Duke of Montmorency
The title of Duke of Montmorency was created several times for members of the Montmorency family, who were lords of Montmorency, near Paris. The first creation was in 1551 for Anne of Constable of France; this title was forfeited by the fourth Duke, executed for treason in 1632. The duchy was recreated in 1633 for his sister Charlotte Marguerite of Montmorency and her husband the Prince of Condé; this title was renamed Duke of Enghien in 1689. The original Duke of Montmorency title was transferred to the duchy of Beaufort, conferred on Charles François Frederic of Montmorency-Luxembourg, Prince de Tingry, in 1688; this latter title was authorised to pass through the female line to the branch of Montmorency-Fosseux in 1767 and became extinct in 1862. However, in 1864 the Emperor Napoleon III extended the title of Duke of Montmorency to the Duke of Valençay, second son of the Duke of Talleyrand by his wife Anne Louise Charlotte of Montmorency, a sister of the 6th Duke of Montmorency, his male issue became extinct in 1951.
1. 1551-1567: Anne, Duke of Montmorency 2. 1567-1579: Francis, Duke of Montmorency, son of 3. 1579-1614: Henry I, Duke of Montmorency, son of 4. 1614-1632: Henry II, Duke of Montmorency, son ofThe title was forfeited by the last duke upon execution, returned to the royal domain. 1. 1633-1646: Henry I, Duke of Montmorency, brother-in-law 2. 1646-1686: Louis, Duke of Montmorency, son of 3. 1686-1689: Henry II, Duke of Montmorency, son ofThe title of Duke of Montmorency was changed to Duke of Enghien in 1689. 1. 1689-1709: Henri I, Duke of Enghien 2. 1709-1710: Louis I, Duke of Enghien 3. 1710-1740: Louis II Henri, Duke of Enghien 4. 1740-1818: Louis III Joseph, Duke of Enghien 5. 1818-1830: Louis IV Henri, Duke of Enghien On the death of the last duke in 1830, the title passed to Louis Philippe III, Duke of Orléans, a great-great-grandson of the Louis I, Duke of Enghien through the female line. He had become King of the French as Louis Philippe I a month earlier; the title of Duke of Beaufort was changed to Duke of Montmorency in 1689.
1. 1688-1726: Charles I, Duke of Montmorency, son of 2. 1726-1730: Charles II, Duke of Montmorency, son of 3. 1730-1761: Anne I Francis, Duke of Montmorency, son of 4. 1761-1799: Charlotte, Duchess of Montmorency, daughter of, married 1767 4. 1767-1799: Anne II Leon, Duke of Montmorency 5. 1799-1846: Anne III Charles, Duke of Montmorency, son of 6. 1846-1862: Anne IV Louis, Duke of Montmorency, son of 7. 1864-1915: Nicolas, Duke of Montmorency, nephew of, title extended to him and his issue in 1864 8. 1915-1951: Napoleon, Duke of Montmorency On the death of the last duke in 1951, the title became extinct
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Enghien is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On 1 January 2006, Enghien had a total population of 11,980; the total area is 40.59 square kilometres, which gives a population density of 295 inhabitants per km². The municipality comprises the city of Enghien, the towns of Marcq and Petit-Enghien, it is situated on the language border in the country, restricted language rights are granted to the Dutch speaking minority. Enghien gave its name to a French duchy and to the commune of Enghien-les-Bains, a suburb of Paris, due to a complex series of family successions: in 1487, Mary of Luxembourg, the only heir of Peter II of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise and member of one of the branches of the House of Luxembourg, married François de Bourbon-Vendôme, the great-grandfather of King Henry IV of France. Mary of Luxembourg brought as her dowry the fief of Condé-en-Brie and the county of Enghien, among others; these fiefs passed to her grandson Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, uncle of King Henry IV of France, who started the line of the Princes of Condé, the famous cadet branch of the French royal family.
In 1566, the county of Enghien was elevated to a duchy-peerage. However, the necessary registration process was not completed, so the title became extinct at the death of Louis I de Bourbon in 1569. In 1633, Henry II, Prince of Condé, grandson of Louis I de Bourbon, inherited the duchy of Montmorency, near Paris, after the execution of Henri II de Montmorency, brother of his wife Charlotte-Marguerite de Montmorency. In 1689, King Louis XIV allowed Henry III, Prince of Condé, grandson of Henry II, Prince of Condé, to rename the duchy of Montmorency as "duchy of Enghien", in memory of the duchy of Enghien which the Princes of Condé had lost in 1569 at the death of Louis I de Bourbon; the city of Montmorency, at the heart of the duchy, continued to be known as "Montmorency", despite the official name change, but the name "Enghien" stuck to the nearby lake and marshland that developed as a spa resort and was incorporated as the commune of Enghien-les-Bains in the 19th century. Qualitis Science Park Official site Le carillon d'Enghien
Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France. More famous for his death than for his life, he was executed on charges of aiding Britain and plotting against France. Royalty across Europe were dismayed at his execution. Tsar Alexander I of Russia was alarmed, decided to curb Napoleon's power; the Duke was the only son of Louis Henri de Bathilde d'Orléans. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince, he was born at the Château de Chantilly, the country residence of the Princes of Condé - a title he was born to inherit. He was given the title Duke of Enghien from birth, his father being the Duke of Bourbon and the heir of the Prince of Condé, the Duke of Bourbon being the Heir apparent of Condé, his mother's full name was Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans. His uncle was the future Philippe Égalité and he was thus a first cousin of the future Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, he was doubly descended from Louis XIV through his legitimated daughters, Mademoiselle de Blois and Mademoiselle de Nantes.
He was an only child, his parents separating in 1778 after his father's romantic involvement with one Marguerite Catherine Michelot, an opera singer, was discovered. Michelot was the mother of Enghien's two illegitimate sisters, he was educated by the Abbé Millot, in military matters by Commodore de Vinieux. He early on showed the warlike spirit of the House of Condé, began his military career in 1788. At the outbreak of the French Revolution, he emigrated with his father and grandfather a few days after the Storming of the Bastille, in exile he would seek to raise forces for the invasion of France and restoration of the monarchy to its pre-revolutionary status. In 1792, at the outbreak of French Revolutionary Wars, he held a command in the corps of émigrés organized and commanded by his grandfather, the Prince of Condé; this Army of Condé shared in the Duke of Brunswick's unsuccessful invasion of France. After this, the young duke continued to serve under his father and grandfather in the Condé army, and, on several occasions, distinguished himself by his bravery and ardour in the vanguard.
On the dissolution of that force after the peace of Lunéville, he married Charlotte de Rohan, niece of the Cardinal de Rohan, took up his residence at Ettenheim in Baden, near the Rhine. Early in 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte First Consul of France, heard news which seemed to connect the young duke with the Cadoudal Affair, a conspiracy, being tracked by the French police at the time, it involved royalists Jean-Charles Pichegru and Georges Cadoudal who wished to overthrow Bonaparte's regime and reinstate the monarchy. The news ran that the duke was in company with Charles François Dumouriez and had made secret journeys into France; this was false. However, the duke had been condemned in absentia for having fought against the French Republic in the Armée des Émigrés. Napoleon gave orders for the seizure of the duke. French dragoons crossed the Rhine secretly, surrounded his house and brought him to Strasbourg, thence to the Château de Vincennes, near Paris, where a military commission of French colonels presided over by General Hulin was hastily convened to try him.
The duke was charged chiefly with bearing arms against France in the late war, with intending to take part in the new coalition proposed against France. The military commission, presided over by Hulin, drew up the act of condemnation, being incited thereto by orders from Anne Jean Marie René Savary, who had come charged with instructions to kill the duke. Savary prevented any chance of an interview between the condemned and the First Consul, and, on 21 March, the duke was shot in the moat of the castle, near a grave, prepared. A platoon of the Gendarmes d'élite was in charge of the execution. In 1816, his remains were placed in the Holy Chapel of the Château de Vincennes. Royalty across Europe were dismayed. Tsar Alexander I of Russia was alarmed, decided to curb Napoleon's power; the duc d'Enghien was the last descendant of the House of Condé. It is now known that Joséphine and Madame de Rémusat had begged Bonaparte for mercy towards the duke. Whether Talleyrand, Fouché or Savary bore responsibility for the seizure of the duke is debatable, as at times Napoleon was known to claim Talleyrand conceived the idea, while at other times he took full responsibility himself.
On his way to St. Helena and at Longwood, Napoleon asserted that, in the same circumstances, he would do the same again. Either Antoine Boulay, comte de la Meurthe or Napoleon's chief of police, Fouché, said about his execution "C'est pire qu'un crime, c'est une faute", a statement rendered in English as "It was worse than a crime; the statement is sometimes attributed to Talleyrand. Conversely, in
Château de Vincennes
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. Like other more famous châteaux, it had its origins in a hunting lodge, constructed for Louis VII about 1150 in the forest of Vincennes. In the 13th century, Philip Augustus and Louis IX erected a more substantial manor: Louis IX is reputed to have departed from Vincennes on the crusade from which he did not return. Vincennes was more than a grim fortress: Philippe III and Philippe IV were each married there and three 14th-century kings died at Vincennes: Louis X, Philippe V and Charles IV. To strengthen the site, the castle was enlarged replacing the earlier site in the 14th century. A donjon tower, 52 meters high, the tallest medieval fortified structure of Europe, was added by Philip VI of France, a work, started about 1337; the grand rectangular circuit of walls, was completed by the Valois about two generations later. The donjon served as a residence for the royal family, its buildings are known to have once held the library and personal study of Charles V. Henry V of England died in the donjon in 1422 following the siege of Meaux.
The relics of the Crown of Thorns were temporarily housed there while the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris was being readied to receive them. A fragment that remained behind received its own chapel at Vincennes built by Peter of Montereau, which survives. Henri IV was imprisoned at Vincennes in April 1574, during the Wars of Religion, Charles IX died here the following month. In the 17th century, the architect Louis Le Vau built for Louis XIV a pair of isolated ranges mirroring one another across a parterre to one side of the keep, suited for the Queen Mother and Cardinal Mazarin, but rebuilding was never pursued once Versailles occupied all attentions; some splendid apartments show the earliest phase of Louis XIV style, before the example of Vaux-le-Vicomte presented the Sun King with a worthy model. The unlucky builder of Vaux-le-Vicomte, the minister Nicolas Fouquet, found himself transferred to Vincennes, to much less comfortable lodgings. In 1691, another unwilling lodger was John Vanbrugh, soon to become a playwright and architect, who drew some of his Baroque "gothick" from his experience of Vincennes, it has been argued.
Abandoned in the 18th century, the château still served, first as the site of the Vincennes porcelain manufactory, the precursor to Sèvres as a state prison, which housed the marquis de Sade, Diderot and the famous confidence man, Jean Henri Latude, as well as a community of nuns of the English Benedictine Congregation from Cambrai. At the end of February 1791, a mob of more than a thousand workers from the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, encouraged by members of the Cordeliers Club and led by Antoine Joseph Santerre, marched out to the château, rumour had it, was being readied on the part of the Crown for political prisoners, with crowbars and pickaxes set about demolishing it, as the Bastille had been demolished; the work was interrupted by the marquis de Lafayette who took several ringleaders prisoners, to the jeers of the Parisian workers. It played no part during the remainder of the Revolution. From 1796, it served as an arsenal; the execution of the duc d'Enghien took place in the moat of the château on 21 March 1804.
General Daumesnil who lost a leg, replaced by a wooden prosthesis, at the battle of Wagram, was assigned to the defence of the château de Vincennes in 1812. Vincennes was an arsenal containing 52 000 new rifles, more than 100 field guns and many tons of powder, canonballs... A tempting prize for the Sixth Coalition marching on Paris in 1814 in the aftermath of the Battle of the Nations. However, Daumesnil faced down the allies and replied with the famous words "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back". With only 300 men under his command, he resisted to the Coalition until king Louis XVIII ordered to leave the fortress; the park was recreated in the English landscape style in the 19th century. In 1860, Napoleon III, having employed Viollet-le-Duc to restore the keep and the chapel, gave the Bois de Vincennes to Paris as a public park. Vincennes served as the military headquarters of the Chief of General Staff, General Maurice Gamelin during the unsuccessful defence of France against the invading German army in 1940.
It is now the main base of France's Defence Historical Service, which maintains a museum in the donjon. On 20 August 1944, during the battle for the liberation of Paris, 26 policemen and members of the Resistance arrested by soldiers of the Waffen-SS were executed in the eastern moat of the fortress, their bodies thrown in a common grave. Only traces remain of the substantial remains date from the 14th century; the castle forms a rectangle. It has six towers and three gates, each 13 meters high, is surrounded by a deep stone lined moat; the keep, 52m high, its enceinte occupy the western side of the fortress and are separated from the rest of the castle by the moat. The keep; the towers of the grande enceinte now stand only to the height of the walls, having been demolished in the 1800s, save the Tour du Village on the north side of the enclosure. The south end consists of two wings facing each other, the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine, built by Louis Le Vau. Fort Neuf de Vincennes, built to the east
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon
Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, or Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé, was head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726. Despite succeeding as head of the House of Condé in 1709 as Prince of Condé, he never used that name, preferring the title Duke of Bourbon, was known at court as Monsieur le Duc; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince. Louis Henri was born at Versailles, the eldest son of Louis III, Prince of Condé and Louise Françoise de Bourbon, the eldest legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and his maîtresse-en-titre, Madame de Montespan, he was the great-grandson of Louis de Bourbon, le Grand Condé, ranked as a prince du sang. Following the death one after the other of the heirs to the throne of France in the early 18th century Bourbon was third in the order of succession to the throne, being preceded by the dauphin, the 2nd duc d'Orléans who became regent, the latter's son, Louis d'Orléans, duc de Chartres.
He was Louis XV's prime minister from 1723 to 1726. The following is a contemporary description of him: He was moderately good looking as a young man, but being over-tall he afterwards began to stoop, became'as thin and dry as a chip of wood.' Satirical pamphlets directed against royalty were a common form of literature and the chronicles left by courtiers were influenced by rivalries or prejudice, so he may not have looked so bad. Based on collaborating evidence from other sources, however, it is safe to assume that he was tall, not plump, it is certain he only had the use of one eye: He was disfigured by an accident which befell him while hunting, when the Duke of Berry put out one of his eyes before he was twenty-five. In September 1715, Philippe d'Orléans, who had just become regent for the 5-year-old king Louis XV, appointed the 23-year-old duc de Bourbon to his first Regency Council, the highest consultative body in the French government during the king's minority, equivalent to the Conseil d'en-haut), appointed by adult kings.
In 1718, he replaced Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine as superintendent of the king's education. This happened at the Regency Council meeting of 26 August, at which Maine and the Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, legitimised sons of Louis XIV, were demoted in rank; the actual instruction of the young king was not much disturbed however, since it was done by his old and trusted tutor, André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, who remained in place. Many of the surviving descriptions of the duke's personality are uncomplimentary, they fall under bad manners, stupidity. For example, Barbier said he "had a limited mind, knows nothing, only likes pleasure and hunting." He was described as pretending to like hunting to ingratiate himself with the king. The Regency ended when Louis XV reached the age of majority, thirteen, in February 1723. Cardinal Dubois, the Regent's premier ministre, remained in that capacity for the king. However, Dubois died in August 1723. Thereupon the former regent became the king's premier ministre, until his own death the following 2 December.
Bourbon rushed to see the king that evening and requested the prime ministership. Cardinal de Fleury, present at the meeting, recommended acceptance, Louis XV indicated his assent by a silent nod. Guizot says that Louis "sought in his perceptor's eyes the guidance he needed". G. P. Gooch and Perkins said that Fréjus acquiesced in the appointment. Jones, on the other hand, says; this was an unusual, for Bourbon an intolerable situation. Orléans had been able to see the king. Within a few years Fréjus was able to assume control of the government himself. To assess why the king — or Fréjus — chose, or allowed, Bourbon to become premier ministre, says the French lawyer and writer d'Angerville, writing in 1781: In making the choice, which no doubt was not the best he might have made, because he lacked the necessary experience not only of men but of himself, he acted in strict accordance with the rules of etiquette, he deemed it his duty to confer the post, the most important in the kingdom, upon a prince of the royal house.
As they were all young men, he appointed the eldest, however, was but thirty one years old. The manner in which His Royal Highness had managed his own revenues, had added to them, despite his youth was a strong presumption that he would prove a capable public administrator, the fact that he was rich led people to imagine that he would not trouble his head about adding to his fortune. Finance, was the most important branch of public affairs at that time. What France needed was a government which would pursue a policy of peace and retrenchment, avail itself of the tranquil condition of Europe in order to bring about by trade and the gradual restoration of the metal reserve, a recovery from the state of exhaustion into which the country had fallen. No one, failed to appreciate how immensely inferior in talent the Duke was to the Regent. One of Bourbon's first moves as prime minister was to replace d'A