Grandee is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility. Holders of this dignity enjoyed similar privileges to those of the peerage of France during the Ancien Régime, but unlike in Great Britain, they were not organised into political groupings. "Grandee of Spain" is the highest dignity of nobility in all of Europe, due to its privileges having been greater than those of other similar European dignities, such as the peers of France or the peers of Great Britain. All Dukedoms are automatically attached to a Grandeeship yet only a few Marquessates, Viscountcies and Lordships have the distinction. A single person can be a Grandee of Spain multiple times, as Grandeeships are attached, with the exception of a few cases, to a title and not an individual. Nobles in Spain with more than one title, most notably the Duchess of Medinaceli and the Duke of Alba, are Grandees 10 and 9 times respectively. Despite losing their last legal privilege in 1984, when all Grandees of Spain were revoked the right to possess diplomatic passports and immunity, they still enjoy certain ceremonial privileges.
All Grandees are entitled to remain covered in the presence of the King of Spain, as well as being addressed by him as primo, a privilege that originated in the 16th century, when most Grandees were close relatives of the Monarch. In addition, the term can refer to other people of a somewhat comparable, exalted position synonymous with magnate. By extension, the term can refer informally to any important person of high status wealthy, landed long-time residents in a region; the term is used in the United Kingdom to refer to influential and long-standing members of the Conservative Party, Labour Party and Liberal Democrats. As of 2018, Grandeeships totalled 417 out of the 2,942 extant titles in Spain of which there were 153 Dukedoms, 142 Marquessates, 108 Countships, 2 Viscountcies, 2 Baronies, 3 Lordships and 7 hereditary yet non title-attached Grandees. Most Spanish noble titles are granted as títulos del Reino, many of which predate the modern Spanish monarchy; the Kings of Spain re-established in 1520 the ancient dignity of Grande to confer as an additional rank of honour.
The dignity of Grandee began to be assumed by Spain's leading noblemen in the Middle Ages to distinguish them as a Grand señor, from lesser ricoshombres, whose rank evolved into that of hidalgo. It was, as John Selden MP the 17th-century English jurist pointed out, not a general term denoting a class, but "an additional individual dignity not only to all Dukes, but to some Marquesses and Counts also". Noble titles and above the rank of Count, were created in heredity by the Kings of Castile and Aragon until the late Middle Ages—in contrast to France and elsewhere in Europe —being associated with royal officers until the 14th century; the conferral of grandeeships conveyed only ceremonial privileges, such as remaining covered or seated in the presence of royalty. Over time grandees received more substantial rights: e.g. freedom from taxation. These rights became open to abuse with some Grandees renouncing their allegiance to the monarchy to wage war on the King. In the late 1470s, King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I were the first to clamp down on grandee powers assumed by the medieval territorial nobles.
In the 16th century, limitations on the number of grandees were introduced by King Charles I, who decreed that the Spanish Crown had the sole right to confer the dignity of a grandee. Subsequently, the Grandes de España were subdivided into three grades: those who spoke to the King and received his reply in full regalia. All grandees traditionally have been addressed by the king as mi Primo, whereas ordinary nobles are formally styled as mi Pariente. Grandezas could be bestowed upon foreigners, such as the memorialist Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon who took great pride in becoming a grandee after his successful posting as French Ambassador to Madrid, representing King Louis XIV; the dignity of grandee was abolished by the Napoleonic King Joseph Bonaparte, before being revived in 1834 by Estatuto real when grandees were given precedence in the Chamber of Peers of Spain. Nowadays, all grandees are deemed to be of the first class, is an honorific dignity conferring neither power or legal privilege.
