Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Duke Wen of Jin
Duke Wen of Jin, born Chong'er, was a scion of the royal house of Jin during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. He famously endured a long period of exile from his realm before being restored to power and leading Jin to hegemony over the other Chinese states of his time, he is a figure in numerous Chinese legends, including those about his loyal courtier Jie Zhitui, whose death is said to have inspired China's Cold Food and Qingming Festivals. "Duke Wen of Jin" is a posthumous name bestowed on him as part of his family's ancestral veneration. It means the "Cultured Duke of Jin". Duke Wen's given name was Chong'er, his clan name was Ji. Prince Chong'er was born to Duke Xian of Jin in 697 BC; the Zuo Zhuan notes that "his ribs were all grown together," a sign of leadership. Chong'er's half-brothers included Shensheng and Xiqi. While Shensheng was the original crown prince, in his years Duke Xian favoured the concubine Li Ji, who desired her son Xiqi to be heir instead; as such, she plotted to discredit Shensheng before his father leading to Shensheng's suicide in 656 BC.
This event led to a civil war in Jin, known as the Li Ji Unrest, where Duke Xian led several campaigns against his own sons, forcing them to flee Jin. With a retinue of capable men, including Zhao Cui, Hu Yan, Wei Chou, Jia Tuo, Xian Zhen, Jie Zhitui, Chong'er fled to the north. In 651 BC, after the death of Duke Xian led to a succession crisis, Chong'er was invited to return to Jin and assume the duchy, but declined. In 644 BC, after failed assassination attempts by Duke Hui, Chong'er moved to the State of Qi, his mother's homeland, he remained there until yet another succession crisis in Qi in 639 BC, whereupon he fled first to the State of Cao the states of Song, Zheng and the State of Qin. Over this 19-year period of exile, Chong ` er gained both talented followers. In 636 BC, after the death of Duke Hui, Duke Mu of Qin escorted Chong'er back to Jin with an army, Chong'er was installed as the Duke of Jin. Duke Wen undertook several major reforms of the state's military and civil institutions in order to fill the gaps, caused by the slaughter of the ducal house previously.
These included the formation of a three-army system, with an upper and lower army each commanded by a General and a Lieutenant-General. The state was further invigorated by the many capable leaders Duke Wen had gathered from his wanderings, who were given senior military and governmental posts. With this army, as well as his considerable prestige, Duke Wen was able to absorb many of the states around Jin increasing its extent, while subjecting others as vassals. At the same time, he took the political stance of supporting the Eastern Zhou court and King Xiang of Zhou; when in 635 BC King Xiang was deposed and driven out by his brother, Duke Wen led a coalition of states which re-installed him as King. At the same time, the northward expansion of the State of Chu was resisted by Duke Wen. In 633 BC, Chu invaded the State of Song, an ally of Jin; this battle checked Chu's northern expansion for decades, while cementing Duke Wen's position. Duke Jin died in 628 BC, was succeeded by his son Duke Xiang of Jin.
When Chong'er stayed at the court of Chu, its king set banquets for him and afforded him good treatment. At one meal, he asked. Chong'er replied that, should Jin and Chu meet on the battlefield in the future, he would order his own troops to retreat three she or about 30 km. After Chong'er was restored to his throne by the duke of Qin, he did meet Chu in battle. Remembering his promise, he ordered his men to retreat three she, he used the occasion, however, to lure the Chu commander Ziyu into an ambush at Chengpu and won the battle there. Accounts of Chong'er and his retainer and musician Jie Zhitui or Zitui circulated by at least the 4th century BC. Sima Qian relates that Jie was among those who followed the prince through all his years of exile but, crediting Heaven with Qin's willingness to install Chong'er in place of Duke Yu, he declined to present himself at court for reward and insulted those who did so, he and his mother were never seen again. Chong'er was distracted during this time by the chaos of his installation, as Yu's partisans started riots and burnt down the ducal palace.
