Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond
Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond and 5th Duke of Lennox, 5th Duke of Aubigny, styled Earl of March until 1819, was a British peer, politician, a prominent Conservative. Richmond was the son of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, the former Lady Charlotte Gordon, he was educated at Dublin. Richmond served on Wellington's staff in the Peninsular War, during which time he volunteered to join the 52nd Regiment of Foot's advance storming party on the fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo, he formally joined the 52nd Foot in 1813, took command of a company of 52nd soldiers at Orthez in 1814, where he was wounded. During the Battle of Waterloo he was ADC to the Prince of Orange, following that man's wounding, served as ADC to Wellington. Richmond was chiefly responsible for the belated institution in 1847 of the Military General Service Medal for all survivors of the campaigns between 1793 and 1814, he campaigned in Parliament and enlisted the interest of Queen Victoria. Richmond himself received the medal with eight clasps.
On 19 October 1817 he reformed the Goodwood Troop of Yeomanry Artillery raised by the 3rd Duke in 1797. The unit supported the cavalry of the Sussex Yeomanry but was disbanded in December 1827. Richmond was appointed Colonel of the Royal Sussex Light Infantry Militia on 4 December 1819, Colonel-in-Chief of its offshoot, the Royal Sussex Militia Artillery, on its formation in April 1853. Richmond sat as Member of Parliament for Chichester between 1812 and 1819; the latter year he entered the House of Lords. He was a vehement opponent in the House of Lords of Roman Catholic emancipation, at a date a leader of the opposition to Peel's free trade policy, as he was the president of the Central Agricultural Protection Society, which campaigned for preservation of the Corn Laws. Although a vigorous Conservative and Ultra-Tory for most of his career, Richmond's anger with Wellington over Catholic Emancipation led him to lead the Ultras into joining Earl Grey's reforming Whig government in 1830, he served under Grey as Postmaster General between 1830 and 1834.
He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1830. Richmond was Lord Lieutenant of Sussex between 1835 and 1860 and was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1829. In 1836, on inheriting the estates of his mother's brother, the fifth and last Duke of Gordon, he assumed the name of Gordon before that of Lennox. Richmond married Lady Caroline, daughter of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey and Lady Caroline Villiers, on 10 April 1817; the couple had five sons and five daughters, including: Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond Lady Caroline Amelia Gordon-Lennox, married John Ponsonby, 5th Earl of Bessborough Fitzroy George Charles Gordon-Lennox, lost at sea aboard SS President Rt. Hon. Lord Henry Charles George Gordon-Lennox, married Amelia Brooman and left no issue Captain Lord Alexander Francis Charles Gordon-Lennox, married Emily Towneley and left issue Lady Augusta Catherine Gordon-Lennox, married Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar Lord George Charles Gordon-Lennox, married Minnie Palmer and left no issue Lady Cecilia Catherine Gordon-Lennox, married Charles Bingham, 4th Earl of Lucan.
Richmond died at Portland Place, London, in October 1860, aged 69. He was succeeded in the dukedom by Charles; the Duchess of Richmond died in March 1874, aged 77. Duchess of Richmond's Ball
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, king of England and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.
After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance; the major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, Duke of York, was a Catholic.
The crisis saw the birth of anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685, he was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he was succeeded by his brother James. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630, his parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII.
Charles was their second child. Their first son died within a day. England and Ireland were predominantly Anglican and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, he was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.
By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly to Jersey, to France, where his mother was living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married, her son, James Crofts, was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.
Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, England became a republic. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland; when negotiations with the Scot
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, was a British nobleman and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, he held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket. Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom, he inherited his father's love of sports cricket. He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship. March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Lady Sarah Cadogan, was just 13 in order to use Lady Sarah's large dowry to pay his considerable debts, they were married at The Hague. In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second.
