Thuja occidentalis known as northern white-cedar or eastern arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to eastern Canada and much of the north and upper Northeastern United States, but cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, the binomial name remains current. Common names include: The name arborvitae is used in the horticultural trade in the United States, it is Latin for "tree of life" - due to the supposed medicinal properties of the sap and twigs. Despite its common names, it is not a true cedar in the genus Cedrus, nor is it related to the Australian white cedar, Melia azedarach. Unlike the related western red-cedar, northern white-cedar is only a small or medium-sized tree, growing to a height of 15 m tall with a 0.9 m trunk diameter, exceptionally to 38 metres tall and 1.8 metres diameter. The tree is stunted or prostrate in less favorable locations; the bark is red-brown and peels in narrow, longitudinal strips.
Northern white-cedar has fan-like branches and scaly leaves. The foliage forms in flat sprays with scale-like leaves 3–5 millimetres long; the seed cones are slender, yellow-green, ripening to brown, 9–14 millimetres long and 4–5 millimetres broad, with 6-8 overlapping scales. They contain about 8 seeds each; the branches may take root. Northern white-cedar is native to an area in the southern part of eastern Canada and the adjacent part of the northern United States, it extends from southeastern Manitoba east throughout the Great Lakes region and into Ontario, Québec, New York, New Hampshire, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. There are isolated populations in west-central Manitoba, to the south in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Illinois and in the Appalachian Mountains of Kentucky, North Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. In Canada, its range reaches the southern tip of Hudson Bay, it grows in places with cooler summers, with an average temperature of 16 to 22 °C in July, a shorter growing season, from 90 to 180 days.
Northern white-cedar grows in wet forests, being abundant in coniferous swamps where other larger and faster-growing trees cannot compete successfully. It occurs on other sites with reduced tree competition, such as cliffs. Although not listed as endangered, wild white-cedar populations are threatened in many areas by high deer numbers; the largest known specimen is 34 m tall and 175 cm diameter, on South Manitou Island within Leelanau County, Michigan. Northern white-cedar can be a long-lived tree in certain conditions, with notably old specimens growing on cliffs where they are inaccessible to deer and wildfire. Despite their age, these old trees are small and stunted due to the difficult growing conditions; the Witch Tree, a T. occidentalis growing out of a cliff face on Lake Superior in Minnesota, was described by the French explorer Sieur de la Verendrye as being a mature tree in 1731. White-cedar specimens found growing on cliff faces in southern Ontario are the oldest trees in Eastern North America and all of Canada, growing to ages in excess of 1,653 years.
White-cedar is a tree with important uses in traditional Ojibwe culture. Honored with the name Nookomis Giizhik, the tree is the subject of sacred legends and is considered a gift to humanity for its myriad uses, among them crafts and medicine, it is one of the four plants of the Ojibwe medicine wheel, associated with the north. White-cedar foliage is rich in Vitamin C and is believed to be the annedda which cured the scurvy of Jacques Cartier and his party in the winter of 1535–1536. Due to the presence of the neurotoxic compound thujone, internal use can be harmful if used for prolonged periods or while pregnant. Northern white-cedar is commercially used for rustic fencing and posts, poles, shingles and in the construction of log cabins. White-cedar is the preferred wood for the structural elements, such as ribs and planking, of birchbark canoes and the planking of wooden canoes; the essential oil within the plant has been used for cleansers, hair preparations, liniment, room sprays, soft soaps.
There are some reports. Others have used the twigs to make teas to relieve headache. In the 19th century, T. occidentalis extract was in common use as an externally applied tincture or ointment for the treatment of warts and thrush. "An injection of the tincture into venereal warts is said to cause them to disappear."Strips of clear, northern white-cedar wood were used to make the original Au Sable river boats known as the "pickup trucks of the Au Sable". The light, rot resistant wood was preferred but is now replaced by marine grade plywood. Since the plywood is available in lengths of 8 feet, the modern boats are shorter than the older boats which were around 25 feet long. Northern white-cedar under the name arborvitae, is used as an ornamental tree for screens and hedges, in gardens and cemeteries. Over 300 cultivars exist, showing great variation in colour and size, with some of the more common ones being:'Degroot's Spire','Ellwangeriana'
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n
M-94 (Michigan highway)
M-94 is a state trunkline in the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. It runs for 86.983 miles from K. I. Sawyer to Manistique; the highway is part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour during a concurrency with M-28. M-94 crosses the Siphon Bridge in Manistique, unique for the fact that the bridge roadway is below water level. M-94 has been realigned several times, it has had its own roadway between the M-28 junctions in Shingleton. Other changes have flip-flopped M-94 with M-28 between Harvey and Munising and extended it across the former K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base. M-94 begins at an intersection with M-553 and crosses the former K. I. Sawyer AFB, it overlaps US 41 for a little over a mile near Skandia. East of Skandia, M-94 runs through forest lands and serves the communities of Sundell and Rumely before entering Eben Junction. There M-94 intersects the southern section of H-01. Further east is Chatham where there are junctions with the northern section of H-01 and M-67. M-94 turns southerly before returning to an east–west direction to head to the community of Forest Lake and Munising.
There M-94 joins a concurrency with M-28 and the Lake Superior Circle Tour from Munising to Shingleton. Until the turn at Shingleton, the route is more decidedly east–west than north–south. Between Shingleton and Manistique, M-94 is more north–south. South of Shingleton, M-94 runs through forest lands as a part of the Great Manistique Swamp. Along the way are national forest campgrounds located near Steuben. South of Crooked Lake, M-94 curves to the east before turning due south to the Manistique area. In Manistique, M-94 enters town on North 5th St before turning to follow Deer Street and River Street. On River Street, the trunkline uses the Siphon Bridge to cross the Manistique River and uses Elk and Maple streets before terminating at US 2 at Lakeshore Drive. In Manistique, M-94 crosses the Manistique River on the "Siphon Bridge". Built as a part of a raceway flume on the river, the water level used to be higher than the road surface; this produced a siphon effect. The Manistique Pulp and Paper Company was organized in 1916 and needed a dam on the Manistique River to supply their mill.
This dam would have needed to flood a large section of the city. The shallow river banks meant difficulties in any bridge construction. Instead of expensive dikes, a concrete tank was built lengthwise in the river bed; the sides of this tank provided man-made banks higher than the natural banks. The Michigan Works Progress Administration described the bridge as having, "concrete bulkheads, formed by the side spans of the bridge, allow the mill to maintain the water level several feet above the roadbed." The bridge acted as a siphon because the water level was above the roadway, the structure has been featured in Ripley's Believe It or Not! The December 1927 Michigan State Highway Department Official Highway Service Map shows M-94 routed from Au Train west to Munising and further along its current routing to Manistique. In 1928 or 1929, M-94 was rerouted to run along Munising-Van Meer-Shingleton Road and southerly to Shingleton; this routing was abandoned on November 7, 1963. It was extended westward to Harvey in 1939.
In 1941, the portion of M-94 west from Munising to Harvey was made a part of M-28, M-94 was extended along its current routing from Munising to US 41. M-94 was extended for the last time in 1998 over US 41 and through the old K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base to end at a newly designated M-553. In October 2016, heavy rainfall cause the culverts directing the Chocolay River under M-94 in West Branch Township to fail; the Michigan Department of Transportation started construction of a 129-foot-long, single-span bridge at a cost of $1.8 million on March 6, 2017, opened the structure to traffic on June 28 of the same year. Michigan Highways portal M-94 at Michigan Highways M-94 at Michigan Highway Ends Siphon Bridge at MDOT
Ulmus americana known as the American elm or, less as the white elm or water elm, is a species native to eastern North America occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, south to Florida and central Texas. The American elm is an hardy tree that can withstand winter temperatures as low as −42 °C. Trees in areas unaffected by Dutch elm disease can live for several hundred years. A prime example of the species was the Sauble Elm, which grew beside the banks of the Sauble River in Ontario, Canada, to a height of 43 m, with a d.b.h of 196 cm before succumbing to Dutch elm disease. For over 80 years, U. americana had been identified as a tetraploid, i.e. having double the usual number of chromosomes, making it unique within the genus. However, a study published in 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA revealed that about 20% of wild American elms are diploid and may constitute another species. Moreover, several triploid trees known only in cultivation, such as'Jefferson', are possessed of a high degree of resistance to Dutch elm disease, which ravaged American elms in the 20th century.
