Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea. This region is known as Bougainville Province or the North Solomons, its land area is 9,300 km2. The population of the province is 234,280, which includes the adjacent island of Buka and assorted outlying islands including the Carterets. Mount Balbi at 2,700 m is the highest point. Bougainville Island is the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago, forming part of the Northern Solomon Islands, politically separate from the sovereign country called Solomon Islands. Bougainville was first settled some 28,000 years ago. Three to four thousand years ago, Austronesian people arrived, bringing with them domesticated pigs, chickens and obsidian tools; the first European contact with Bougainville was in 1768, when the French explorer Louis de Bougainville arrived and named the main island for himself. Germany laid claim to Bougainville in 1899. Christian missionaries arrived on the island in 1902. During World War I, Australia occupied German New Guinea, including Bougainville.
It became part of the Australian Territory of New Guinea under a League of Nations mandate in 1920. In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded the island, but allied forces launched the Bougainville campaign to regain control of the island in 1943. Despite heavy bombardments, the Japanese garrisons remained on the island until 1945. Following the war, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, returned to Australian control. In 1949, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, merged with the Australian Territory of Papua, forming the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, a United Nations Trust Territory under Australian administration. On 9 September 1975, the Parliament of Australia passed the Papua New Guinea Independence Act 1975; the Act set 16 September 1975 as date of independence and terminated all remaining sovereign and legislative powers of Australia over the territory. Bougainville was to become part of an independent Papua New Guinea. However, on 11 September 1975, in a failed bid for self-determination, Bougainville declared itself the Republic of the North Solomons.
The republic failed to achieve any international recognition, a settlement was reached in August 1976. Bougainville was absorbed politically into Papua New Guinea with increased self-governance powers. Between 1988 and 1998, the Bougainville Civil War claimed over 15,000 lives. Peace talks brokered by New Zealand led to autonomy. A multinational Peace Monitoring Group under Australian leadership was deployed. In 2001, a peace agreement was signed including promise of a referendum on independence from Papua New Guinea, which will be held in 2019. Bougainville is the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago, it is part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion. Bougainville and the nearby island of Buka are a single landmass separated by a deep 300-metre-wide strait; the island has an area of 9000 square kilometres, there are several active, dormant or inactive volcanoes which rise to 2400 m. Mount Bagana in the north central part of Bougainville is conspicuously active, spewing out smoke, visible many kilometres distant.
Earthquakes cause little damage. The daily volume of wild rivers appears to be decreasing; this has been affected by deforestation caused by the increased demand for gardens to feed the growing population. Mining with its use of chemicals and its aftereffects poses other environmental issues, e.g. alluvial gold mining and the now decommissioned Rio Tinto-owned Panguna mine. Bougainville has one of the world's largest copper deposits; these have been under development since 1972. The majority of people on Bougainville are Christian, an estimated 70% being Roman Catholic and a substantial minority United Church of Papua New Guinea since 1968. Few non-natives remain. There are many indigenous languages in Bougainville Province, belonging to three language families; the languages of the northern end of the island, some scattered around the coast, belong to the Austronesian family. The languages of the north-central and southern lobes of Bougainville Island belong to the North and South Bougainville families.
The most spoken Austronesian language is Halia and its dialects, spoken in the island of Buka and the Selau peninsula of Northern Bougainville. Other Austronesian languages include Nehan, Solos, Saposa and Tinputz, all spoken in the northern quarter of Bougainville and surrounding islands; these languages are related. Bannoni and Torau are Austronesian languages not related to the former, which are spoken in the coastal areas of central and south Bougainville. On the nearby Takuu Atoll a Polynesian language is spoken, Takuu; the Papuan languages are confined to the main island of Bougainville. These include Rotokas, a language with a small inventory of phonemes, Terei, Nasioi, Siwai, Baitsi and several others; these constitute North Bougainville and South Bougainville. None of the languages are spoken by more than 20% of the population, the larger languages such as Nasioi, Korokoro Motuna and Halia are split into dialects that are not always mutually understandable. For general communication most Bougainvilleans use Tok Pisin as a lingua franca, at least in the coastal areas Tok Pisin is learned by children in a bilingual environment.
English and Tok Pisin are the languages of official government. A 2013 U
Ambitle is a volcanic island which, together with Babase, another volcanic island, is one of the two Feni Islands in the Bismarck Archipelago. The island is located within the Papua New Guinea's New Ireland Province, to the east of the island of New Ireland. Ambitle is a stratovolcano, it last erupted in about 350 BCE based on radiocarbon dating. Its caldera, 3 kilometres wide, contains thermal areas on its western side. Venting of hydrothermal water occurs in coral reefs to the west of this island. List of volcanoes in Papua New Guinea "Ambitle". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution
Sea level rise
Since at least the start of the 20th century, the average global sea level has been rising. Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm. More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm from 1993 to 2017, a trend of 30 cm per century. This acceleration is due to human-caused global warming, driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers. Between 1993 and 2018, thermal expansion of the oceans contributed 42% to sea level rise. Climate scientists expect the rate to further accelerate during the 21st century. Projecting future sea level is challenging, due to the complexity of many aspects of the climate system; as climate research into past and present sea levels leads to improved computer models, projections have increased. For example, in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected a high end estimate of 60 cm through 2099, but their 2014 report raised the high-end estimate to about 90 cm.
A number of studies have concluded that a global sea level rise of 200 to 270 cm this century is "physically plausible". A conservative estimate of the long-term projections is that each Celsius degree of temperature rise triggers a sea level rise of 2.3 metres over a period of two millennia: an example of climate inertia. The sea level will not rise uniformly everywhere on Earth, it will drop in some locations. Local factors include tectonic effects and subsidence of the land, tides and storms. Sea level rises can influence human populations in coastal and island regions. Widespread coastal flooding is expected with several degrees of warming sustained for millennia. Further effects are higher storm-surges and more dangerous tsunamis, displacement of populations and degradation of agricultural land and damage in cities. Natural environments like marine ecosystems are affected, with fish and plants losing parts of their habitat. Societies can respond to sea level rise in three different ways: to retreat, to accommodate and to protect.
Sometimes these adaptation strategies go hand in hand, but at other times choices have to be made among different strategies. Ecosystems that adapt to rising sea levels by moving inland might not always be able to do so, due to natural or man-made barriers. Understanding past sea level is important for the analysis of current and future changes. In the recent geological past, changes in land ice and thermal expansion from increased temperatures are the dominant reasons of sea level rise; the last time the Earth was 2 °C warmer than pre-industrial temperatures, sea levels were at least 5 metres higher than now: this was when warming because of changes in the amount of sunlight due to slow changes in the Earth's orbit caused the last interglacial. The warming was sustained over a period of thousands of years and the magnitude of the rise in sea level implies a large contribution from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Since the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago, the sea level has risen by more than 125 metres, with rates varying from less than a mm/year to 40+ mm/year, as a result of melting ice sheets over Canada and Eurasia.
Rapid disintegration of ice sheets led to so called'meltwater pulses', periods during which sea level rose rapidly. The rate of rise started to slow down about 8,200 years before present. Sea level changes can be driven either by variations in the amount of water in the oceans, the volume of the ocean or by changes of the land compared to the sea surface; the different techniques used to measure changes in sea level do not measure the same. Tide gauges can only measure relative sea level, whilst satellites can measure absolute sea level changes. To get precise measurements for sea level, researchers studying the ice and the oceans on our planet factor in ongoing deformations of the solid Earth, in particular due to landmasses still rising from past ice masses retreating, the Earth's gravity and rotation. Since the 1992 launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, altimetric satellites have been recording the change in sea level; those satellites can measure the hills and valleys in the sea caused by currents and detect trends in their height.
To measure the distance to the sea surface, the satellite sends a microwave pulse to the ocean's surface and records the time it takes to return. A microwave radiometer corrects any delay. Combining this data with the precise location of the spacecraft makes it possible to determine sea-surface height to within a few centimeters. Current rates of sea level rise from satellite altimetry have been estimated to be 3.0 ± 0.4 millimetres per year for the period 1993–2017. Earlier satellite measurements were at odds with tide gauge measurements. A small calibration error for the Topex/Poseidon satellite discovered in 2015 was identified as the cause of this mismatch, it had caused a slight overestimation of the 1992–2005 sea levels, which masked the ongoing sea level rise acceleration. Satellites are useful for measuring regional variations in sea level, such as the substantial rise between 1993 and 2012 in the western tropical Pacific; this sharp rise has been linked to increasing trade winds, which occur when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation change from one state to t
Daru Island is an island in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea. The eponymous town on the island is the capital of the province, houses the vast majority of the island's population of 20,524. Daru Island is elliptical in shape, with dimensions of 5.0 by 3.7 kilometers, an area of 14.7 km², an elevation of up to 27 m. The island is separated from the mainland in the north the mouth of Oriomo River, by the 3.5 km wide Daru Roads. The shortest distance to the larger Bristow Island in the south is 1.3 km. Daru Island is one of the few Torres Strait Islands that do not belong to Australia, but to Papua New Guinea, it is the most populated of the Torres Strait Islands, although scarcely any original Torres Strait Islanders live on the island. The main industry on the island is fishing; the island has an international airport, used by Australian aircraft chartered by mining companies for customs clearance or to pick up jet fuel. Commercial flights service Daru Airport four days per week. First recorded sighting by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Luís Vaez de Torres on 5 September 1606
Baluan Island is the southern most island of the Admiralty Islands group which make up the majority of Manus Province in Papua New Guinea. It belongs to an island sub group to the south of Lou Island, it is formed from an extinct volcano. The crater of the volcano can be seen from the top of the island; the main foods on the island are fish and vegetables grown on the perfect growing volcanic soil. The most famous Baluan person was Sir Paliau Moloat, elected as the First National Member of Assembly for Manus Province in 1964, he died in 1991 and is buried on Baluan
Buka Island is the second largest island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, in eastern Papua New Guinea. It is in the North Bougainville District, with the Autonomous Region's and district's capital city of Buka on the island; the island is separated by the narrow Buka Passage from the northwestern coast of Bougainville Island. Buka was first occupied by humans in the Paleolithic period, with evidence for human habitation at Kilu Cave some 30,000 years ago; the present inhabitants speak languages that are from the eastward push of Austronesian languages of the Lapita Culture complex, some 2,700 years ago. Buka Island was occupied by Japanese troops during World War II, it was the site of important Japanese airfields that had to be neutralized. Although the island was bombed by allied air forces and warships, allied armies never fought in Buka. After holding out for years on poor supplies, the Japanese surrendered in 1945 when allied troops were approaching the Selau peninsula on nearby Bougainville.
The economy of Buka can be divided into a small urban component and the village sector. The village sector is characterised by subsistence farming of sweet potato as a staple food, the production of copra and cocoa as cash crops by family-sized units and small cooperative work groups. Vanilla and tropical spice crops have made a halting progress, remain minor sources of income for villagers; the urban sector at Buka Passage includes the Bougainville representatives of major New Guinean business, such as Bank South Pacific, CPL, presence of the Autonomous Bougainville Government, based in Kubu, near Buka Passage. There are a number of small businesses in the island. Buka Airport is the principal airport in the Bougainville area, it has scheduled service to Rabaul and Port Moresby. Buka is a flat island some 52 kilometres long in the north-south axis, up to 18 kilometres wide in the west-east axis, it is separated from Bougainville by the Buka Passage, a narrow and fast flowing tidal channel about 200 metres wide.
The east coast is the windward side for most of the year, is characterised by a coastal cliff that rises close to the ocean, leaving only a narrow and rocky beach. A coral reef rings the entire island, it is narrow on the east coast, battered by oceanic winds and large waves. Along the western coast there is a small mountain range, named the Richard Parkinson Range, after the German planter and explorer; the highest peak in this range is Mt. Bei, 458 metres in elevation; the range runs between Carola Harbour. The few larger rivers on the island flow from headwaters in the range's interior; the largest is the Gagan River. The rest of the island is a large raised limestone formation, it rises 10 metres inland, 70–100 metres along the cliffs at the eastern coast. The cliffs correspond to the reef of an ancient lagoon; the limestone morphology means that there is little surface water available throughout most of the island. This poses a problem for the island's residents during the dry season, when water is collected by villagers from'kukubui' springs along the foot of the cliffs.
The island is divided into five Autonomous Bougainville Government electorates: Haku Peit Halia, Hagogohe Tsitalato. Each of these electorates has its own local government, known as Councils of Elders. Buka is the main city on Buka Island, the present-day capital of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, it is located on the northern coast of Buka Passage. On old maps it is named'Chinatown.' The land the city occupies was formally known as Leta. There has been considerable expansion of the city in recent years, in nearby Kubu, location of the Autonomous Bougainville Government Parliament, Hutjena, the location of the national high school serving Buka; the main island of Buka is occupied by two distinct language groups and Halia. The latter is split into two dialects in Buka Island: Hanahan Halia spoken along the east coast from Buka Passage to Tohatsi and Haku, spoken in the north coast villages from Elutupan to Lontis. A third dialect of Halia, known as Selau is spoken in the peninsula of the same name in north Bougainville.
Halia and Haku speakers understand each other, Selau is a more distant dialect. Solos is a distinct language within the North Bougainvillean Austronesian family, Halia and Solos are not mutually intelligible. On the west coast of Buka there are five small inhabited islands that have close cultural and linguistic ties to the main island of Buka. From north to south these are Pororan and nearby Hitau and Yamen and Matsungan; the language of these islands is distinct from Halia and Solos, but resembles Halia more than it does Solos. This language is referred to as Petats in the linguistic literature, as West Coast in Buka. All languages spoken by the indigenous population of Buka are part of the North Bougainvillean Austronesian group of languages, they show some affinity to the languages of Nissan Island and New Ireland and are part of the Melanesian branch of the Austronesian language family. Contemporary Bukas use Tok Pisin as a lingua franca between the three main language groups. Although separated into three or four different language groups, Buka society shows similar traits throughout the island.
Traditional Buka society conformed to a broad pattern of Melanesian horticultural organisation. Coastal villagers, namely the Haku and West Coast speakers, planted taro, kept ch
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere; the name Melanesia was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia. The name Melanesia, from Greek μέλας, νῆσος, etymologically means "islands of black ", in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the concept among Europeans of Melanesia as a distinct region evolved over time as their expeditions mapped and explored the Pacific. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders.
In 1756 Charles de Brosses theorized that there was an "old black race" in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin. In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville identified Melanesians as a distinct racial group. Over time, Europeans viewed Melanesia as a distinct cultural, rather than racial, area. Scholars and other commentators disagreed on its boundaries. In the nineteenth century Robert Codrington, a British missionary, produced a series of monographs on "the Melanesians" based on his long-time residence in the region. In works including The Melanesian Languages and The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folk-lore, Codrington defined Melanesia as including Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, he did not include the islands of New Guinea. Like Bory de Saint-Vincent, he excluded Australia from Melanesia, it was in these works.
Uncertainty about the delineation and definition of the region continues. The scholarly consensus now includes New Guinea within Melanesia. Ann Chowning wrote in her 1977 textbook on Melanesia that there is no general agreement among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia. Many apply the term only to the smaller islands, excluding New Guinea. In 1998 Paul Sillitoe wrote of Melanesia: "it is not easy to define on geographical, biological, or any other grounds, where Melanesia ends and the neighbouring regions... begins". He concludes that the region is a historical category which evolved in the nineteenth century from the discoveries made in the Pacific and has been legitimated by use and further research in the region, it covers populations that have a certain linguistic and cultural affinity – a certain ill-defined sameness, which shades off at its margins into difference. Both Sillitoe and Chowning include the island of New Guinea in the definition of Melanesia, both exclude Australia.
Most of the peoples in Melanesia have established independent countries, are administered by France or have active independence movements. Many have taken up the term'Melanesia' as a source of identity and "empowerment". Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation". For instance, the author Bernard Narokobi wrote about the "Melanesian Way" as a distinct form of culture that could empower the people of this region; the concept is used in geopolitics. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Fiji; the people of Melanesia have a distinctive ancestry. Along with the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, the Southern Dispersal theory indicates they emigrated from Africa between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago and dispersed along the southern edge of Asia.
The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels. The first migration into Sahul came over 40,000 years ago. A further expansion into the eastern islands of Melanesia came much probably between 4000 B. C. and 3000 B. C. Along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics and culture among the peoples; this Polynesian theory, however, is somewhat contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University in 2008. It found that neither Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians, it appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area on their way, kept going to eastern areas, where they settled.
They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia and "only intermixed to