Duke of Clarence and Avondale
Duke of Clarence and Avondale was a title awarded to a prince of the British Royal Family. While there had been several creations of Dukes of Clarence, the sole creation of a dukedom of Clarence and Avondale was for Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales; this was the last royal dukedom to be created with two territorial designations. The Duke died of pneumonia in 1892 and the title again became extinct
Duke of York
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted been given to the second son of English monarchs; the equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively. Granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times; the title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm; the double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce. In medieval times, York was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York from AD 735.
Yorkshire was England's largest shire in area. York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik, the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York; the title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; the title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge. The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown; the title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne; when Henry became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown. The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I; when his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown; the fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. The city and state of New York in what is now the United States of America were named for this particular Duke of York; when his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II, the title once again merged into the Crown. During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs; the second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs; the sixth creation of the Dukedom of York was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale; the title merged with the crown when George succeeded his father as King George V. The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, younger brother of the future King Edward VIII.
Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, took the name George VI, the Dukedom merging into the crown. The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. At present, he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future sons, the title will again become extinct at his death. Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs. In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" to his own second son, using his purported authority as King James III. Henry became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is not recognised as a legitimate creation.
Cape York Peninsula, Australia Duke of York Archipelago, Canada Duke of York Bay, Canada York, Upper Canada, now Toronto, Ontario York County, New Brunswick, Canada Duke of York Island, Antarctica Cape York, Greenland Duke of York Island, Papua New Guinea Duke of York Islands Duke of York's Royal Military School New York, a U. S. state New York City, the largest city in the state of New York and the United States Duke of York School, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attain
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
Sidmouth is a town situated on the English Channel coast in Devon, South West England, 14 miles east-southeast of Exeter. In 2004, it had a population of about 15,000. By the time of the 2011 census the population was 12,569, it is a gateway to the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. A large part of the town has been designated a conservation area. Sidmouth appeared in the Domesday Book as Sedemuda, meaning "mouth of the Sid". Like many such settlements, it was a fishing village. Although attempts have been made to construct a harbour, none has succeeded. A lack of shelter in the bay prevented growth as a port; the most concerted effort was a short-lived attempt in the 1830s at the west of the seafront. Only a few traces of the railway and tunnel survive today. Sidmouth remained a village until the fashion for coastal resorts grew in the Georgian and Victorian periods of the 18th and 19th centuries. A number of Georgian and Regency buildings still remain. In 1819, George III's son Edward, Duke of Kent, his wife, baby daughter came to stay at Woolbrook Glen for a few weeks.
In less than a month he had died from an illness. The house became the Royal Glen Hotel. In 1874, Sidmouth was connected to the railway network by a branch line from Sidmouth Junction, which called at Ottery St Mary and Tipton St John; this was dismantled in 1967 as a result of the Beeching Axe. In 2008, a Canadian millionaire, Keith Owen, on holiday in the town and planned to retire there, bequeathed the community's civic society, the Sid Vale Association, about £2.3 million upon learning that he had only weeks to live due to lung cancer. The bequest was used as a capital fund to generate an annual interest dividend of around £120,000 for community projects. Sidmouth lies at the mouth of the River Sid in a valley between Peak Hill to the west and Salcombe Hill to the east, it is surrounded by the East Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is on the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site and the South West Coast Path. The red-coloured rock indicates the arid conditions of the Triassic geological period.
Erosion of the cliffs to the east of the river mouth remains a serious concern, threatening homes and the coastal footpath. The wide esplanade has been a prominent feature since Regency times. A series of southwesterly storms in the early 1990s washed away much of the shingle beach protecting the masonry. A series of artificial rock islands was constructed to protect the sea front, tons of pebbles were trucked in to replace the beach; the highest temperature recorded since 1990 in Sidmouth was 28°C in July 2018 and the coldest was -5°C in February 1991 and March 2018. Sidmouth is 12 miles from the M5 at Exeter from Junction 30, Sidmouth is accessed by the coast road A3052. A regular bus service is run to the town from Exeter up to every half-hour by Stagecoach, the bus carries on to Honiton or Seaton on an hourly basis. Since the closure of the Sidmouth Railway in 1967, the nearest railway stations are Feniton, Honiton or Whimple, all on the West of England line. Feniton is the closest of these stations.
Sidmouth presided over by a chairman elected from councillors. There are eight wards, with 19 councillors in all; the town clerk is the senior paid officer with a team of part-time staff. The town is responsible for many of the locally run services including the information centre. Sidmouth lies within the areas of Devon County Council; the electorate of the Sidmouth ward at the 2011 census was 13,737. Sidmouth was in the Honiton parliamentary constituency from its recreation in 1885 until its abolition in 1997, since when it has been in the East Devon constituency; the parish church is dedicated to St Nicholas. It was rebuilt in 1860. Of the medieval structure, only the 15th century tower has been retained. Oddments of Norman and stonework were included in the rebuilding. Features of interest include the reredos by Samuel Sanders Teulon and the Duke of Kent Memorial Window which Queen Victoria gave in 1867. Parts of the original fabric, such as the windows, were reused by the historian Peter Orlando Hutchinson in building a folly adjoining his house.
He was responsible for saving the stained glass in the vestry. The folly is the Old Chancel in Coburg Terrace, started by Hutchinson in 1859, in protest over the destruction of the original church fabric during rebuilding; the museum, next to the church, has local memorabilia, historical artefacts, geological samples. The church of All Saints Anglican, is in the Early English style with lancet windows and "oddly clumsy" pinnacles. There were Unitarian and Congregational chapels. Sidmouth is home to the Norman Lockyer Planetarium, located on Salcombe Hill; the facility, completed in 1912, fell into disuse but was saved from demolition by the appeals of enthusiasts to East Devon District Council. The observatory now is open to the public. Sidmouth Folk Week is an annual folk festival in early August attracting visitors, it became less financially viable over the years and in 2005 the last of the commercial sponsors, essential for its existence, pulled out. To co
Duchess of Rothesay
Duchess of Rothesay is a Scottish courtesy title. It is held by the wife of the Duke of Rothesay since the first Duke in 1398. Due to the mortality rate and the fact that few Dukes of Rothesay were of majority or married prior to ascending the throne, there have in fact been only eight Duchesses of Rothesay. A separate Scottish throne has not existed de facto since 1603 when James VI of Scotland acceded to the throne of England when the House of Tudor died out, creating a personal union; the Act of Union of 1707 united de jure the separate kingdoms and thrones into the Kingdom of Great Britain. Since 1603 the title of the Duchess of Rothesay is held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, the Duchess of Cornwall and always the Princess of Wales. Since under current succession law the title of Duke of Rothesay can only be held by an heir-apparent, the eldest son of the monarch, no woman has been Duchess of Rothesay in her own right thus far; this is a list of Duchesses of Rothesay