Woodstock was a music festival held on a dairy farm in the Catskill Mountains, northwest of New York City, between August 15–18, 1969, which attracted an audience of more than 400,000. Billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music", it was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre dairy farm near White Lake in Bethel, New York, 43 miles southwest of Woodstock. Over the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors, it is regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, as well as the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation. Rolling Stone listed it as number 19 of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Roll; the event was captured in the Academy Award-winning 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for both Crosby, Nash & Young and Matthews Southern Comfort. Joni Mitchell said, "Woodstock was a spark of beauty" where half-a-million kids "saw that they were part of a greater organism".
In 2017, the festival site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, Joel Rosenman, John P. Roberts. Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had some experience as a promoter, having co-organized a festival on the East Coast the prior year, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 25,000 people attended the two-day event. Early in 1969, Roberts and Rosenman were New York City entrepreneurs, in the process of building Media Sound, a large audio recording studio complex in Manhattan. Lang and Kornfeld's lawyer, Miles Lourie, who had done legal work on the Media Sound project, suggested that they contact Roberts and Rosenman about financing a similar, but much smaller, studio Kornfeld and Lang hoped to build in Woodstock, New York. Unpersuaded by this Studio-in-the-Woods proposal and Rosenman counter-proposed a concert featuring the kind of artists known to frequent the Woodstock area. Kornfeld and Lang agreed to the new plan, Woodstock Ventures was formed in January 1969.
The company offices were located in an oddly decorated floor of 47 West 57th Street in Manhattan. Burt Cohen, his design group, Curtain Call Productions, oversaw the psychedelic transformation of the office. From the start, there were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined and knew what was needed for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new, "relaxed" way of bringing entrepreneurs together; when Lang was unable to find a site for the concert and Rosenman, growing concerned, took to the road and came up with a venue. Similar differences about financial discipline made Roberts and Rosenman wonder whether to pull the plug or to continue pumping money into the project. In April 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, agreeing to play for $10,000; the promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford commented, "Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on."
Given their 3 a.m. start time and omission from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences regarding the festival. Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, it famously became a "free concert" only after the event drew hundreds of thousands more people than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the three-day event cost $18 in $24 at the gate. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan. Around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, the organizers anticipated 200,000 festival-goers would turn up; the original venue plan was for the festival to take place in Wallkill, New York near the proposed recording studio site owned by Alexander Tapooz. After local residents shot down that idea and Kornfeld thought they had found another possible location in Saugerties, New York, but they had misunderstood, as the landowner's attorney made clear, in a brief meeting with Roberts and Rosenman.
Growing alarmed at the lack of progress and Rosenman took over the search for a venue, discovered the 300-acre Mills Industrial Park in the town of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures leased for $10,000 in the Spring of 1969. Town officials were assured. Town residents opposed the project. In early July, the Town Board passed a law requiring a permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals banned the concert on the basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code. Reports of the ban, turned out to be a publicity bonanza for the festival. In his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Elliot Tiber relates that he offered to host the event on his 15-acre motel grounds, had a permit for such an event, he claims to have introduced the promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur. Lang, disputes Tiber's account and says that Tiber introduced him to a realtor, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur, Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.
Yasgur's land formed a natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side. The stage would be set up at the bottom of the
Cornel Campbell aka Don Cornel or Don Gorgon is a reggae singer, best known for his trademark falsetto voice, his recordings at Studio One in the late 1960s and his work with Bunny Lee in the 1970s. Cornel has one of the sweetest falsettos of any Jamaican vocalist and uses it to convey frustration, soul or despair, his first name was mistakenly spelled with two L's on a record and he's had to live with people misspelling his name since. He prefers the correct spelling: Cornel Campbell. Cornel's singing career began in his local church choir. At age eleven, in 1956, he was introduced to trombonist Rico Rodriguez, who took him to Clement Dodd's studio, where he recorded his first single, "My Treasure". Further singles followed, including "Turndown Date," as Jamaican music transformed from rhythm and blues to ska, with backing from The Skatalites, he recorded for King Edwards backed by The Bell Stars, before moving on again to Duke Reid's Treasure Isle, where he formed The Sensations along with Jimmy Riley, Buster Riley, Aaron Davis.
When The Sensations split, Campbell emerged as leader of his own new vocal group, The Eternals, with Ken Price and Errol Wisdom, recording perennial favourites such as "Queen of The Minstrel" and "Stars". He was briefly a member of The Uniques in the 1960s, although he may not have contributed to any recordings by the group at that time. In 1971, now as a solo artist, he began a long association with Bunny Lee working in the lovers rock genre, but soon working more roots songs into his repertoire, his self-titled debut album appeared in 1973, but his popularity peaked in the mid 1970s with the'flying hi-hat' sound, leading to major Jamaican hits "Natty Dread in a Greenwich Farm", "Dance in a Greenwich Farm", "Stars" and "The Gorgon". He enjoyed a huge hit in the early 80's rub-a-dub era with "Boxing" for Joe Gibbs. Throughout the 1970s he recorded with other record producers such as Winston Holness and Winston Riley. By the late 1970s, Campbell's popularity had begun to wane and he concentrated on love songs, after the mid 1980s, new recordings were less common, although he has maintained a strong following.
The Uniques were revived in the late 1970s, with Campbell joining Jimmy Riley and Lloyd Charmers in the group. This line-up recorded the Showcase vol. 1 album, Campbell and Riley recorded the Give Thanks album in 1979. The group was again revived in 1997, with a line-up of Riley, Cornell Campbell, Al Campbell, the group recording a self-titled album. In 2001 "King in My Empire", featuring Cornell Campbell, was released by Sound; the song was produced by Moritz Von Mark Ernestus. Cornell Campbell Trojan Natty Dread in a Greenwich Farm Total Sounds Dance in a Greenwich Farm Grounation The Gorgon Total Sounds/Angen Stalowatt Third World Turn Back The Hands of Time Third World Showcase, Big Phil Superstar Micron Yes I Will Micron The Inspector General Imperial Ropin' Justice Boxing Starlight Boxing Round Joe Gibbs What's Happening To Me Joe Gibbs Follow Instructions Mobiliser Money Live & Learn Fight Against Corruption Vista Big Things Don One Rock My Soul Sip a Cup New Scroll, Zion High Nothing Can Stop Us, Strut – Cornell Campbell meets The SoothsayersSplit albums Johnnie Clarke Meets Cornell Campbell Vista Cornell Campbell Meets The Gaylads Culture Press Double Top Tamoki Wambesi Barry Brown Meets Cornell Campbell Culture Press Compilations Reggae Sun Silver Jubilee Rhino Sweet Dancehall Collection JA Classics Collection: 20 Magnificent Hits, Striker Lee Magic Spell Studio One Sings Hits From Studio One And More Rhino The Minstrel Westside I Shall Not Remove Blood & Fire My Confession Charly Original Blue Recordings Moll Selekta Natty Dread Trojan My Destination Kingston Sounds Very Best Super Power Legend, Justice Twenty Love Songs, Culture Town 70 Greatest Hits, Alexander Music Group 12" Collection, Alexander Music Group Showcase Vol. 1 Third World/Jackpot Give Thanks Plant The Uniques Charm List of reggae musicians Cornell Campbell on Myspace Album discography at Roots Archives Album discography at Reggae Discographies Rebel Base interview Cornell Campbell interview with Sarah C of Vibes 93.8 FM, May 2008 PUNKCAST#23 Cornell Campbell & The Slackers @ The Cooler NYC – 15 September 2000
Gene Chandler is an American singer, music producer and record label executive. He is known best for his most successful songs "Duke of Earl" and "Groovy Situation" and his association with The Dukays, the Impressions and Curtis Mayfield. Chandler is a Grammy Hall Of Fame inductee and a winner of both the National Association of Television and Radio Announcers' "Producer of the Year" Award and the Rhythm and Blues Foundation's Pioneer Award, he is one of a just a few singers to achieve chart successes spanning the doo-wop and blues, disco musical eras, with some Top 40 pop and R&B chart hits between 1961 and 1986. Chandler was inducted as a performer into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame on August 24, 2014. In 2016, he became a "Double Inductee" into the R&B Hall of Fame, having received a Special Induction as an R&B Music Pioneer. Gene Chandler was born Eugene Drake Dixon in Chicago, Illinois, on July 6, 1937, he attended Englewood High School on Chicago's south side. He began performing during the early 1950s with the band The Gaytones.
