The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could host more than one type of sport or event, this concept refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity, it is used most in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on large outfield; this requires a particular design to accommodate both an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it imposes some challenges. In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams; some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land.
They were built near highways and had large parking lots, but were connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were ideal for both sports housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built for one sport. Outside North America, the term is used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well.
Association football stadiums have served as track and field arenas, as well, some still do, whereas a newer generation has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field. Among winter sports a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. A rink or two of the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is larger, allowing for bandy and curling; as of 2019, the Oakland Coliseum is the last multipurpose stadium to serve as a full-time home to both an MLB team and an NFL team, that arrangement will end once the Oakland Raiders relocate to Las Vegas in 2020. Meanwhile, the current Yankee Stadium houses both the New York Yankees baseball team and New York City FC of Major League Soccer. Several stadiums hosted multiple sports teams prior to the advent of multipurpose stadiums. In New York City, the Polo Grounds hosted football teams early on; the original Yankee Stadium was designed to accommodate football, as well as track and field, in addition to its primary use for baseball.
Wrigley Field, while built for baseball hosted the Chicago Bears, just as Comiskey Park hosted the Chicago Cardinals and Tiger Stadium hosted the Detroit Lions. Venues such as Cleveland Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium and Baltimore Memorial Stadium were built to accommodate both baseball and football. In the 1960s, multipurpose stadiums began replacing their baseball-only and football-only predecessors, now known as "classics" or "jewel box" parks; the advantage to a multipurpose stadium is that a singular infrastructure and piece of real estate can support both teams in terms of transportation and playing area, money that would have been spent to support infrastructure for two stadiums could be spent elsewhere. Playing into the advent of the multipurpose stadium was Americans' growing use of automobiles, which required professional sports stadiums surrounded by parking. Most cities lacked affordable space for such stadiums near their city centers, so multipurpose stadiums were built in suburbs with freeways access.
Subsets of the multipurpose stadiums were the so-called "cookie-cutter stadiums" or "concrete donuts" which were all similar in design. They featured a circular or nearly circular design, accommodated both baseball and football by rotating sections of the box seat areas to fit the respective playing fields; these fields used artificial turf, as it could withstand the reconfiguration process more or be removed for nonsporting events, plus it could be used in domes, which many of these stadiums were. The first of these stadiums was Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, it was followed during the 1960s and 1970s by Shea Stadium, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, the Astrodome, Jack Murphy Stadium, Riverfront Stadium, Busch Memorial Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, the Kingdome. As of 2016, seven of these 11 stadiums have been demolished. Only Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, the Oakland Coliseum, Jack Murphy S
Kauffman Stadium called "The K", is a baseball park located in Kansas City, home to the Kansas City Royals of Major League Baseball. It is part of the Truman Sports Complex together with the adjacent Arrowhead Stadium, home of the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League; the ballpark is named for the founder and first owner of the Royals. It opened in 1973 as Royals Stadium and was named for Kauffman on July 2, 1993; the ballpark's listed seating capacity since 2009 is 37,903. Kauffman Stadium was built for baseball during an era when building multisport "cookie-cutter" stadiums was commonplace, it is held up along with Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles as one of the best examples of modernist stadium design. It is the only ballpark in the American League to be named after a person and is one of ten stadiums in Major League Baseball that does not have a corporate-sponsored name; the stadium is the sixth-oldest stadium in Major League Baseball and has hosted the 1973 and the 2012 MLB All-Star Games, along with Royals home games during the 1980, 1985, 2014, 2015 World Series.
Between 2007 and 2009, Kauffman Stadium underwent a $250 million renovation, which included updates and upgrades in fan amenities, a new Royals hall of fame area, other updates throughout the facility. In 1967, voters in Jackson County approved the bonds for Truman Sports Complex, which featured a football stadium for the Kansas City Chiefs and a baseball stadium for the Kansas City Athletics, whose owner, Charles O. Finley, had just signed a new lease to remain in Kansas City; this was a unusual proposal. Before the 1968 season, Finley moved the A's to Oakland and their brand-new multi-purpose stadium. After the move, Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri threatened to press for the revocation of baseball's anti-trust exemption if they did not give Kansas City a new team. Baseball responded by hastily granting expansion franchises to four cities, including a Kansas City team owned by local pharmaceutical magnate Ewing Kauffman; the new teams were due to start play in 1971. However, Symington was not about to have Kansas City wait three years for the return of baseball, forced MLB to move up the start date to 1969.