A Grandeza de España is separate legal entity from a title of nobility, although grandezas are but not granted in conjunction with a title. Since the 20th century invariably the King of Spain has conferred a Grandeza de España upon any newly created duke. A grandee of any noble rank is higher in precedence than a non-grandee if that non-grandee holds a hereditary title of a higher grade than that of the said grandee. Thus, a baron-grandee would outrank a non-grandee marquess, thus rendering the dignity of grandeza an hereditary rank of precedence rather than a title of nobility. Since 1987, children of an infante of Spain are recognised as members of the Spanish royal family a
María Josefa Pimentel, Duchess of Osuna
Doña María Josefa Alonso-Pimentel y Téllez-Girón, Duchess of Osuna, Grandee of Spain, suo jure 15th Countess-12th Duchess of Benavente, was a Spanish aristocrat, famous for her patronage of artists and scientists. She married Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna in 1771; the couple had many children. One of her children was Joaquina Téllez-Girón, Marchioness of Santa Cruz, portrayed by Goya; the Duchess and her husband were among the most important aristocrats who became patrons of the painter Francisco de Goya. The Duchess not only purchased one of the first editions of Los Caprichos, but commissioned a series of cabinet paintings on the subject of witchcraft from Goya, amongst them El aquelarre. In the famous portrait Goya painted of her, she is shown standing with noble reserve, dressed according to the fashion initiated by Queen Marie Antoinette in Paris at that time. In another famous painting, Goya portrayed the ducal family; the Duchess was interested in landscape gardening and from the 1780s she developed a garden at El Capricho, the family estate at Alameda de Osuna, near Madrid.
The garden, which still survives, shows French influence. In full, her Spanish name and titles were: Doña María Josefa de la Soledad Alonso Pimentel Téllez-Girón Borja y Centelles, décimo quinta condesa y décimo segunda duquesa de Benavente, décimo tercera duquesa de Béjar, décimo tercera duquesa de Plasencia, décimo segunda duquesa de Arcos, décimo cuarta duquesa de Gandia, novena duquesa de Mandas y Villanueva, octava marquesa de Jabalquinto, décimo quinta marquesa de Gibraleón, novena marquesa de Terranova, décimo segunda marquesa de Lombay, décimo sexta marquesa de Zahara, décimo octava condesa de Mayorga, décimo sexta condesa de Luna, décimo tercera condesa de Bañares, séptima condesa de Belalcázar, décimo cuarta condesa de Oliva, décimo primera condesa de Mayalde, décimo segunda condesa de Bailén, décimo segunda condesa de Casares, décimo quinta vizcondesa de la Puebla de Alcocer, 6 veces Grande de España, principessa di Anglona, duchessa di Monteagudo, marchesa di Marguini, contessa di Osilò e di Coguinas en Cerdeña, dama de la Orden de María Luisa.
Hobbs, Nicolas. "Grandes de España". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 16 May 2016. Instituto de Salazar y Castro. Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles. Periodic publication
Arcos de la Frontera
Arcos de la Frontera is a town and municipality in the Sierra de Cádiz comarca, province of Cádiz, in Andalusia, Spain. It is located on the Northern and Southern banks of the Guadalete river, which flows around three sides of the city under towering vertical cliffs, to Jerez and on to the Bay of Cádiz; the town commands a fine vista atop a sandstone ridge, from which the peak of San Cristóbal and the Guadalete Valley can be seen. The town gained its name by being the frontier of Spain's 13th century battle with the Moors. There is local evidence. Roman ruins exist in the area. Arcos became an independent Moorish taifa in 1011 during the protracted collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. Arcos was associated with the Jerez by'Abdun ibn Muhammad. 1029/1030 to 1053. The region was overtaken by the Almoravid dynasty in 1091. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez was a taifa under dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal; the town was a bulwark of Christianity after king Alfonso X of Castile'the Wise' expelled the Moors.
He constructed a Gothic cathedral. It is famed for its ten bells. Several Moorish banners were taken in the nearby battle of Zahara and have been on display in a church in Arcos since 1483. Castillo de Arcos, a medieval castle of Moorish origin, rebuilt entirely in the first half of the 15th century, it is private property, not open to the public. It has a quadrangular plan with four towers at the corners, it was a military alcázar in the Muslim period. On the outside, the shields of the Dukes of Arcos are observed. Iglesia de la Caridad Basílica Menor de Santa María de la Asunción, erected after the Reconquista on a Visigothic temple and the remains of a 13th and 14th century mosque; the main facade is of Plateresque-Gothic style and the facade that faces Plaza del Cabildo is Renaissance. Its unfinished tower, repaired after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, has a Baroque air. Since 1931 it has been an Artistic-Historic Monument. Iglesia de San Pedro is a 15th-17th century church built on the site of a 14th-century Al-Andalusian fortress or watchtower.