In 1957, he joined The Dukays, with James Lowe, Shirley Jones, Earl Edwards and Ben Broyles, soon becoming their lead singer. After his draft into the U. S. Army he rejoined the Dukays; the Dukays were offered a recording contract by Nat Records and recorded a single with producers Carl Davis and Bill "Bunky" Sheppard, "The Girl Is a Devil". This was followed with a session in August 1961 that resulted in four sides, most notably "Nite Owl" and "Duke of Earl". Nat Records chose to release "Nite Owl" and it became a sizeable R&B success at the end of 1961. Meanwhile and Sheppard shopped the "Duke of Earl" recording to Vee-Jay Records company, which released it in 1962 by Dixon as a solo artist with the name "Gene Chandler". "Duke of Earl" sold a million copies in a little more than a month, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. After spending three weeks at number one on the Billboard charts, Chandler purchased a cape, monocle and top hat and advertised himself as "The Duke of Earl". Chandler can be seen in the full outfit singing "Duke of Earl" in the 1962 movie Don't Knock the Twist, featuring Chubby Checker.
His concerts became popular and he performed encores "Rainbow", one of his collaborations with Curtis Mayfield. This song was recorded by Chandler three times during his career, becoming a hit each time. Chandler left Vee Jay in the autumn of 1963 and recorded for another Chicago company, Constellation Records. After Constellation went bankrupt in 1966, he was contracted first to Chess Records and Brunswick Records. For a time and Brunswick alternated in releasing Chandler's recordings, he had Top 20 popular music hits with Constellation with the songs "Just Be True" and "Nothing Can Stop Me", both songs written by Curtis Mayfield and produced by Carl Davis. Other successes included "What Now", "Rainbow", "I Fooled You This Time", "Think Nothing About It"', "A Man's Temptation", "To Be a Lover", "Rainbow'65", "Bless Our Love", "You Can't Hurt Me No More." Chandler had success with his cover version of James Brown's "There Was A Time" and "You Threw A Lucky Punch", released as an "answer" song to Mary Wells's Motown hit "You Beat Me To The Punch".
After a number of years performing concerts, Chandler decided to become more involved with the production of music, forming his own production company and record brands and Mister Chand. He produced a major hit with "Groovy Situation", issued by Mercury Records, which scored No. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No. 8 on the Billboard R&B chart, becoming his second greatest success after "Duke Of Earl". "Groovy Situation" sold more than a million copies and received a gold disc awarded by the R. I. A. A. in November 1970. Earlier, he produced "Backfield In Motion" for Mel and Tim on Bamboo, which scored No. 3 on the R&B chart and reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100, followed up with "Good Guys Only Win In The Movies" for the duo. These successes earned him The National Association of Television and Radio Announcers' Producer of the Year Award in 1970, against competition from other nominees including Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huff and Norman Whitfield; that year, Chandler recorded the album Gene and Jerry: One on One, with another major Chicago artist, Jerry Butler.
He sang with The Impressions and Curtis Mayfield on the live album Curtis in Chicago. Chandler sang on Arthur Louis's album. A spell with Curtis Mayfield's brand, resulted in four self-produced singles during the mid-1970s, but none charted. In the late 1970s, he found new success with disco-style music, creating hits with his former producer, Carl Davis, including "Get Down" and "When You're #1" and "Does She Have A Friend?". During this time, he was named Executive Vice President of Chi Sound Records, managed by Davis, worked with reggae singer Johnny Nash. In the late 1970s, an interest in older musicians inspired disc jockey Wolfman Jack to organize a tour including vintage acts such as Chandler. "Duke of Earl" was sampled by Cypress Hill on the song "Hand on the Pump" from their album Cypress Hill, Chandler's song "Hallelujah, I Love Her So" was sampled on their album Black Sunday. In 1997, Chandler was inducted as a Pioneer Award honoree into the Rhythm and Blues Foundation, he had a big Northern Soul hit in the UK with "There Was a Time".
In 1988, "Duke of Earl" was included on the soundtrack of Hairspray. "Groovy Situation" appeared on Anchorman: Music from the Motion P
Sound & Fury (1983 album)
Sound & Fury is the second studio album released by the American punk rock band Youth Brigade. Released in 1983, it followed a 1982 album of the same name; the album was released on CD as the first half of the 1994 compilation, Sink With Kalifornija. In July 1982, Youth Brigade recorded their debut album entitled Fury Mixed by Ira Malek. However, during the Someone Got Their Head Kicked In tour with Social Distortion in the summer of 1982, which marked their first national tour, Youth Brigade realized that they were disappointed with the album and stopped the pressing at only 800 copies. After the end of the Someone Got Their Head Kicked In tour, the band returned home and decided to record a new album entitled Sound & Fury, keeping only four tracks from the original. Recording sessions for the second version began in March 1983 at Perspective Sound, Sun Valley, with Thom Wilson producing; the sessions lasted only a month. Allmusic writer Victor W. Valdivia claimed that Sound & Fury does a "much better job, proving that Youth Brigade has enough musical talent to justify their prominence" and described the members of Youth Brigade "a superb ensemble who can construct nicely energetic pop-punk anthems."
Valdivia described "Sink With California" and "Fight to Unite" "hopeful anthems of unity and action that are neither nihilistic nor simpleminded, as too many other punk songs of the era are, are backed with hard-driving punk to boot", while he called "Men in Blue" the "standard anti-police rant". The album received a rating of three out of five stars. All tracks were written except where noted. "Sink with California" "Modest Proposal" "Men in Blue" "Sound & Fury" "Fight to Unite" "Jump Back" "Blown Away" "Live Life" "What Are You Fighting For" "Did You Wanna Die" "You Don't Understand" "The Circle" "Duke of Earl" "What Will the Revolution Change" Shawn Stern − guitars, vocals Adam Stern − bass, vocals Mark Stern − drums, vocals
Doo-wop is a genre of rhythm and blues music developed in the 1940s by African American youth in the large cities of the upper east coast including New York. It features vocal group harmony that carries an engaging melodic line to a simple beat with little or no instrumentation. Lyrics are simple about love, ornamented with nonsense syllables, featuring, in the bridge, a melodramatically heartfelt recitative addressed to the beloved. Gaining popularity in the 1950s, doo-wop enjoyed its peak successes in the early 1960s, but continued to influence performers in other genres. Doo-wop has complex musical and commercial origins. Doo-wop's style is a mixture of precedents in composition and vocals that figured in popular music by composers or groups both black and white from the 1930s to the 1940s; such composers as Rodgers and Hart, Hoagy Carmichael and Frank Loesser used a I-VI-II-V-loop chord progression in those hit songs. This characteristic harmonic layout was combined with the AABA chorus form typical for Tin Pan Alley pop.