He was reminded of Jie by a poem about a dragon and some snakes, posted on his new palace's main gate. This developed into a temple, Jie became regarded as a Taoist immortal with power over the weather by the early Han. Legends embellished this story: after the retinue of exiles were robbed by bandits while traveling through the Chine
Xiefu or Xie was the original Marquis of Jin, the second ruler of the State of Jin during the early Zhou Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ji, given name Xie or Xiefu. Marquis Xie succeeded Shu Yu of Tang, as the ruler of the state of Tang. During his reign, he renamed the state Jin. After he died, his son Ningzu succeeded him as Marquis Wu of Jin
Fuchai, sometimes written Fucha, was the last king of the state of Wu during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. His armies constructed important canals linking the Yellow, Ji, Huai River systems of the North China Plain with central China's Yangtze River, but he is most remembered in Chinese culture for the role he played in the legends concerning Goujian, the revenge-seeking king of Yue. Fuchai was the son of King Helü, he became king in 495 BC, following the death of his father from injuries sustained during an invasion of Yue. In 494 BC, the king of Yue, heard rumours that Fuchai was planning to attack him in order to avenge the death of his father. Goujian's minister Fan Li advised caution. Fuchai in turn sent his army against Yue; the forces met at Fujiao. These men fell back to Mount Kuaiji, with the Wu army occupying Kuaiji and surrounding the mountain. At Fan Li's suggestion, Goujian sent Wen Zhong to bribe the Wu chancellor, Bo Pi, in order to obtain more favourable terms.
Bo promised to help Goujian's case. Because Fuchai had been more anxious to expand northward against Qi, he accepted Bo's advice to make a favourable peace with Yue rather than engage in the lengthy pacification campaign that would have been necessary to annex the state of Yue to Wu. After Fuchai withdrew his men from Yue, Goujian took his wife and Fan Li to the Wu court to serve his opponent, his hard work on Fuchai's behalf earned him the king's trust and favour, Goujian was permitted to return to his kingdom after three years. In 486 BC, Fuchai's men built the Hangou Canal to connect the Yangtze River with the Huai and, via the existing Honggou Canal, with the Yellow River beyond; this eased their supply lines during Fuchai's war with Qi, concluded at the Battle of Ailing. During 483 and 482 BC, Fuchai's men built the Heshui Canal connecting the Si River, a tributary of the Huai, with the Ji, which ran parallel to the Yellow River through densely populated districts in what is now western Shandong.
In 482 BC, Fuchai challenged the duke of Jin for the status of hegemon in the regional lords' conference in Huangchi. However, while Fuchai was away in the north with his army, Goujian advanced his army into what was now defenceless Wu, it was said that Goujian had been nursing his bitterness by sleeping on straw with a sword beside his head and by tasting gall each morning. For ten years, he improved his realm's governance under Wen Zhong and its army under Fan Li, while inspiring his people by working his own fields as his wife made thread and wove by hand, his men defeated the Wu killed Fuchai's heir Prince You. Fuchai hurried with his army to return south and sent an emissary ahead to come to terms with Goujian, which were accepted. Goujian had decided that he would be unable to defeat Wu in a single campaign and returned home to further strengthen his army, he took advantage of the further weakening of Wu, as Fuchai led an extravagant and dissipated life. Following Bo Pi's advice, Fuchai executed his faithful minister Wu Zixu.
King Fuchai became distracted from state affairs by the Yue beauty Xi Shi, who it was said had been sent to Wu for this purpose by Goujian or his ministers. In 473 BC, Goujian's forces dealt repeated defeats on the Wu forces. Fuchai again sought terms. In the end, Fuchai was forced to commit suicide and Wu was annexed by Yue. Fuchai had at least four sons, three of whom were named You and Hui. You was his heir but was killed in the battles leading to the defeat of Wu, Hong became the new heir. After the collapse of the state, the other three sons of Fuchai were exiled, they and their descendants took Wu as their clan name. Wu Rui, King of Changsha created by Emperor Gaozu of Han, was a descendant of the House of Wu, he was said to be descended from Fuchai. The story of Goujian's revenge became proverbial in China. Fuchai's wronged minister Wu Zixu has been credited as the inspiration for many of the festivities around the Dragon Boat Festival. Needham, Joseph. Science & Civilization in China, Vol. IV: Physics and Physical Technology, Pt. III: Civil Engineering and Nautics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zhao Dingxin, The Confucian-Legalist State: A New Theory of Chinese History, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Han and Wei, in the 5th century BC. Zhao gained significant strength from the military reforms initiated during King Wuling's reign, but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Qin at the Battle of Changping, its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Shaanxi provinces. It bordered the Xiongnu, the states of Qin and Yan, its capital was Handan, in modern Hebei Province. Zhao was home to administrative philosopher Shen Dao, sophist Gongsun Long and the Confucian Xun Kuang; the Zhao clan within Jin had accumulated power for centuries, including annexing the Baidi state of Dai for themselves during the mid-5th century BC. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin was divided up between three powerful ministers. In 403 BC, the king of Zhou formally recognized the existence of the State of Zhao along with two other States and Wei, marking the start of the Warring States Period.
At the onset of the Warring States period, Zhao was one of the weaker states. Despite its extensive territory, its northern border was subject to harassment by the Xiongnu and by other northern nomadic peoples. At the same time, Zhao was surrounded by strong states and lacked the military strength of Wei or the prosperity of Qi. Zhao became a pawn in the struggle between the states of Wei and Qi, this struggle came to a climax in 354 BC when Wei invaded Zhao, Zhao had to seek aid from Qi; the resulting Battle of Guiling was a major victory for Qi, it lessened the threat to Zhao's southern border. Zhao remained weak until the military reforms of King Wuling of Zhao; the soldiers of Zhao were ordered to dress like their Xiongnu neighbours and to replace war chariots with cavalry archers. This reform proved to be a brilliant strategy. With the advanced technology of the Chinese states and nomadic tactics, the cavalry of Zhao became a powerful force; the result was that the newly strengthened Zhao was evenly matched against its greatest enemy, the state of Qi.
Zhao demonstrated its enhanced military prowess by conquering the State of Zhongshan in 295 BC after a prolonged war, annexing territory from its neighbouring states of Wei and Qin. During this time, the cavalry of Zhao occasionally intruded into the state of Qi in campaigns against the state of Chu. Several brilliant military commanders of the period appeared concurrently, including Lian Po, Zhao She and Li Mu. Lian Po proved instrumental in defending Zhao against the Qin. Zhao She was most active in the east. Li Mu defended Zhao from the Xiongnu and from Qin. By the end of the Warring States Period, Zhao was the only state strong enough to oppose the powerful Qin state. An alliance with Wei against Qin commenced in 287 BC but ended in defeat at Huayang in 273 BC; the struggle culminated in the bloodiest battle of the whole period, the Battle of Changping in 260 BC. The troops of Zhao were defeated by Qin. Although the forces of Wei and Chu saved Handan from a follow-up siege by the victorious Qin, Zhao would never recover from the enormous loss of men in the battle.
In 229 BC, invasions led by the Qin general Wang Jian were opposed by Li Mu and his subordinate officer Sima Shang until 228 BC. Li Mu was one of the best generals of the Warring States era, although he was unable to defeat Wang Jian, Wang Jian was unable to make headway either; the invasion developed into a stalemate. Realizing that he had to get rid of Li Mu to conquer Zhao, the emperor of Qin, Qin Shihuang, attempted to sow discord among the Zhao leadership. Zhao King Youmiu fell for the scheme: acting on faulty advice from disloyal court officials and Qin infiltrators, he ordered the execution of Li Mu and relieved Sima Shang from his duties. Li Mu's replacement, Zhao Cong, was promptly defeated by Wang Jian. Qin captured King Youmiu and conquered Zhao in 228 BC. Prince Jia, the stepbrother of King Qian, was proclaimed King Jia at Dai and led the last Zhao forces against the Qin; the regime lasted until 222 BC, when the Qin army defeated his forces at Dai. In 154 BC, an unrelated Zhao, headed by Liu Sui, the Prince of Zhao kingdom, participated in the unsuccessful Rebellion of the Seven States against the newly installed second emperor of the Han dynasty.
Before the state of Qin unified China in 221 BC, each region had their own unique customs and culture, although they were all dominated by an upper class that shared a common culture. In the Yu Gong, a section of the Book of Documents, most composed in the 4th century BC, the author describes a China, divided into nine regions, each with its own distinctive peoples and products; the core theme of this section is that these nine regions are unified into one state by the travels of the eponymous sage, Yu the Great and by sending each region's unique goods to the capital as tribute. Other texts discussed these regional variations in culture and physical environments. One of these texts was Wuzi, a Warring States military treatise written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were linked to the physical environment and territory they live in. Of Zhao, he said: The two states of Han and Zhao train their troops rigorously but have difficulty in applying their skills to the battlefield.
Han and Zhao are states of the Central Plain. Theirs are a gentle p
Spring and Autumn period
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from 771 to 476 BC which corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, waging wars amongst themselves; the gradual Partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, the beginning of the Warring States period. In 771 BC, the Quanrong invasion destroyed the Western Zhou and its capital Haojing, forcing the Zhou king to flee to the eastern capital Luoyi; the event ushered in the Eastern Zhou dynasty, divided into the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods. During the Spring and Autumn period, China's feudal system of fengjian became irrelevant.
The Zhou court, having lost its homeland in the Guanzhong region, held nominal power, but had real control over only a small royal demesne centered on Luoyi. During the early part of the Zhou dynasty period, royal relatives and generals had been given control over fiefdoms in an effort to maintain Zhou authority over vast territory; as the power of the Zhou kings waned, these fiefdoms became independent states. The most important states came together in regular conferences where they decided important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign groups or against offending nobles. During these conferences one vassal ruler was sometimes declared hegemon; as the era continued and more powerful states annexed or claimed suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century BC most small states had disappeared and just a few large and powerful principalities dominated China; some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou, who undertook wars against some of them. Amid the interstate power struggles, internal conflict was rife: six élite landholding families waged war on each other inside Jin, political enemies set about eliminating the Chen family in Qi, the legitimacy of the rulers was challenged in civil wars by various royal family members in Qin and Chu.
Once all these powerful rulers had established themselves within their respective dominions, the bloodshed focused more on interstate conflict in the Warring States period, which began in 403 BC when the three remaining élite families in Jin – Zhao and Han – partitioned the state. After the Zhou capital was sacked by the Marquess of Shen and the Quanrong barbarians, the Zhou moved the capital east from the now desolated Zongzhou in Haojing near modern Xi'an to Wangcheng in the Yellow River Valley; the Zhou royalty was closer to its main supporters Jin, Zheng. In Chengzhou, Prince Yijiu was crowned by his supporters as King Ping. However, with the Zhou domain reduced to Chengzhou and nearby areas, the court could no longer support the six army groups it had in the past; the Zhou court would never regain its original authority. Though the king de jure retained the Mandate of Heaven, the title held little actual power. With the decline of Zhou power, the Yellow River drainage basin was divided into hundreds of small, autonomous states, most of them consisting of a single city, though a handful of multi-city states those on the periphery, had power and opportunity to expand outward.
A total of 148 states are mentioned in the chronicles for this period, 128 of which were absorbed by the four largest states by the end of the period. Shortly after the royal family's move to Chengzhou, a hierarchical alliance system arose where the Zhou king would give the title of hegemon to the leader of the state with the most powerful military; this political framework retained the fēngjiàn power structure, though interstate and intrastate conflict led to disregard for feudal customs, respect for the Ji family, solidarity with other Zhou peoples. The king's prestige legitimized the military leaders of the states, helped mobilize collective defense of Zhou territory against "barbarians". Over the next two centuries, the four most powerful states—Qin, Jin, Qi and Chu—struggled for power; these multi-city states used the pretext of aid and protection to intervene and gain suzerainty over the smaller states. During this rapid expansion, interstate relations alternated between low-level warfare and complex diplomacy.