Different styles: Gothic and Baroque, can be observed in its tower and facade. Iglesia de San Agustín, founded in 1539 as Convento de San Juan de Letrán, it was subsequently occupied by the convent the Order of St. Augustine of the Observance. With the Confiscation the last Augustinians were expelled and the convent was abandoned. Today, the church remains. Iglesia de San Miguel a Moorish fortress, in the 15th century was converted into a hermitage, was rebuilt in the 18th century, it was a hospice for orphaned girls. It is used for exhibitions and lectures. Iglesia de San Francisco Convento de la Encarnación, a convent founded in the first half of the 16th century, its main portal is Plateresque and the adjacent one is of late-Gothic style. It is a parish hall. Capilla de la Misericordia, a chapel founded in 1490 to house the abandoned children, to serve as a house and hospital for women, its facade is Gothic. It is now a exhibition hall. Convento de las Mercedarias Descalzas, the only remaining cloistered convent in Arcos, dating from 1642.
Its nuns make. The nuns mended all kinds of clothes, except men's pants. Hospital de San Juan de Dios, a 16th-century hospital called Hospital de San Sebastián, attached to a hermitage. There were at that time 14 charitable hospitals in Arcos, reunified in 1596 in San Sebastián. Palacio de los Condes del Águila, a 15th-century late Gothic-Mudéjar palace. Palacio del Mayorazgo, an Herrerian style house-palace built in the 17th century, it is now a municipal building. Asilo de la Caridad, late-16th century. Edificio del Pósito with a stone facade of 1738. Years it was a public school. Today it is a health center. Birth house of the poet Julio Mariscal, on whose facade can seen a commemorative azulejo. Ayuntamiento viejo, with a 17th-century stone portal; the City Council moved to the building, in front to the castle due to stones falling from the promontory. The Historic center, declared a Historic-Artistic Monument in 1962. Remains of the Roman and Moorish City walls, although ruined and demolished; this walled enclosure comprises only the upper neighborhood of the city.
The remains of these walls, which can still be recognized on the ground itself, have a detailed description of by Miguel Mancheño y Olivares in his book "Apuntes para una historia de Arcos de la Frontera". Of these walls, the part between the Torre de la Esquina and San Anton have little foundation remaining, those of the City Gates Puerta de Jerez and Puerta de Carmona have disappeared; the city gate Puerta de Matrera is preserved. Calle Nueva, a main street because it was the castle moat. With the 1755 Lisbon earthquake a stretch of wall collapsed, blocking the moat and giving rise to this street, it is decorated with pots, the old small'Bar Alcaraván' is located within a cave. A Roman altar, located in the alley Callejón de las Monjas; the Guardacantones, a common feature in streets of this town, is a reinforcement of the corners with old columns in which there are capitals of many periods. Alley Callejón de las Monjas'; the flying buttresses crossing this alley were built in 1699, to hol
Pedro de Alcántara Téllez-Girón y Beaufort Spontin, 14th Duke of the Infantado
Pedro Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo y Silva, was a Spanish noble from the House of Osuna. He was the 14th Duke of the Infantado, the 11th Duke of Osuna and the holder of various titles associated with those Dukedoms. Pedro was the son of Francisco Téllez-Girón, 10th Duke de Osuna and of María Francisca de Beaufort Spontin y Toledo; the Téllez-Girón family had held title over the Dukedom of Osuna since 1562 with the rise of Pedro Téllez-Girón. Pedro inherited the Dukedom of Osuna after the death of his father in 1820, he died in 1844 without leaving behind any heirs. As a result, all of his titles, including the Dukedoms of the Infantado and of Osuna would pass on to his brother, Mariano Téllez-Girón y Beaufort Spontin. XI Duke of Osuna X Duke of Pastrana XIV Duke of the Infantado XIV Duke of Béjar XIII Duke of Arcos XIV Duke of Benavente XV Duke of Plasencia XV Duke of Gandía X Duke of Mandas y Villanueva XIV Duke of Medina de Rioseco XI Duke of Lerma Duke of Estremera Duke of Francavilla XIII Marquis of Peñafiel, XV Marquis of Santillana, XVI Marquis of Tavara, Marquis of Terranova, Marquis of Cea, Marquis of Gibraleón, Marquis of Lombay, Marquis of Zahara, Marquis of Cenete, Marquis of Angüeso, Marquis of Almenara, Marquis of Algecilla, Marquis of Cea XVI Count of Benavente, XV Count of Ureña, Count of Mayorga, Count of Bañares, Count of Oliva, Count of Mayalde, Count of Belalcázar, Count of Real de Manzanares, Count of Saldaña, Count of the Cid, Count of Melgar de la Frontera, Count of Bailén, Count of Villada
Province of Cádiz
Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is the southernmost part of mainland Spain, as well as the southernmost part of continental Europe, it is bordered by the Spanish provinces of Huelva, Málaga, as well as the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. Its area is 7,385 square kilometers, its capital is the city of Cádiz, which has a population of more than 128,000. The largest city is Jerez de la Frontera with 208,896 inhabitants, another important city is Algeciras with just over 114,000 inhabitants; the entire province had a population of 1,240,175, of whom about 600,000 live in the Bay of Cádiz area. Its population density is 167.93 per square kilometer. The province encompasses 44 municipalities. According to a roster developed by the Council of Tourism and Sport of Andalusia on 27 March 2003, there are six traditional or touristic comarcas in the Province of Cádiz: Bahía de Cádiz Campiña de Jerez Campo de Gibraltar Bajo Guadalquivir La Janda Sierra de Cádiz This area comprises towns and cities on the shores of the Bay of Cádiz on the west-central coast of the province: Cádiz Chiclana El Puerto de Santa María Puerto Real San Fernando This fertile area only includes two municipalities, both large in area: Jerez de la Frontera San José del Valle The towns that extend into the rural hinterlands north of Gibraltar are: Algeciras Jimena de la Frontera Castellar de la Frontera San Roque La Línea de la Concepción Los Barrios Tarifa The towns of this area called the "Bajo Guadalquivir", are: Chipiona Rota Sanlúcar de Barrameda Trebujena Towns included in La Janda, an area in the southwestern part of the province, are: Alcalá de los Gazules Barbate Benalup-Casas Viejas Conil de la Frontera Medina Sidonia Paterna de Rivera Vejer de la Frontera Towns included in the Cádiz Mountains area, in the northeastern part of the province, include: Alcalá del Valle Algar Algodonales Arcos de la Frontera Benaocaz Bornos El Bosque El Gastor Espera Grazalema Olvera Prado del Rey Puerto Serrano Setenil de las Bodegas Torre Alháquime Ubrique Villaluenga del Rosario Villamartín Zahara de la Sierra The entire province of Cádiz has a Mediterranean climate, but with large differences in summer temperatures between the three official stations in Cádiz and Tarifa depending on position relative to the coastline.
Tarifa is exceptionally cool for such a southerly parallel in Europe, but winter temperatures are mild throughout the province with less difference between localities than in summer. Average yearly rainfall is 521 mm in Cádiz, 573 mm in Jerez, 603 mm in Tarifa; this is comparable to much cloudier climates further north in Europe, in spite of the high number of sunshine hours in the province. The Cádiz region is much wetter than the arid Almería province further east in Andalusia. In 2014 the unemployment rate was the highest in the country; the main industry is tourism from non-coastal Spanish cities and the UK. Its once-important shipbuilding industry is now in crisis due to competition from South Korea and China. There are factories of Delphi, it exports sherry as well as alimentary products. Sherry production John Harvey & Sons in Jerez de la Frontera Gonzalez Byass Olive groves Fishing Ports, as in Cádiz and Algeciras. Cork products from the Alcornocales cork-oak forests Navantia Airbus CASA Delphi Ford Cepsa Lufthansa CityLine Endesa Acerinox The province of Cádiz has many kilometers of beaches and the highest number of Blue Flags of all coastal provinces in Europe.
Some of these beaches are wild and far from big urban areas. One of the attractions of the area is its contrast to the mass tourism on the Mediterranean coast. There are extensive nature reserves in the region and the unspoilt feel of the area is heightened by the presence of wild animals including cows and horses on many stretches of beach; the Costa de la Luz has traditionally been a popular destination for Spaniards wanting to enjoy the beach while avoiding the stifling heat of the Mediterranean Coast, although until this unspoilt Atlantic coastline was little known to foreign visitors. One of the factors that brought the region to the attention of foreign holidaymakers was the growing realisation that its Southern reaches are one of the world's best locations for wind sports. Tarifa, located on the Strait of Gibraltar at the southernmost point of mainland Europe, has become Europe's foremost kitesurfing destination due to the area's unique wind phenomena, reliably sunny summer weather and the variety of beaches at locations such as Los Canos de Meca, Punta Paloma and, most famously, Playa de Los Lances where in the summer months you will see over 1,000 kites in the air.
The local economy has benefited from the wind sport explosion: there are more than 50 kite schools in Tarifa and hundreds of shops and hotels serving the many thousands of kitesurfers who visit every year. Notable beaches: Playa La Barrosa in Chiclana de la Frontera Playa La Victoria in Cádiz Playa de Levante in El Puerto de Santa María Playa de Bolonia in Tarifa Playa de Camposoto in San Fernando Los Canos de Meca Playa de Los Lances in Tarifa Carnival of Cádiz Feria de Jerez Semana Santa in all municipalities of the Province Horse racing in Sanlúcar de Barrameda Circuito Permanente de Jerez White T
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind, her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as the first global power which dominated Europe and much of the world for more than a century. Isabella, granted together with her husband the title "the Catholic" by Pope Alexander VI, was recognized as a Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974.
Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile and his second wife, Isabella of Portugal on 22 April 1451. At the time of her birth, she was second in line to the throne after her older half-brother Henry IV of Castile. Henry childless, her younger brother Alfonso of Castile was born two years on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line. When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as King Henry IV of Castile. Isabella and her brother Alfonso were left in King Henry's care. She, her mother, Alfonso moved to Arévalo; these were times of turmoil for Isabella. The living conditions at their castle in Arévalo were poor, they suffered from a shortage of money. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, King Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted, or from ineptitude. Though living conditions were difficult, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion.
When the King's wife, Joan of Portugal, was about to give birth to their daughter Joanna and her brother Alfonso were summoned to court in Segovia to come under the direct supervision of the King and to finish their education. Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor; some of Isabella's living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle, adorned with gold and silver. Isabella's basic education consisted of reading, writing, mathematics, chess, embroidery and religious instruction, she and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art and music. She lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she left Segovia since King Henry forbade this, her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on and of her role in the feuds. The noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half-brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor, they went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne.
The nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with King Henry's forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. The battle was a draw. King Henry agreed to recognize Alfonso as his heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, Princess Joanna la Beltraneja. Soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Isabella's younger brother Alfonso died in July 1468 of the plague; the nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning. As she had been named in her brother's will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, Isabella preferred a negotiated settlement to continuing the war, she met with her elder brother Henry at Toros de Guisando and they reached a compromise: the war would stop, King Henry would name Isabella his heir-presumptive instead of his daughter Joanna, Isabella would not marry without her brother's consent, but he would not be able to force her to marry against her will.
Isabella's side came out with most of what the nobles desired, though they did not go so far as to depose King Henry. The question of Isabella's marriage was not a new one, she had made her debut in the matrimonial market at the age of six with a betrothal to Ferdinand, the younger son of John II of Navarre. At that time, the two kings and John, were eager to show their mutual love and confidence and they believed that this double alliance would make their eternal friendship obvious to the world; this arrangement, did not last long. Ferdinand's uncle Alfonso V of Aragon died in 1458. All of Alfonso's Spanish territories, as well as the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, were left to his brother John II. John now had a stronger position than before and no longer needed the security of Henry's friendship. Henry was now in need of a new alliance, he saw the chance for this much needed new friendship in Charles of John's elder son. Charles was at odds with his father, because of this, he secretly entered into an alliance with Henry IV of Castile.
A major part of the alliance was
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm