William Parry (explorer)
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was an English explorer of the Arctic, known for his 1819 expedition through the Parry Channel the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, he reached 82°45′N, setting the record for human exploration Farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′N by Sir Albert Hastings Markham in 1875. Parry was born in Bath, the son of Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby, he was educated at King Edward's School. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Sir William Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, he took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night.
From 1813 to 1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross; this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island; as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams, they carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he headed for Lancaster Sound, he kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back.
Continuing west they passed 110 ° W. Blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island, somewhere near 107- or 108° W. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F; the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. Parry planted them in his cabin; the leaves seemed to help. There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay, it was the first of August. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back.
It was too late in the season and new ice was beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. Luck had been on their side. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821. In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding HMS Fury accompanied by HMS Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher and chaplain, William Hooper and diarist, lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements; the two vessels were nearly identical.
They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles; the goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton had found impassable in 1742, he passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay which he re-checked and found land-locked. He ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at the southeast corner of Winter Island. From the Inuit he learned. In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, ice-filled, they waited for the ice to clear. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had app
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Foxe Basin is a shallow oceanic basin north of Hudson Bay, in Nunavut, located between Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula. For most of the year, it is blocked by sea drift ice made up of multiple ice floes; the nutrient-rich cold waters found in the basin are known to be favourable to phytoplankton and the numerous islands within it are important bird habitats, including Sabine's gulls and many types of shorebirds. Bowhead whales migrate to the northern part of the basin each summer; the basin takes its name from the English explorer Luke Foxe who entered the lower part in 1631. Foxe Basin is a broad, predominantly shallow depression less than 100 metres in depth, while to the south, depths of up to 400 metres occur; the tidal range decreases from 5 m in the southeast to less than 1 m in the northwest. During much of the year, landfast ice dominates in the north, while pack ice prevails towards the south. Foxe Basin itself is ice-free until September, open pack ice being common throughout the summer.
Vigorous tidal currents and strong winds keep the ice pack in constant motion and contribute to the numerous polynyas and shore leads which are found throughout the region. This same motion, combined with the high sediment content of the water makes the sea ice of Foxe Basin dark and rough distinguishable from other ice in the Canadian Arctic. Foxe Basin is connected to the Gulf of Boothia via the narrow Fury and Hecla Strait, to Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait via the wide Foxe Channel, it is connected to Repulse Bay and Roes Welcome Sound via Frozen Strait. The terrain is rocky and rugged in the southern half of the region, low-lying in the north. High cliffs are found across the southern portion of the region. Coastal marshes and tidal flats up to 6.5 km in width are found in the vast lowland section of eastern Foxe Basin, as well as in the bays of Southampton Island. This is one of the little-known areas of the Canadian Arctic, though it is proving to be biologically rich and diverse; the numerous polynyas in northern Foxe Basin support high densities of bearded seals and the largest walrus herd in Canada.
Ringed seal and polar bear are common, with north Southampton Island as one of the highest-density polar bear denning areas in Canada. This area is an important summering area for the bowhead whale, beluga whale and narwhal. Both bowhead belugas winter in the waters of northeastern Hudson Bay. Bowheads were the only known baleen whales to occur in the Hudson Bay, but some other species of whale, such as humpback and minke, are confirmed to migrate into the waters as well; the region is the main North American stronghold of the Sabine's gull, with some 10,000 pairs nesting here. Moderate numbers of black guillemots, Arctic terns and glaucous and ivory gulls breed here; the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak on Baffin Island is the world's largest goose nesting colony, with upwards of 1.5 million birds, 75 percent of which are lesser snow geese and the remainder Canada and brant geese. Shorebirds and ducks are abundant. Several hundred thousand thick-billed murres breed on the cliffs of Digges Sound and Coats Island to the south.