Duke Yin of Lu ascended the throne in 722 BC. From this year on the state of Lu kept an official chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, which along with its commentaries is the standard source for the Spring and Autumn period. Corresponding chronicles are known to have existed in other states as well, but all but the Lu chronicle have been lost. In 717 BC, Duke Zhuang of Zheng went to the capital for an audience with King Huan. During the encounter the duke felt he was not trea
Wei was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China. It was created from the three-way Partition of Jin, together with Zhao, its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei and Shandong. After its capital was moved from Anyi to Daliang during the reign of King Hui, Wei was called Liang. Surviving sources trace the ruling house of Wei to the Zhou royalty: Gao, Duke of Bi, was a son of King Wen of Zhou, his descendants took their surname from his fief. After the destruction of Bi by the Xionites, Bi Wan escaped to Jin, where he became a courtier of Duke Xian's, accompanying his personal carriage. After a successful military expedition, Bi Wan was granted Wei, from which his own descendants founded the house of Wei. Jin's political structure was drastically changed after the slaughter of its ruling dynasty during and after the Li Ji Unrest. Afterwards, "Jin ha no princely house" and its political power diffused into extended relations of the ruling family, including the Wei.
In the last years of the Spring and Autumn period, the founders of Wei and Han joined to attack and kill the dominant house of Zhi in 453 BCE, resulting in the partition of Jin. King Weilie of Zhou legitimized the situation in 403 BCE, when he elevated the three houses' heads to the rank of marquess; the state reached its apogee during the reigns of its first two rulers, Marquess Wen of Wei and Marquess Wu of Wei. The third ruler, King Hui of Wei, declared himself an independent sovereign and concentrated on economic developments, including irrigation projects at the Yellow River. Hui felt that their land a barren waste, he focused on conquering the well-settled eastern lands. However, a series of battles including the battle of Maling in 341 BCE checked Wei's ambitions while Qin's expansion went unimpeded, boosting its economy and military strength. Early strengthening of the state of Wei resulted from adoption of Legalist reforms proposed by Li Kui. Wei lost the western Hexi region, a strategic area of pastoral land on the west bank of the Yellow River between the border of modern-day Shanxi and Shaanxi, to Qin.
Thereafter, it remained continuously at war with Qin, requiring the capital to be moved from Anyi to Daliang. Wei surrendered to Qin in 225 BCE, after the Qin general Wang Ben diverted the Yellow River into Daliang, destroying the capital in a flood. Marquess Wen of Wei, personal name Si or Du, Marquess Wu of Wei, personal name Ji, son of Marquess Wen, King Hui of Wei, personal name Ying, son of Marquess Wu, King Xiang of Wei, personal name Si or He, son of King Hui, King Zhao of Wei, personal name Chi, son of King Xiang, King Anxi of Wei,personal name Yu, son of King Zhao, King Jingmin of Wei, personal name Zeng or Wu, son of King Anxi, King Jia, personal name Jia, son of King Jingmin, According to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian written in the 1st century BCE, the list of rulers is different: King Hui died in 335 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Xiang in 334 BCE. King Xiang died in 319 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Ai, who died in 296 BCE and was succeeded by his son King Zhao.
However, the majority of scholars and commentators believe that King Ai, whose personal name is not recorded, never existed. It seems that Sima Qian assigned the second part of the reign of King Hui to his son King Xiang and added King Ai to fill in the gap between 319 and 296 BCE. On the other hand, a minority of scholars believe. Li Kui, a Legalist philosopher and chancellor Yue Yang, ancestor of Yue Yi and prime minister of Zhongshan Pang Juan, a successful general, defeated by Lord Mengchang of Qi and Sun Bin at the battle of Maling According to the Han Feizi, King Anxi had a lover named Lord Long Yang, with whom he enjoyed fishing. One day, Long began to weep; when questioned, Long said. Happy to have the catch at first, Long Yang had wanted to throw it back when he caught a better fish, he wept, "I am a previously-caught fish! I will be thrown back!" To show his fidelity to Long Yang, the king declared that, "Anyone who dares to speak of other beauties will be executed along with his entire family".
In traditional Chinese astronomy, Wei is represented by one star in the "Twelve States" asterism of the "Girl" lunar mansion of the "Black Turtle" symbol and other star in the "Left Wall" of the "Heavenly Market" enclosure. Sources differ, however, in whether those two stars are 33 Capricorni and Delta Herculis or whether they are Chi Capricorni and Phi Capricorni. Liang, the earlier state of that name Liang, the continuation of the title in dynasties