Jackson County continued its plans to build a new ballpark. After playing their first four seasons in Municipal Stadium, on April 10, 1973, the Royals inaugurated Royals Stadium with a win over the Texas Rangers; the stadium was like the rest of the complex was designed by Kivett and Myers, constructed by the joint venture of the Sharp and Webb construction firms. On May 15, 1973, the stadium a month into its existence, saw Nolan Ryan, pitching for the California Angels, throw the first of his seven no-hitters, blanking the Royals 3–0. On July 24, 1973, Royals Stadium hosted its first of two Major League Baseball All-Star Games. On October 9, 1976, the Royals competed in their first post-season game in franchise history, losing 4–1 to the New York Yankees at Royals Stadium in the ALCS; the Royals came back to win the next game on October 10, 6–3, for their first post-season win in Royals Stadium. On October 17, 1980, the first World Series game held in Kansas City featured the hometown Royals against the Philadelphia Phillies.
In his first at-bat, George Brett hit a home run down the right field line. The Royals would go on to record 4 -- 3 in 10 innings. However, the Royals would lose the World Series that year in six games. On October 11, 1985, in Game 3 of the ALCS, George Brett hit two home runs off Toronto Blue Jays pitcher Doyle Alexander, made a back-handed stop at third base to throw out a runner at home, recorded the final out to give the Royals a much-needed 6–5 win; the Royals went on to win the American League pennant in seven games. On October 27 of that same year, the Royals clinched their first World Series title in franchise history, winning Game 7 in Royals Stadium. Led by the pitching of Bret Saberhagen, Darryl Motley's two-run home run, George Brett's four hits, the Royals beat the St. Louis Cardinals 11–0; the Royals were the first team in the history of the World Series to lose the first two games of the series at home and come back to win. In 2012, the stadium hosted its second All-Star Game, which the National League won 8-0.
The stadium hosted the Royals' first playoff game in nearly 29 years when the city's former team, the Athletics, came to town for the 2014 American League Wild Card Game. Despite trailing 7-3 in the eighth inning, Kansas City rallied to win the game, 9-8, advance to the 2014 ALDS, they hosted Games 1, 2, 6, 7 against the San Francisco Giants in the World Series but lost the series, 4-3. In 2015, the stadium hosted playoff games as the Royals once again made the playoffs, this time as the highest ranked American League team. Games 1, 2, 5 of the ALDS against the Houston Astros were played at the stadium, with the Royals winning Games 2 and 5, as well as Games 1, 2, 6 of the ALCS against the Toronto Blue Jays, with the Royals winning all three games; the stadium hosted games 1 and 2 of the 2015 World Series against the New York Mets as a result of the American League winning the 2015 MLB All-Star Game 6-3. The Royals won game 2, as well as the entire series. Kauffman Stadium was the last bas
The Atlanta Braves are an American professional baseball franchise based in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The franchise competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the National League East division; the Braves played home games at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium from 1966 to 1996, Turner Field from 1997 to 2016. Since 2017, their home stadium has been SunTrust Park, a new stadium 10 miles northwest of downtown Atlanta in the Cumberland neighborhood of Cobb County; the Braves play spring training games at CoolToday Park in Florida. The "Braves" name, first used in 1912, originates from a term for a Native American warrior, they are nicknamed "the Bravos", referred to as "America's Team" in reference to the team's games being broadcast on the nationally available TBS from the 1970s until 2007, giving the team a nationwide fan base. From 1991 to 2005, the Braves were one of the most successful teams in baseball, winning division titles an unprecedented 14 consecutive times, producing one of the greatest pitching rotations in the history of baseball.
Most notably, this rotation consisted of pitchers Greg Maddux, John Smoltz, Tom Glavine. The Braves won the National League West division from 1991 to 1993, after divisional realignment, the National League East division from 1995 to 2005, they returned to the playoffs as the National League Wild Card in 2010. The Braves advanced to the World Series five times in the 1990s, winning the title in 1995 against the Cleveland Indians. Since their debut in the National League in 1876, the franchise has won 18 divisional titles, 17 National League pennants, three World Series championships — in 1914 as the Boston Braves, in 1957 as the Milwaukee Braves, in 1995 as the Atlanta Braves; the Braves are the only Major League Baseball franchise to have won the World Series in three different home cities. The Braves and the Chicago Cubs are the National League's two remaining charter franchises; the Braves were founded in Boston, Massachusetts, as the Boston Red Stockings. The team states it is "the oldest continuously operating professional sports franchise in America."After various name changes, the team began operating as the Boston Braves, which lasted for most of the first half of the 20th century.
In 1953, the team moved to Milwaukee and became the Milwaukee Braves, followed by the final move to Atlanta in 1966. The team's tenure in Atlanta is noted for Hank Aaron breaking Babe Ruth's career home run record in 1974; the Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869 as the first all-professional baseball team, voted to dissolve after the 1870 season. Player-manager Harry Wright, with brother George and two other Cincinnati players went to Boston, Massachusetts at the invitation of Boston Red Stockings founder Ivers Whitney Adams to form the nucleus of the Boston Red Stockings, a charter member of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players; the original Boston Red Stockings team and its successors can lay claim to being the oldest continuously playing team in American professional sports. Two young players hired away from the Forest City club of Rockford, turned out to be the biggest stars during the NAPBBP years: pitcher Al Spalding and second baseman Ross Barnes. Led by the Wright brothers and Spalding, the Red Stockings dominated the National Association, winning four of that league's five championships.
The team became one of the National League's charter franchises in 1876, sometimes called the "Red Caps". The Boston Red Caps played in the first game in the history of the National League, on Saturday, April 22, 1876, defeating the Philadelphia Athletics, 6–5. Although somewhat stripped of talent in the National League's inaugural year, Boston bounced back to win the 1877 and 1878 pennants; the Red Caps/Beaneaters were one of the league's dominant teams during the 19th century, winning a total of eight pennants. For most of that time, their manager was Frank Selee. Boston came to be called the Beaneaters while retaining red as the team color; the 1898 team finished 102–47, a club record for wins that would stand for a century. Stars of those 1890s Beaneater teams included the "Heavenly Twins", Hugh Duffy and Tommy McCarthy, as well as "Slidin'" Billy Hamilton; the team was decimated when the American League's new Boston entry set up shop in 1901. Many of the Beaneaters' stars jumped to the new team, which offered contracts that the Beaneaters' owners did not bother to match.
They only managed one winning season from 1900 to 1913, lost 100 games five times. In 1907, the Beaneaters eliminated the last bit of red from their stockings because their manager thought the red dye could cause wounds to become infected (as noted in The Sporting News Baseball Guide during the 1940s when each team's entry had a history of its nickname; the American League club's owner, Charles Taylor, wasted little time in adopting Red Sox as his team's first official nickname. Media-driven nickname changes to the Doves in 1907 and the Rustlers in 1911 did nothing to change the National League club's luck; the team became the Braves for the first time in 1912. Their owner, James Gaffney, was a member of New York City's political machine, Tammany Hall, which used an In
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Oriole Park at Camden Yards referred to as Camden Yards or Oriole Park and abbreviated in print and online as OPACY, is a Major League Baseball ballpark located in Baltimore, Maryland. Home to the Baltimore Orioles, it is the first of the "retro" major league ballparks constructed during the 1990s and early 2000s, remains one of the most praised, it was completed in 1992 to replace Memorial Stadium. The park is situated in downtown Baltimore, a few blocks west of the Inner Harbor in the Camden Yards Sports Complex; the Orioles celebrated the ballpark's 20th anniversary during the 2012 season and launched the website CamdenYards20.com as part of the celebration. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is one of several venues that have carried the "Oriole Park" name for various Baltimore franchises over the years. Prior to Camden Yards, the predominant design trend of big league ballparks was the symmetrical "multi-purpose stadium". Memorial Stadium, the Orioles' home since they moved from St. Louis in 1954, was an early example of such a design.
In 1984, the Baltimore Colts moved to Indianapolis, in part because Baltimore and Maryland officials refused to commit money for a replacement for Memorial Stadium. Not wanting to risk losing the Orioles—and Baltimore's status as a major-league city in its own right—city and state officials began planning a new park in order to keep them in town; the master plan was designed by international design firm RTKL. The stadium design was completed by the architectural firm HOK Sport, which had pioneered retro ballparks on the minor league level four years earlier with Pilot Field in Buffalo, New York. HOK Sport's original design was similar to the new Comiskey Park. However, at the urging of architectural consultant Janet Marie Smith, the Orioles turned it down, preferring a retro-style park. Construction began in 1989, lasted 33 months. Former Orioles owner Eli Jacobs favored naming the new field Oriole Park, while then-Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer favored Camden Yards. After considerable debate a compromise was reached to use both names.
The ballpark opened on April 1992 with the Orioles hosting the Cleveland Indians. The great success of Camden Yards sparked a trend in the construction of more traditional, fan-friendly ballparks in downtown locations across the U. S. Indeed, by the 2012 season, all but two teams played in baseball-only parks; the first run scored at Camden Yards occurred when Chris Hoiles hit a ground rule double that brought in Sam Horn. The Orioles went on to win the game 2-0 on Rick Sutcliffe's shutout. Camden Yards hosted the 1993 MLB All-Star Game. On June 18, 1994, an escalator accident injured 43 people. On September 6, 1995, Camden Yards witnessed Cal Ripken, Jr.'s record-setting 2,131st consecutive game. One year Eddie Murray blasted his 500th home run there. Two orange seats stand out from the park's dark green plastic chairs. One, located at Section 96, Row 7, Seat 23 in the right-center field bleachers, commemorates the spot where Murray's 500th home run landed; the other, Section 86, Row FF, Seat 10 in the left field bleachers, was the landing spot for Ripken's 278th home run as a shortstop, breaking Chicago Cubs legend Ernie Banks' record for the position.
That home run was hit on July 15, 1993. Ripken finished his career with 345 home runs as 431 overall. After the 2008 season, a new HD video display and scoreboard were installed below the right field bleachers. A new, high fidelity sound reinforcement system was added around the ballpark in 2009; the Orioles made numerous improvements to their home ballpark and to their spring training facility, Ed Smith Stadium, before the start of the 2011 season. All seats in the lower seating bowl were replaced and drink rails were added in the club level. Several skyboxes were eliminated and refurbished to make room for more party suites and casual luxury boxes; the renovation reduced Oriole Park's capacity from 48,876 to 45,971, making it more comparable with newer ballparks. During the 2011–12 off season, the Orioles announced further upgrades to Camden Yards in preparation for the 20th anniversary of the park's opening; these improvements included the expansion of concession food choices, widening of the concourses in the upper deck, the installation of a replica of the B&O Warehouse's original canopy, the addition of a lounge atop the batter's eye in center field, been inaccessible to fans.
The lounge would contain a restaurant and have bar-style and casual deck seating where fans could watch the game. The team announced that cast-bronze statues of all the Oriole Baseball Hall of Famers would be erected in the picnic area beyond the bullpens in left-center field. Furthermore, the right field wall would be lowered from 25 feet to 21 feet to improve the view of the field from Eutaw Street; the stadium planners incorporated the warehouse into the architecture of the ballpark experience rather than demolish or truncate it. The floors of the warehouse contain offices, service spaces, a private club; the warehouse has been hit by a ball only once, by Ken Griffey, Jr. during the Home Run Derby of the 1993 MLB All-Star Game. Eutaw Street, between the stadium and the warehouse, is closed to vehicular traffic. Along this street, spectators can get a view of the game or visit the many shops and restaurants that line the thoroughfare, including former Oriole star Boog Powell's outdoor barbecue stand.
On game days, pedestrians must have a ticket in order
A baseball park known as a ballpark or diamond, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible; the term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field. A home run where the player makes it around the bases, back to home plate, without the ball leaving the playing field is called an "inside-the-park" home run. Sometimes a home run ball passing over an outfield fence is said to have been hit "out of the ballpark", but that phrase more refers to a home run ball that cleared the stands, landing outside the building; the playing field is most called the "ballfield", though the term is used interchangeably with "ballpark" when referring to a small local or youth league facility. A baseball field can be referred to as a diamond; the infield is a rigidly structured diamond of dirt containing the three bases, home plate, the pitchers mound.
The space between the bases and home is a grass surface, save for the dirt mound in the center. Some ballparks, like Toronto's Rogers Centre, have grass or artificial turf between the bases, dirt only around the bases and pitcher's mound. Others, such as Koshien Stadium in Hyōgo Prefecture, have an dirt infield. Two white lines run out from the home plate area, aligned with third bases; these are the foul lines or base lines differentiated by referring to them as the first base line, or the third base line. If a ball hit by the batter lands outside of the space between these two lines, or rolls out of this space before reaching first or third base, the ball is "foul". If it lands between or on the lines, it is "fair". At the end of the lines are two foul poles, which help the umpires judge whether a ball is fair or foul; these "foul poles" are in fair territory, so a ball that hits them on the fly is a home run. On either side of home plate are the two batter's boxes This is. Behind home is the catcher's box, where the catcher and the home plate umpire stand.
Next to first and third base are two coaches' boxes, where the first and third base coaches guide the baserunners with gestures or shouts. As the baserunner faces away from the outfield when running from second base to third, they cannot see where the ball is, must look to the third base coach on whether to run, stop, or slide. Farther from the infield on either side are the dugouts, where the teams and coaches sit when they're not on the field, they are named such because, at the professional levels, this seating is below the level of the playing field so as to not block the view from prime spectator seating locations. In amateur parks, the dugouts may be above-ground wooden or CMU structures with seating inside, or benches behind a chain link fence. Beyond the infield and between the foul lines is a large grass outfield twice the depth of the infield; the playing field is bordered by fences of varying height. The infield fences are in foul territory, a ball hit over them isn't a home run. Sometimes, the outfield fence is made higher in certain areas to compensate for a close proximity to the batter.
In professional parks, the field is surrounded by an area 10 feet wide made of dirt or rubberized track surface called a "warning track". Used in Yankee Stadium in 1923 as an actual footrace track, it is now present in all major league ballparks; this change in terrain warns a fielder, watching a ball in the air, that the wall is near, avoiding possible injury. Beyond the outfield fence in professional parks is an area called the batter's eye. To ensure the batter can see the white ball, the batter's eye contains no seating, is a darker color; the batter's eye area can be anything from a dark wall to a grassy slope. Today, in Major League Baseball, a grandstand, surrounds the infield. How far this seating extends down the baselines or around the foul poles varies from park to park. In minor league parks, the grandstands are notably smaller, proportional to expected sizes of crowds compared with the major leagues; the seating beyond the outfield fence differs from the grandstand, though some multi-purpose or jewel box parks have the grandstand surround the entire field.
This area could contain inexpensive bleacher seats, smaller grandstands, or inclined seating. In local ballparks, there are simply a set or two of aluminum bleachers on the first-base and third-base sides. Distinctive from "goal games" such as football and basketball, which have fixed-size playing areas, the infield is the only rigidly laid-out part of the field. Like its English relative, there is significant flexibility in the shape and size of the rest of the playing area. To prevent "cheap" home runs, baseball leagues may specify a minimum distance from home plate to the outfield fences; the higher the skill level, the deeper the minimum dimensions must be, to prevent an excess of home runs. In the major leagues, a rule was passed in 1958 that compelled any new fields built after that point to have a minimum distance of 325 feet from home plate to the fences in left and right field, 400 feet to center.. This rule was passed to avoid situations like the Los Angeles Coliseum, 251 ft. down the left
A batting helmet is worn by batters in the game of baseball or softball. It is meant to protect the batter's head from errant pitches thrown by the pitcher. A batter, "hit by pitch," due to an inadvertent wild pitch or a pitcher's purposeful attempt to hit him, may be even fatally, injured. In 1905, Mogridge created the first crude protective head gear and was granted patent No. 780899 for a "head protector." This first attempt at a batting helmet was said to look like an "inflatable boxing glove that wrapped around the hitters head." Roger Bresnahan, Hall of Fame catcher, injured after being struck in the head with a pitch, developed a leather-batting helmet in 1908 which he began using. The helmets were not so much helmets, they did not protect the actual head of the batter but rather protected the temple region. In 1908, Chicago White Sox shortstop Freddy Parent wore a head protector of some sort and Chicago Cubs' first baseman-manager Frank Chance did the same thing in 1913, though Chance’s headgear was "little more than a sponge wrapped in a bandage."
In 1914, minor leaguer Joe Bosk, playing for the Utica Utes, wore a protector after being injured when he was struck in the head by a pitch in 1911. The first known case of a manager issuing head protectors to his players on a large scale was Philadelphia Phillies' manager Pat Moran who gave cork-cushioned hats to his players in 1921. Despite the fatal beaning of Ray Chapman in 1920, protective headgear was still used only in the major leagues. After Mickey Cochrane, a Hall of Fame catcher for the Detroit Tigers, suffered a career-ending and near-fatal skull fracture on May 25, 1937 on a pitch by New York Yankees' pitcher Bump Hadley, there was a strong call for batter helmets. Cochrane himself went on record saying that players should "absolutely" be required to wear protective helmets. Only one week after Cochrane's injury, on June 1, 1937, the Cleveland Indians and Philadelphia Athletics became the first teams to test helmets, using leather and polo helmets respectively. Managers of both teams decided to use batting practice as a test run for helmet use on their players, before a game between the two teams.
Though there is picture evidence of the polo helmets being worn in batting practice, there is no evidence of their being used or worn in a game. The first documented team to wear helmets in a game was the Des Moines Demons of the Western League, they used polo helmets but the idea did not stick, as they only wore the helmets for one game. The first professional baseball league to adopt the baseball helmet was the International League, which did so in 1939 when the list of official equipment used began to include a "safety cap or helmet". Buster Mills was the first player in the league to use a helmet; the idea of making helmets a required part of Major League Baseball was discussed by officials of the National League in a meeting at the 1940 MLB All-Star Game in Chicago. Ford Frick, president of the National League, showed the helmet he designed with the hopes that the league would adopt it. Though the National League at this meeting did not adopt it, Jackie Hayes became the first player to wear the helmet in a game on August 22, 1940.
In 1941, the National League adopted the use of a helmet, designed by George Bennett, a Johns Hopkins University brain surgeon, for use by all teams in spring training. On March 8, 1941 the Brooklyn Dodgers announced that the team’s players would be wearing the helmets during regular season games. On April 26, 1941 the Washington Senators joined the Dodgers as the only two teams to adopt the batting helmet for regular season use; the New York Giants on June 6 and the Chicago Cubs on June 24 joined the list of teams to adopt the use of protective helmets during games. Though many thought this would be the time when support would be strong enough to develop widespread usage, again tradition won out, it was not until 1953 that the Pittsburgh Pirates mandated their players wear helmets; the helmet required by Pittsburgh General Manager Branch Rickey was created by Charlie Muse and was based on the hard hats used by miners. Soon after, the Ottawa Citizen wrote that "Major League clubs are becoming quite interested in a new type of plastic protective cap, put on the market recently."
This became more prevalent when on August 1, 1954, Joe Adcock, a first baseman for the Milwaukee Braves, was struck with a pitch on his head. He was wearing a helmet and, though he was taken off the field on a stretcher, he was uninjured as his helmet took the brunt of the impact and was visibly dented. In the early 1950s, the governing body of Little League Baseball mandated the use of protective headgear during games for all players. In 1956 the National League followed suit and required the use of batting helmets by all players on all teams. After Little League Baseball announced a better helmet for the use of all players, the American League passed the rule, on March 1, 1958 which required all players to wear helmets. However, though unlike in the NHL in the same era, helmets were accepted, it was not until December 1970 that Major League Baseball enforced mandatory use of the batting helmet for all batters. Veteran players, were given the option of choosing to wear a helmet or not, as they were grandfathered into the rule.
The last Major League player who did not wear a helmet while batting was Bob Montgomery, who last played for the Boston Red Sox in 1979 Incidentally, the same year the NHL made helmets compulsory with a similar grandfather clause for veteran players. In 1960, Jim Lemon became the first player to wear the new Little League helmet in a Major League game; these helmets were made with earflaps on