Hit songs by black groups such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers were slow songs in swing time with simple instrumentation. Doo-wop street singers performed without instrumentation, but made their musical style distinctive, whether using fast or slow tempos, by keeping time using a swing-like off-beat. Doo-wop's characteristic vocal style was influenced by groups such as the Mills Brothers, whose close four-part harmony derived from the earlier barbershop quartet. Bill Kenny, lead singer of the Ink Spots, is credited with introducing the "top and bottom" vocal arrangement featuring a high tenor singing the lead and a bass singer reciting the lyrics in the middle of the song; the Mills Brothers, who were famous in part because in their vocals they sometimes mimicked instruments, exercised an additional influence on street doo-woppers who, singing a cappella arrangements, used wordless onomatopoeia to mimic instruments, the bass singing "bom-bom-bom," a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang," and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop."
For instance, "Count Every Star" by The Ravens includes vocalizations imitating the "doomph, doomph" plucking of a double bass. The Orioles helped develop the doo-wop sound with their hits "It's Too Soon to Know" and "Crying in the Chapel". Although the musical style originated in the late 1940s and was wildly popular in the 1950s, the term "doo-wop" itself did not appear in print until 1961, in The Chicago Defender, just as the style's vogue was nearing its end. Though the name was attributed to radio disc jockey Gus Gossert, he did not accept credit, stating that "doo-wop" was in use in California to categorize the music."Doo-wop" is itself a nonsense expression. In The Delta Rhythm Boys' 1945 recording, "Just A-Sittin' And A-Rockin", it is heard in the backing vocal, it is heard in The Clovers' 1953 release "Good Lovin'", in the chorus of Carlyle Dundee & The Dundees' 1954 song "Never". The first record to use "doo-wop" in the refrain was The Turbans' 1955 hit, "When You Dance"; the Rainbows embellished the phrase as "do wop de wadda" in their 1955 "Mary Lee".
The term's application was extended to include rhythm and blues groups as far back as the 1940s. Radio and cinema propagated the new style and inspired imitation in many U. S. cities and abroad. The Chords' 1954 hit, "Sh-Boom," is considered to have been the first rhythm-and-blues record to break into the top ten on the Billboard charts, reaching #9. Many other all-white doo-wop groups would appear and produce hits: The Mello-Kings in 1956 with "Tonight, Tonight," The Diamonds in 1957 with the chart-topping "Little Darlin'," The Skyliners in 1959 with "Since I Don't Have You" and in 1960 with "This I Swear," The Tokens in 1961 with "Tonight I Fell In Love" and "I Love My Baby." Productive were doo-wop groups of young Italian-American men who, like their black counterparts, lived in rough neighborhoods, learned their basic musical craft singing in church, would gain experience in the new style by singing on street corners. By the late 1950s and early 60s, many Italian-American groups had national hits: Dion and the Belmonts scored with "I Wonder Why," "Teenager in Love," and "Where or When".
Other Italian-American doo-wop groups were The Earls, The Chimes, The Demensions, The Elegants, The Mystics, The Duprees, Vito & the Salutations, The Gaylords, Johnny Maestro & the Brooklyn Bridge, The Regents and the Ebb Tides, The Del-Satins, The Videls, The Chaperones. Some doo-wop groups were racially mixed. Puert
Sha Na Na
Sha Na Na is an American rock and roll group. The name is taken from a part of the long series of nonsense syllables in the doo-wop hit song "Get a Job" recorded in 1957 by the Silhouettes. Billing themselves as "from the streets of New York" and outfitted in gold lamé, leather jackets and ducktail hairdos, Sha Na Na performs a song-and-dance repertoire of classic fifties rock and roll reviving and parodying the music and 1950s New York street culture. Sha Na Na hosted the Sha Na Na syndicated variety series that ran from 1977 to 1981, their current touring group features original members Donny York and Jocko Marcellino, long-time member Screamin' Scott Simon. Simon joined the band just after its appearance at the Woodstock Festival. Everyone else from the original band and TV show has since departed. Current band members include bassist Tim Butler, guitarist Randy Hill, drummer Ty Cox, sax player Michael Brown; the group began singing as part of the long-standing Columbia University a cappella group the Kingsmen, but changed their name due to the Pacific Northwest group of the same name that became famous for recording "Louie, Louie".
