 1959, eight in 1960, seven in 1961, the last two, 6000 and 6001 in 1962. U-1-a 6004 was the subject of a 1924 publicity poster by C. Norwich, it depicts the locomotive speeding along in the foreground, while in the background is a pine-covered, snow-capped mountain peak. Across the top is the "Canadian National Railways" logotype.
On public display in Jasper, since July 1972
Train order operation
Train order operation, or more timetable and train order operation, is a obsolete system by which the railroads of North America conveyed operating instructions before the days of centralized traffic control, direct traffic control, the use of track warrants conveyed by radio. The system used a set of rules when direct communication between train dispatchers and trains was limited or non-existent. Trains would follow a predetermined operating plan, known as the timetable, unless superseded by train orders conveyed to the train from the dispatcher, through local intermediaries. Train order operation was a system that required minimum human overhead in an era before widespread use of technology-based automation, it was the most practical way for railroads with limited capital resources, or lines with limited traffic, to operate. To this day, a large number of short lines, heritage railways, railroad museums continue to use Train Order operation. On major railroads, train order operation has been completely replaced by more modern operating methods.
The Long Island Rail Road in New York is the last major railroad in North America to use a "traditional" Train Order operating practice on parts of its Greenport and Montauk Branches, as well as Train Order forms for non-standard operation on the remainder of its system. While the last traditional long hand train order form was issued on September 3, 2012, timetable and train order operating practices remain in effect; the second to last train order holdout, the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, had retired its system in 2011. The process of modernization in the 19th century involved a transition from a spatially oriented world to a time oriented world. Exact time was essential, everyone had to know what the time was, resulting in clocks towers for railway stations, clocks in public places, pocket watches for railway workers and for travelers. Trains left on time. By contrast, in the premodern era, passenger ships left. In the premodern era, local time was set at noon; every place east to west had a different time and that changed with the introduction of standard time zones.
Printed time tables were a convenience for the travelers, but more elaborate time tables, called train orders, were more essential for the train crews, the maintenance workers, the station personnel, for the repair and maintenance crews, who knew when to expect a train would come along. Most trackage was single track, with sidings and signals to allow lower priority trains to be sidetracked. Schedules told everyone what to do, where to be, when. If bad weather disrupted the system, telegraphers relayed immediate corrections and updates throughout the system. Just as railways as business organizations created the standards and models for modern big business, so too the railway timetable was adapted to myriad uses, such as schedules for buses ferries, airplanes, for radio and television programs, for school schedules, for factory time clocks; the modern world was ruled by the timetable. Timetable and train order operation was used on North American railroads that had a single main track with periodic passing sidings.
Timetable and train orders were used to determine which train had the right of way at any point along the line. A train which had the right of way over another train was said to be the superior train. Trains could be superior by class or by direction. While a train dispatcher could establish "right" via train orders, the operating timetable established scheduled trains, their class and the superior direction; the "class" designation of a train equates to its priority with passenger trains having the highest, freight trains having less and Extra trains having the least. In case of trains of the same class meeting the superior direction would apply. On single track rail lines, the timetable specifies the points at which two trains would meet and pass, it would be the responsibility of the inferior train to clear the main track a safe time before the superior train is scheduled to pass. The timetable thus provides the basic framework for train movement on a particular portion of the railroad. However, variations in traffic levels from day to day, unforeseen delays, the need to perform maintenance, other contingencies required that railroads find a way to deviate from their established schedules.
Deviations from the timetable operation would be enacted through train orders sent from the train dispatcher to block operators. These orders would override the established timetable priorities and provide trains with explicit instructions on how to run. Train orders consisted of two types and authority. Protective train orders would be used to ensure that no trains would be at risk of colliding with another along the line. Once the protective orders had been delivered to block operators, an authority could be issued to a train to move over the line where protection had been established; the timetable established both protection and authority for scheduled trains so train orders were only used for extra trains, which were not in the timetable, scheduled trains moving contrary to their normal authorities. Timetable and train order operation supplanted earlier forms of timetable only and line-of-sight running; the ability for a single dispatcher to issue train orders was enabled by the invention of the electric telegraph in the 1840s.
The earliest recorded usage of the telegraph to convey train orders in the United States came in 1851 on the Erie Railroad and by the time of the American Civil War, nearly every railroad had adopted th