This suggests that the diploid parent trees, which have markedly smaller cells than the tetraploid, may too be resistant to the disease. Ulmus americana was first described and named by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum, published in 1753. No subspecies or varieties are recognized within the species; the American elm is a deciduous hermaphroditic tree which, before the introduction of Dutch elm disease grew to > 30 m tall with a trunk > 1.2 m d.b.h supporting a high, spreading umbrella-like canopy. The leaves are 7 -- 20 cm long, with double-serrate margins and an oblique base; the perfect flowers are purple-brown and, being wind-pollinated, apetalous. The flowers are protogynous, the female parts maturing before the male, thus reducing, but not eliminating, self-fertilization, emerge in early spring before the leaves; the fruit is a flat samara 2 cm long by 1.5 cm broad, with a circular papery wing surrounding the single 4–5 mm seed. As in the related European White Elm Ulmus laevis, the flowers and seeds are borne on 1–3 cm long stems.
American Elm is wholly insensitive to daylight length, will continue to grow well into autumn until injured by frost. Ploidy is 2n = 56, or more 2n = 28; the American elm occurs in an assortment of habitats, most notably rich bottomlands, stream banks, swampy ground, although it often thrives on hillsides and other well-drained soils. On more elevated terrain, as in the Appalachian Mountains, it is most found along rivers; the species' wind-dispersed seeds enable it to spread as suitable areas of habitat become available. American elm produces its seed crop in late spring and the seeds germinate right away with no cold stratification needed; the species attains its greatest growth potential in the Northeastern US, while elms in the Deep South and Texas grow much smaller and have shorter lifespans, although conversely their survival rate in the latter regions is higher due to the climate being unfavorable for the spread of Dutch elm disease. In the United States, the American elm is a major member of four major forest cover types: black ash-American elm-red maple.
A sugar maple-ironwood-American elm cover type occurs on some hilltops near Quebec. The leaves of the American elm serve as food for the larvae of various lepidopterans; the American elm is susceptible to Dutch elm disease and elm yellows. In North America, there are three species of elm bark beetles: one Hylurgopinus rufipes. Although intensive feeding by elm bark beetles can kill weakened trees, their main impact is as vectors of Dutch elm disease. American elm is moderately preferred for feeding and reproduction by the adult elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola and preferred for feeding by the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica in the United States. U. americana is the most susceptible of all the elms to verticillium wilt, whose external symptoms mimic those of Dutch elm disease. However, the condition is far less serious, afflicted trees should recover the following year. Dutch elm disease is a fungal disease that has ravaged the American elm, causing catastrophic die-offs in cities across the range.
It has been estimated that only 1 in 100,000 American elm trees is Dutch elm disease-tolerant, most known survivors having escaped exposure to the disease. However, in some areas still not infested by Dutch elm disease, the American elm continues to thrive, notably in Florida and British Columbia. There is a beautiful grove of old-growth American Elm in Manhattan's Central Park; the trees there were spared because of the grove's isolation in such an intensely urban setting. The American elm is susceptible to disease because the period of infection coincides with the period 30 days, of rapid terminal growth when new springwood vessels are functional. Spores introduced outside of this period remain static within the xylem and are thus rel
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Tsuga canadensis known as eastern hemlock, eastern hemlock-spruce or Canadian hemlock, in the French-speaking regions of Canada as pruche du Canada, is a coniferous tree native to eastern North America. It is the state tree of Pennsylvania; the eastern hemlock grows well in shade and is long lived, with the oldest recorded specimen, found in Tionesta, being at least 554 years old. The tree reaches heights of about 31 m, but exceptional trees have been recorded up to 53 m; the diameter of the trunk at breast height is 1.5 m, but again, outstanding trees have been recorded up to 1.75 m. The trunk is straight and monopodial, but rarely is forked; the crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and fissured with age. The twigs are a yellow-brown in color with darker red-brown pulvini, are densely pubescent; the buds are ovoid in shape and are small, measuring only 1.5 to 2.5 mm in length. These are not resinous, but may be so; the leaves are 15 to 20 mm in length, but may be as short as 5 mm or as long as 25 mm.
They are flattened and are distichous, or two-ranked. The bottom of the leaf is glaucous with two broad and visible stomatal bands, while the top is a shiny green to yellow-green in color; the leaf margins are slightly toothed near the apex. The seed cones are ovoid in shape and measure 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length and 1.0 to 1.5 cm in width. The scales are ovate to measure 8 to 12 mm in length by 7.0 to 10 mm in width. The apex is more or less rounded and is projected outward. Twenty-four diploid chromosomes are present within the trees' DNA; the wood is soft, coarse-grained, light buff in color. Air-dried, a cubic foot weighs 28 lbs; the lumber is used for general construction and crates. Because of its unusual power of holding spikes, it is used for railroad ties. Untreated, the wood is not durable; as a fuel, it is low in value. The wood is a source of pulp for paper manufacturing. T. canadensis occurs at sea level in the north of its distribution, but is found at elevations of 600–1,800 m. It ranges from northeastern Minnesota eastward through southern Quebec and into Nova Scotia, south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama.
Disjunct populations occur in the southeastern Piedmont, western Ohio and into Illinois, as well as eastern Minnesota. In Canada, it is present in all provinces to the east except Newfoundland and Labrador. In the USA, it is found in all states east of and including Minnesota, Indiana, Kentucky and Alabama, but excluding Florida, its range overlaps that of the related Tsuga caroliniana. It is found on rocky ridges and hillsides with high levels of moisture. Eastern hemlock is confined to areas with cool and humid climates. Precipitation in the areas where it grows is 740 mm to more than 1,270 mm per year; the lower number is more typical of northern forests. Near the Atlantic coast and in the southern Appalachians where the trees reach their greatest heights, annual rainfall exceeds 1,520 mm. In the north of its range, the temperatures in January average −12 °C, while in July they average only 16 °C. In these areas, the frost-free season can last fewer than 80 days. In contrast, the southern end of the range experiences up to 200 days without frost and January temperatures as high as 6 °C.
The species is threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid, a sap-sucking bug accidentally introduced from East Asia to the United States in 1924, first found in the native range of eastern hemlock in the late 1960s. The adelgid has spread rapidly in southern parts of the range once becoming established, while its expansion northward is much slower. All the hemlocks in the southern Appalachian Mountains have seen infestations of the insect within the last five to seven years, with thousands of hectares of stands dying within the last two to three years. Attempts to save representative examples on both public and private lands are on-going. A project named "Tsuga Search", funded by the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, is being conducted to save the largest and tallest remaining eastern hemlocks in the Park. Through Tsuga Search, hemlocks have been found with trunk volumes up to 44.8 m³ within the park, making it the largest eastern evergreen conifer, eclipsing in volume both eastern white pine and loblolly pine.
The tree is listed as a least concern species in the IUCN Red List, but this is based on its wide distribution and because the adelgid populations have not reached the northern areas of its range. A 2009 study conducted by scientists with the U. S. Forest Service Southern Research Station suggests the hemlock woolly adelgid is killing hemlock trees faster than expected in the southern Appalachians, altering the carbon cycle of these forests. According to Science Daily, the pest could kill most of the region's hemlock trees within the next decade. According to the study, researchers found "hemlock woolly adelgid infestation is impacting the carbon cycle in tree stands," and "adelgid-infested hemlock trees in the South are declining much faster than the reported 9-year decline of some infested hemlock trees in the Northeast." In a 2009 case study, entom