This region is not yet represented in the national marine conservation areas system. Studies to identify preliminary representative marine areas have yet to be undertaken
Coral Harbour, is a small Inuit community, located on Southampton Island, Kivalliq Region, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Its name is derived from the fossilized coral that can be found around the waters of the community, situated at the head of South Bay; the name of the settlement in Inuktitut is Salliq, sometimes used to refer to all of Southampton Island. The plural Salliit, means large flat island in front of the mainland; the Sadlermiut whose name is derived from Salliq occupied the area. The Sadlermiut are thought to be the last vestige of the Tuniit; the Tuniit, a pre-Inuit culture went ethnically and culturally extinct in 1902-03 when a Western illness killed all of the Sallirmiut in a matter of weeks. However, others believe that the Sadlermiut were in fact descendants of the Thule, whose geographically isolated culture would have developed idiosyncratically from the mainland Thule culture. A third theory indicates that the Sadlermiut did not belong to either group, but because of intermarriage, their roots may have in fact been part of both Dorset and Thule cultures.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the area was repopulated by Aivilingmiut, whose name was to be adapted for the Aivilik electoral district, from the Repulse Bay and Chesterfield Inlet areas, influenced to do so by whaler Captain George Comer and others. Baffin Islanders arrived 25 years later. John Ell, who as a young child travelled with his mother Shoofly on Comer's schooners became the most famous of Southampton Island's re-settled population. At the 2016 census the population was an increase of 6.8 % from the 2011 census. Coral Harbour is the only Nunavut community that does not observe daylight saving time, remaining on Eastern Standard Time year-round; the only way to reach this community is by plane at Coral Harbour Airport or by water and the main transportation on the island itself is by snowmobile and dog sled in the winter and all-terrain vehicle in the summer. Despite the harsh climate there is plentiful wildlife around the island. Among some of the species found there are walruses, polar bears, barren-ground caribou, ringed seals and peregrine falcons.
The community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005. Qiniq is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone; the Qiniq network is operated by SSI Micro. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, 2G-GSM for mobile voice. James Arvaluk, Nunavut's first Minister of Education and current member of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut for Tununiq, representing Pond Inlet. Arvaluk had been elected in Nanulik representing the hamlets of Chesterfield Inlet and Coral Harbour. Prior to 1 April 1999 division of the Northwest Territories he served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories for the Aivilik electoral district. Tagak Curley and first president Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Curley is a member of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut for Rankin Inlet North. Prior to division he represented Keewatin South and Aivilik and stood as the Liberal candidate in the 1979 election for the Nunatsiaq riding.
Patterk Netser, former member of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut for Nanulik. Pudlo Pudlat, notable artist, born on Baffin Island but lived in the Coral Harbour area until the age of six. Manitok Thompson, former member of the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut for Rankin Inlet South/Whale Cove, prior to division, of the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories for Aivilik, she was Nunavut's first female cabinet minister. Coral Harbour has a severe subarctic climate, for, just qualifies due to its 10 °C July means, it is a borderline polar climate. Coral Harbour has never gone above freezing in January and March (although the latter has recorded 0.0 °C. Due to the frozen nature of Hudson Bay, there is a severe seasonal lag until June in spite of lots of sunshine and perpetual twilight during nights. Due to the drop of solar strength and the absence of warm water in summer, temperatures still drop off fast as September approaches, with only July and August having recorded temperatures above 24 °C.
Cold extremes are severe, but in line with many areas farther south in Canada's interior. Unlike those areas, Coral Harbour remains beneath −25 °C in terms of average high in the midst of winter. Throughout December 2010 and early January 2011, northern Quebec and western Greenland set many high temperature records. In Coral Harbour, a high of 3.3 °C in mid-December broke the old record of 1.7 °C set in 1963. The daily minimum temperature on 6 January 2011, was about 30 °C warmer; the unusual warmth was due to an unseasonal area of high pressure over Greenland, negative values of the Arctic oscillation and North Atlantic oscillation. In the 21st century, the conditions have combined to produce an Arctic dipole anomaly that brings warm air to the Arctic regions and cold air to the continents; the limestones around Coral Harbour predominantly have a "Low Purity" value for industrial use. List of municipalities in Nunavut The Atlas of Canada: Coral Harbour The Coral Harbour website
The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. Qikiqtaaluk is the traditional Inuktitut name for Baffin Island. Although the Qikiqtaaluk Region is the most used name in official contexts, several notable public organizations, including Statistics Canada prefer the older term Baffin Region. With a population of 18,988 and an area of 989,879.35 km2 it is the largest and most populated of the three regions. The region consists of Baffin Island, the Belcher Islands, Akimiski Island, Mansel Island, Prince Charles Island, Bylot Island, Devon Island, Cornwallis Island, Bathurst Island, Amund Ringnes Island, Ellef Ringnes Island, Axel Heiberg Island, Ellesmere Island, the Melville Peninsula, the eastern part of Melville Island, the northern parts of Prince of Wales Island, Somerset Island, plus smaller islands in between; the regional seat, territorial capital, is Iqaluit. The Qikiqtaaluk Region spans the northernmost and southernmost areas of Nunavut.
Before 1999, the Qikiqtaaluk Region existed under different boundaries as the Baffin Region, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories. Canada claims Hans Island as part of Qikiqtaaluk, while Denmark considers it to be part of the Greenlandic municipality of Avannaata. All of Qikiqtaaluk's thirteen communities are located on tidal water and just under half of its residents live in Nunavut's capital and only city, Iqaluit; the majority of the rest live in twelve hamlets—Arctic Bay, Cape Dorset, Clyde River, Grise Fiord, Hall Beach, Kimmirut, Pond Inlet, Qikiqtarjuaq and Sanikiluaq. Alert and Eureka are part of the Unorganized areas in Qikiqtaaluk. There was a mining town at Nanisivik. However, it and the Nanisivik Mine closed in 2002, with Nanisivik Airport closing in 2010 and all flights transferred to Arctic Bay Airport. Like the majority of Canada's Inuit communities, the regions traditional country food includes seal, Arctic char, polar bear and caribou-which are abundant. Iqaluit has the Astro Hill Complex, the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum and the Legislative Building of Nunavut and the Unikkaarvik Visitors Centre.
According to anthropologists and historians, the Inuit are the descendants of the Thule people who displaced the Dorset culture. By 1300 the Inuit had trade routes with more southern cultures. About 1910 Europeans markets increased their interest in white fox pelts; the distribution and mobility of Inuit changed as the expanded their traditional hunting and fishing routes to participate in the white fox fur trade. Traditional food staples—such as seal and caribou—were not always found in the same regions as white fox; the Hudson's Bay Company—which was chartered in 1670—had been opening fur trading posts throughout Inuit and First Nations territory. By 1910, the HBC was restructured into a lands sales department and fur trade; the HBC dominated the fur trade under minimal supervision from the Canadian government, some Anglican and Catholic missionaries who lived near remote northern hamlets. By 1922 most of imported goods acquired by Inuit were from the HBC. Between 1950 and 1975 thirteen northern communities were relocated.
In the 1950s and 1960s the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and others in authority undertook "the widespread killing of sled dogs". The Qikigtani Truth Commission—which was commissioned and paid for by an Aboriginal organization, the Qikiqtani Inuit Association and took place from 2007 to 2010—brought together historians and Inuit to revisit the history of the Qikigtaaluk Region. Canada 2016 Census Population: 18,988 Population change: +12.1% Private dwellings: 6,556 Area: 989,879.35 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 245th out of 293 Territorial rank in terms of population: 1st out of 3 Akudnirmiut Inuit Netsilik Inuit Ellesmere Island Volcanics Strathcona Fiord Qikiqtaaluk Region information at Explore Nunavut
Hudson Bay is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2. It drains a large area, about 3,861,400 km2, that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, most of Manitoba, Ontario and indirectly through smaller passages of water to parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay; the Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw or Wînipâkw, meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg; the bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is named. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2, making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world; the bay is shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea, with an average depth of about 100 m. It is 1,050 km wide. On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait. Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic Ocean.
Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean. Some sources describe Hudson Bay as the Arctic Ocean. Canada has claimed it as such on historic grounds; this claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay; when the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterwards.
In 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company which still bears the historic name. The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers; the strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. More they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season; the HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX. HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of 3,900,000 km2, as part of the Northwest Territories.
Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows: A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point on the Mainland. North of Hudson Bay has a polar climate being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. From Arviat, Nunavut to the west to the south and southeast prevails the subarctic climate; this is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance and leave the weather cool, where the average temperature of the month is above 10 °C.
At the southern end in the extension known as James Bay arises the humid continental climate with a more pronounced and hot summer. The average annual temperature in the entire bay is around 0 ° C or below. Except for the James Bay area the average water temperature is only 7° C to the south in January. Although the difference is small in summer in the extreme northeast, wintery temperatures are four to five colder degrees coming near -27 °C; the Hudson Bay region has low year-round average temperatures. The average annual temperature for Churchill at 59°N is −5 °C and Inukjuak facing cool wester