He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters, their marriage was a great success by Georgian standards. Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century, one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone; the 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early cricket's greatest patron. Although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom, he captained his own team and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, such as his groom Thomas Waymark. When he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers, his earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gage's XI on 20 July 1725, mentioned in a surviving letter from Sir William to the Duke.
Records have survived of four matches played by Richmond's team in the 1727 season. Two were against two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick; these last two games are significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points, it is believed that this was the first time that rules were formally agreed, although rules as such existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744. In early times, the rules were subject to local variations; the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains. In 1728, Richmond's Sussex played twice against Edwin Stead's Kent and lost both matches, " men have been too expert for those of Sussex". In 1730, Richmond's team played two matches against Gage's XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury.
Richmond lost to Andrews. The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was "put off on account of Waymark, the Duke's man, being ill". In 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by one Thomas Chambers at an unspecified venue in Chichester. Chambers' team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August; the return match was played for 200 guineas and it is notable as the earliest match of which the team scores are known: Richmond's XI 79, Chambers' XI 119. The game ended promptly at a pre-agreed time although Chambers' XI with "four or five more to have come in" and needing "about 8 to 10 notches" had the upper hand; the end result caused a fracas among the crowd at Richmond Green, who were incensed by the prompt finish because the Duke of Richmond had arrived late and delayed the start of the game.
The riot resulted in some of the Sussex players "having the shirts torn off their backs" and it was said "a law suit would commence about the play". In a note about another match involving Chambers' XI in September, G. B. Buckley has recorded that Richmond may have conceded the result to Chambers to stop the threat of litigation. Richmond is not mentioned in cricket sources again for ten years, he may have stepped aside after the 1731 fracas but it is more that he terminated his Duke of Richmond's XI after he broke his leg in 1733 and could no longer play himself. Instead, he channelled his enthusiasm for cricket through a team from the small village of Slindon, which bordered on his Goodwood estate; the rise to fame of Slindon Cricket Club was based on the play of Richard Newland and the patronage of Richmond. On Thursday, 9 July 1741, in a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentions a conversation with John Newland regarding a Slindon v. East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier.
This is the earliest recorded mention of any of the Newland family. On 28 July, Richmond sent two letters to the Duke of Newcastle to tell him about a game that day which had resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads"; the game was at Portslade between Sl
Earl of Richmond
The now-extinct title of Earl of Richmond was created many times in the Peerage of England. The earldom of Richmond was held by various Breton nobles associated with the Ducal crown of Brittany; the historical ties between the Ducal crown of Brittany and this English Earldom were maintained ceremonially by the Breton dukes after England ceased to recognize the Breton Dukes as Earls of England and those dukes rendered homage to the King of France, rather than the English crown. It was held either by members of the English royal families of Plantagenet and Tudor, or English nobles associated with the English crown, it was merged into the English crown during the reign of Henry VII and has been recreated as a Dukedom. The title Earl of Richmond is associated with the now extinct Earldom, the earlier Lords of Richmond who held the Honour of Richmond, one of the most important fiefs in England, the Dukes of Richmond; the title Earl evolved from the French-Breton-Norman title Count from the times of William the Conqueror.
From their first creation, the Lords and Earls of Richmond were among the "English ruling class" of post-Conquest England as defined by Keats-Rohan as " held in some relationship in the feudal chain from the king of England, whether the holder be Norman, Manceau, Fleming or Anglo-Saxon." " In William I's Norman Conquest of England in fact "the regional origin of...was not exclussively Norman... and the size of the Breton contingent..is agreed to be the most significant.". Until the late 12th century, all the Earls of Richmond were Breton nobles; the Earldom of Richmond was associated with the accumulation of great wealth within England. The title Earl of Richmond was known in the courts of the Kings of France and the Dukes of Brittany as Comte de Richemont or other spelling variations, where in the courts of England and Brittany, French was used; the Honour of Richmond preceded the Earldom of Richmond. The Honour conveyed, among other things, economic rights to the holder; the Honour of Richmond was reputed to be among the wealthiest in England.
It appears to have been in existence in England from 1071 shortly after the Harrying of the North, a military campaign shortly after the date of the Battle of Hastings. This was, it was awarded to Breton nobles from the ducal family of Brittany by the King of England. It represented, among other things, the close association of Brittany. Early holders of the honour of Richmond were sometimes known as Lords of Richmond rather than as Earls; the Honour of Richmond and the title Earl of Richmond, were held principally by Breton nobles, by the Duke of Brittany, except for two periods from 1241 to 1268 and from 1286 to 1372. In 1435 the title was granted to the House of Plantagenet, before the Duchy of Brittany was permanently annexed to the crown of France; the title was definitively returned to crown during the reign of the Tudor kings. It was first granted to Alan Rufus in 1071 by William the Conqueror; the honour, assessed for the service of 60 knights, was one of the most important fiefs in Norman England.
The 1st Earl of Richmond was the Breton warrior Alan Rufus. He was related to the Duke of Brittany, he was a grandson of Duke Geoffrey of Brittany and Hawise of Normandy and the second son of Odo, Count of Penthièvre. He most took part in William the Conqueror's invasion of England, after which he obtained grants of land in various parts of England, including manors held by Earl Edwin in Yorkshire. Alan Rufus would be the first of as many as four brothers to constitute the Breton Richmond-Penthievre family in England, he built the Richmond Castle in Richmond. As he was William the Conqueror's double second cousin, Keats-Rohan would describe him a member of the English'nobility', the holder of a fief who are a member of a kin-group, albeit a member of the Breton contingents within William's conquering army; the Bretons within William's army were composed of three groups, at one time one of those contingents, led by Ralph de Gael revolted. This is taken by historians as symbolic of the loyalty that Alan Rufus displayed to William, from this time Richmond would remain in the hands of the most loyal of English kings' nobles and represent a means for the King to allocate wealth to his closest "kin-group" in the sense defined by Keats-Rohan.
Alan Rufus emerged as the wealthiest and most important of the Breton nobles around William I, was a key supporter of William II in the events preceding and following the Rebellion of 1088 and may have participated in the invasion of Normandy in 1091. Alan Rufus died on 4 August 1093 due to an unknown cause, his succession settled upon his younger brother, another Alan, nicknamed "Niger", who seems to have died by 1098. Stephen, their younger brother, inherited Richmond. Stephen died between 1135 and 1138, was succeeded in Brittany by his eldest son, Geoffrey Boterel II, a supporter of the Empress Matilda, in England by a younger son, Alan nicknamed The Black, an ally of King Stephen during The Anarchy; the Penthièvre brothers who held the territorial designation as Lords of Richmond are reckoned as de facto'earls of Richmond', though they were not so in the strictly legal sense. Through the reign o
Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, 1st Duke of Gordon, styled Lord Settrington until 1819 and Earl of March between 1819 and 1860, was a British Conservative politician. Born at Richmond House, London, he was the son of Charles Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond and Lennox and Lady Caroline, daughter of Field Marshal Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey, he was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, where he had a short career as a cricketer. He was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington. March entered politics as member for Sussex West in 1841, he was sworn of the Privy Council in 1859. In 1860, he entered the House of Lords, he chaired the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment, which reported in 1866, the Royal Commission on Water Supply in 1869, which concluded that there was a need for some sort of overall planning of water supplies for domestic use. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1867, filled various positions in government in the Conservative administrations of the Earl of Derby and the marquess of Salisbury.
In 1876 he was rewarded for his public service by being created Duke of Gordon and Earl of Kinrara in the peerage of the United Kingdom. He was Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen from 1861 until his death at Gordon Castle in 1903. Richmond married Frances Harriett Greville, daughter of Algernon Greville, on 28 November 1843, they had six children: Lady Caroline Gordon-Lennox, died unmarried Charles Gordon-Lennox, 7th Duke of Richmond Lord Algernon Charles Gordon-Lennox, married Blanche Maynard and had issue one daughter, Ivy Gordon-Lennox, who m. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland. Captain Lord Francis Charles Gordon-Lennox, died unmarried Lady Florence Gordon-Lennox, died unmarried Lord Walter Charles Gordon-Lennox, married Alice Ogilvie-Grant and had issue Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Richmond Gordon Chapel CricketArchive: Earl of March
Duke of Richmond
Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England, created four times in British history. It has been held by members of the royal Stuart families; the current dukedom of Richmond was created in 1675 for Charles Lennox, the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and a Breton noblewoman, Louise de Penancoët de Kérouaille. The Duke of Richmond and Lennox was furthermore created Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1876, meaning that the Duke holds three dukedoms— plus, in pretence, the French Duchy of Aubigny-sur-Nère— more than any other person in the realm. Prior to the creation of the Dukedom the early nobles of England associated with Richmondshire were Lords and Earls of Richmond. At times the honour of Richmond was held without a title; the Dukedom of Richmond emerged under King Henry VIII. The first creation of a dukedom of Richmond was made in 1525 for Henry FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII, his mother was Elizabeth Blount. Upon the Duke's death without children in 1536, his titles became extinct.
The second creation was in 1623 for Ludovic Stuart, 2nd Duke of Lennox, who held other titles in the peerage of Scotland. He was created Earl of Richmond and Baron Settrington in 1613 and Duke of Richmond in the peerage of England in 1623 as a member of the Lennox line in the House of Stuart; these became extinct at his death in 1624, but his Scottish honours devolved on his brother Esmé, Earl of March, who thus became 3rd Duke of Lennox in the peerage of Scotland. Esmé's son James, 4th Duke of Lennox subsequently received the third creation of the dukedom of Richmond in 1641, when the two dukedoms again became united. In 1672, on the death of James' nephew Charles, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox, both titles again became extinct; the fourth creation of the dukedom of Richmond was in August 1675, when Charles II granted the title to Charles Lennox, his illegitimate son by Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. Charles Lennox was further created Duke of Lennox a month later.
Charles' son Charles, succeeded to the French title Duke of Aubigny on the death of his grandmother in 1734. The 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created Duke of Gordon in 1876. Thus, the Duke holds more than any other person in the realm; the subsidiary titles of the dukedom created in 1675 are Earl of March, Earl of Darnley, Earl of Kinrara, Baron Settrington, of Settrington in the County of York, Lord Torbolton. The Dukes of Richmond and Gordon are styled Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon they were styled Duke of Lennox; the titles Earl of March and Baron Settrington were created in the peerage of England along with the Dukedom of Richmond. The titles Earl of Darnley and Lord Torbolton were created in the Peerage of Scotland along with the Dukedom of Lennox; the title Earl of Kinrara was created in the peerage of the United Kingdom with the Dukedom of Gordon. The eldest son of the Duke uses the courtesy title Earl of Kinrara. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon, the courtesy title used was Earl of March.
The family seat is Goodwood House near West Sussex. The heir apparent is Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke. Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the 11th Duke Lord William Rupert Gordon-Lennox, second son of the 11th Duke Lord Frederick Lysander Gordon-Lennox, third son of the 11th Duke James David Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles William Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Thomas Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Edward Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Alexander Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Angus Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Geordie Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Charles Bernard Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Archie Clement Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 7th Duke Col. David Henry Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 7th Duke Henry George Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-grandson of the 6th Duke Ian Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Philip George Hugh Gordon-Lennox, great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Thomas Charles Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke Alec George Gordon-Lennox, great-great-great grandson of the 6th Duke The earlier dukes bore: Quarterly 1 and 4 azure three fleurs-de-lis and a bordure engrailed Or.
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, bore the Tudor royal arms with a border quarterly ermine and compony azure and argent, a baton sinister argent for bastardy, overall an escutcheon of Nottingham. Earl of Newcastle Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 419–420. ThePeerage.com Tillyard, Stella. Aristocrats
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i