Conceived by George Leonard a graduate student in humanities, Sha Na Na began performing in 1969 at the height of the hippie counterculture, achieved national fame after playing at the Woodstock Festival, where they preceded Jimi Hendrix. Their 90-second appearance in the Woodstock film brought the group national attention and helped spark a 1950s nostalgia craze that inspired similar groups in North America, as well as the Broadway musical Grease, the feature film American Graffiti and the TV show Happy Days; the group's first manager, Ed Goodgold, codified trivia as a nostalgic quiz game and conducted the nation's first trivia contests with Dan Carlinsky in 1965. The future Sha Na Na/Kingsmen were featured singers at these contests. Four years he co-authored "Rock'n' Roll Trivia" just as he and the William Morris Agency began steering Sha Na Na's career. From 1969 until 1971, the band played at, among other places, the Fillmore East and Fillmore West, opening for such bands as the Grateful Dead, the Mothers of Invention, the Kinks.
When Sha Na Na began headlining at other venues, one of the opening acts was Bruce Springsteen. In 1972, Sha Na Na was one of just four acts invited by John Lennon and Yoko Ono to perform with them at their One-to-One benefit concert at Madison Square Garden. Subsequently, the group appeared in the 1978 movie Grease, from 1977 to 1982, the group reached the height of its success with its own hit syndicated television show Sha Na Na, featuring guests such as James Brown, the punk rock band the Ramones, musicians such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, the Ronettes, Chubby Checker; the original band line-up featured 12 performers: Alan Cooper, Rob Leonard, Frederick "Dennis" Greene, Henry Gross, Jocko Marcellino, Joe Witkin, Scott Powell, Donald "Donny" York, Elliot "Gino" Cahn, Rich Joffe, Dave Garrett and Bruce "Bruno" Clarke. The initial act had the other nine in "greaser" attire. On their album The Golden Age of Rock and Roll, the lead singer taunts the audience on one of the live tracks by announcing, "We've got just one thing to say to you fuckin' hippies, and, that rock and roll is here to stay!"
The act ended after several encores, closed with "Lovers Never Say Goodbye". The closing song was changed to "Goodnight Sweetheart" for the TV series. In concert, they would return for up to seven encores, this included when performing in Toronto, at Ontario Place and performing "Hound Dog" after announcing Elvis Presley's death earlier that same day. Sha Na Na hosted the Sha Na Na syndicated variety series that ran from 1977 to 1981, it was among the most watched programs in syndication during its run. The show was produced by Pierre Cossette and distributed by LBS Communications; the show featured the group performing hits from the 1960s, along with comedy skits. The "tough guys" road act from their original road shows was adapted for TV and the group moved to a comedy and self-deprecating routine; the mainstay continued to be dance routines. The show opened in a typical concert scene, moved through various street and ice cream parlor scenes where they and their guests performed several songs.
That was followed by a comedy-oriented song and closed with a slow song, again in their concert format. Among the supporting members featured in the series were Avery Schreiber, Kenneth Mars and Philip Roth. Guests included Jan & Dean, Chubby Checker, the Ramones, Ethel Merman, Frank Gorshin, Billy Crystal and the Juniors, Rita Moreno and others; the members of Sha Na Na during the TV series were Jon "Bowzer" Bauman, Lennie Baker, Johnny Contardo, Frederick "Dennis" Greene, Danny "Dirty Dan" McBride, Jocko Marcellino, Dave "Chico" Ryan,'Screamin' Scott Simon, Scott "Santini" Powell, Donald "Donny" York. Each was introduced only by his nickname or his first name in a voice-over
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro