Burao is the largest city in the Togdheer and serves as the capital of Togdheer region. Burao was the site of the unilateral declaration of an independent Somaliland on May 18, 1991. In the 19th century Burao was an important watering place controlled by the Habr Yunis clan, it served as a headquarters to Sultan Awad Diiriye of the Habr Yunis. Explorer Frank Linsly James, a guest of Sultan Awad Diiriye during his visit to Somaliland in 1884, describes a performance he witnessed by Habr Yunis Horsemen at Burao's Togdheer River. During our stay at Burao, the Sultan collected a great many of his people together, twice entertained us with some well-executed and characteristic evolutions on horseback. On the first occasion some forty mounted, it was the best and most characteristic thing of the kind I had seen. A procession was first formed in the river's bed, on a given signal all dashed off, brandishing their spears and shields. Dressed in tobes of many colours, sitting loosely on their gaily caparisoned horses, they engaged in mimic contest with spear and shield, reining their horses upon their haunches when at full gallop, with wild shouts flinging their spears into the air.
Each warrior carried a short-handled whip with a broad raw hide thong, with it lashed his steed unmercifully. Some of the riders went through regular circus feats, leaping from their horses when at full gallop, picking up objects thrown on the ground, remount- ing. After this had continued for some time they would gallop close to our zariba, reining up, shout "Mort,mort", to which we replied, "Kul liban"; the Dervish state was founded in Burao in 1899. In the end of late August of that year the Dervish leaders and their clan followers assembled at Burao, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan with his followers from the Dhulbahante, the various Habar Jeclo sub clans with their principle headman Haji Sudi, Sultan Nur Ahmed Aman with his followers from the Habr Yunis clan, declared open hostility; the assembled dervish and their clan allies sent the following stern letter to Captain Cordeauxe and James Hayes Sadler: "This is to inform you that you have done whatever you have desired, oppressed our well-known religion without any cause.
Further, to inform you that whatever people bring to you they are liars and slanderers. Further, to inform you that Mahomed, your Akil, came to ask from us the arms we therefore, send you this letter. Now choose for yourself. September 1, 1899. Sections of the Habr Yunis clashed with the British in 1922 after a tax was imposed upon them at Burao; this resulted in the Baho Ainanshe and Rer Sugulleh sub-clans revolting in opposition to the tax and clashing with other sections of the Habr Yunis and the British colonial government. This resulted in a shoot out in which Captain Allan Gibb, a Dervish war veteran, was shot and killed; the British as retaliation burnt down Burao and requested from Sir Winston Churchill Secretary of State for the Colonies, to send troops from Aden and Airplane bombers in order to bomb the wells and livestock of the Rer Ainanshe clans and quell any further rebellion. After the killing of Gibb all Europeans entered the Burao fort, which at the time was occupied by the Native Somali B Company of the Somaliland Camel Corps.
The Hargeisa Camel Corps was ordered to send troops to Burao. The Indian Sepoys having been sent back to the sub-continent forced the Government to rely on the Somali B company, but when ordered to open fire on the hostile Habr Yunis tribesmen, they declined; the British had to resort to sending Indian troops from Aden as they could not trust the native Somalis. Instead The B company was tasked with collecting the fine imposed on the Rer Ainanshe. B company was disbanded and replaced with the more obedient Yao Askaris from the 1st King's African Rifles. Two Airplane bombers were subsequently flown from Aden, ready to bomb the livestock of the Rer Ainanshe clans who were implicated in the shooting lest they refuse to pay a fine and hand over the culprits. Bomber planes were flown over Burao and the Haud, while watering wells that were essential to the Rer Ainanshe nomads were blocked by the Camel corps, the Rer Ainanshe clans isolated and without support acquiesced, agreeing to pay the fine but they refused to identify and apprehend the accused individuals.
Most of the men responsible for Gibb's shooting were never evaded punishment. Captain Gibb was among the most respected and valued British Officers in British Somaliland, he fought during the Dervish wars and operated a Maxim Gun, was credited with capturing Taleh fort in 1920. Sir Winston Churchill reporting on Gibb's shooting at the House of Commons: On 25th February the Governor of Somaliland telegraphed that an affray between tribesmen had taken place at Burao on the previous day, in the course of which Captain Allan Gibb, D. S. O. D. C. M; the District Commissioner at Burao, had been shot dead. Captain Gibb had advanced with his interpreter to quell the disturbance, when 1954 fire was opened upon him by some riflemen, he was killed; the murderers escaped under cover of falling darkness. Captain Gibb was an officer of long and valued service in Somaliland, whose loss I regret. From the information available, his murder does not appear to have been premeditated, but it had a disturbing effect upon the surrounding tribes, immediate dispositions of troops became necessary in order to ensure the apprehension and punish
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
Mohamed Abdullah Hassan was a Somali religious and patriotic leader. He established the Dervish movement in Somalia that fought a 20-year war against the British and Ethiopian empires. Due to his successful completion of the hajj to Mecca, his complete memorization of the Quran and his purported descent from the Prophet Muhammad, his name is sometimes preluded with honorifics such as Hajji, Hafiz or Sayyid. Muhammad `Abd Allāh al-Hasan (Somali: Sayid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan, Arabic: محمّد عبد اللّه حسن, his name is sometimes informally abbreviated as MAH. Due to his influence in the precipitation of Somali nationalism, he is referred to as the Father of Somali nationalism. In 1917, the Ottoman Empire referred to Hassan as the "Emir of the Somali". According to Douglas Jardine, the epithet'Mad Mullah' did not originate with the British or the Italians as is thought, but is a translation of the Somali expression wadaad waal used by Somalis in Berbera. One Somali poet at the time, Ali Jama Habil composed a poem titled'Maxamed Waal'.
The Somali word waalan covers a spectrum that ranges from sheer lunacy through'lunatic' valour to an other worldly inner serenity. In 1895, Hassan returned to Berbera; the British considered Berbera merely'Aden's butcher's shop', since they were only interested in getting regular supplies of meat from Somaliland through this port for their Indian outpost of Aden. In Berbera, Hassan could not succeed in spreading the teaching of the Saalihiya order due to the hostility of the local Qadiriyyah inhabitants to the Ahmedia order the head order of the Salhiya, only a sub brand of the Ahmediya; the Qadiriyyah did not like the new Ahmediya strict interpretations, the opposed the chewing of the mild leafs khat, or the consumption of sheep's tail and following their traditional Qadiriyyah order in which the issue of Tawassul. In 1897 the young Mullah left Berbera to the mullah settlement at Kob Fardod. On March 1899, one Duwaleh Hirsi a former member of the Somali Aden police Mr Percy Cox's expedition guide in Somaliland stole a rifle and sold it to the tariqa at Kob Fardod.
The vice-counsel at the coast, Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux, sent a letter to the mullahs at Kob Fardod demanding the return of the rifle. The letter was carried by a Somali mounted policeman named Ahmed Adan. Upon his return after the delivery of the letter, Cordeaux interviewed Adan, who provided the following information: I knew many of the people there—some of them were relations of mine. My brother-in-law, Dualeh Aoreb, was there. I asked them if they had any rifles, they said they at first had only six, but had just received fifty-five from Hafoon. I saw two or three of the new lot, they are Martins, they told me they had one or two "14-shot rifles." I saw some Mullahs walking about with Sniders. The Sheikh himself and some of his Mullahs used to practice daily shooting at a target. I used to talk with people every day. We talked about many things, some of the words they said were good and others were bad, they called me a Kafir, laughed at my uniform, saying that I smelt, asking me why I wore the Sircars clothes.
There were some from every tribe, Habr Toljaala, Habr Yunis. What is revealing about Ahmed Adan's interview is the confusion, caused by another letter carried by a Somali also from the British administration at the coast; this second letter angered the mullahs at the Tariqa. I had seen him before. I went to him, he said he would give me his reply to the letter I had brought, he asked me about it, but I told him I knew nothing about it, asked him who had brought it. He said, “A Somali.” A man named. I thought, he gave me a letter. It was written on the back of the letter I had brought him. I saw the Government stamp on it, he said, “This is the reply to your letter. I will give you the answer to the other letter to-morrow.” He said that the second letter contained “bad words.” Next morning he gave me two letters, I went away, got into Berbera on Saturday night.”The second letter provoked the mullahs, the hostile tone in the reply is due to the offensive second letter carried by Salaan the Somali. Both replies.
The news of the incident that sparked the Dervish rebellion and the 21 years disturbance according to the consul-general James Hayes Sadler was either spread or as he alleged was concocted by Sultan Nur of the Habr Yunis. The incident in question was that of a group of Somali children that were converted to Christianity and adopted by the French Catholic Mission at Berbera in 1899. Whether Sultan Nur experienced the incident first hand or whether he was told of it is not clear but what is known is that he propagated the incident in the Tariqa at Kob Fardod on June 1899. In one of his letters to sultan Deria in 1899, Hassan said that the British "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" alluding to Sultan Nur's incident with the Roman French Mission at Berbera; the Dervish soon emerged as an opposition of the Christian activities, defending their version of Islam against the Christian mission. The Dervish considere
A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side; the line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline. Ridges are termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. There are several main types of ridges: Dendritic ridge: In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges; these are by far the most common ridges. These ridges represent more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed or other chance occurrences; this type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation changing direction often with knobs at intervals on the ridge top. Stratigraphic ridge: In places such as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, long straight ridges are formed because they are the uneroded remaining edges of the more resistant dipping strata that were folded laterally.
Similar ridges have formed in places such as the Black Hills, where the ridges form concentric circles around the igneous core. Sometimes these ridges are called "hogback ridges". Oceanic spreading ridge: In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forms new land between tectonic boundaries creating volcanic ridges at the spreading zone. Isostatic settling and erosion reduces the elevations moving away from the zone. Crater ridges: Large meteorite strikes form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges. Volcanic crater/caldera ridges: Large volcanoes leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges: Faults form escarpments. Sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges: In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges. Moraines and eskers: Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers.
An arête is a thin ridge of rock, formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges: Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges: A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, blocking or diverting drainage. A shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it. Pressure ridges: Also known as a tumuli develops in lava flows when slow-moving lava beneath a solidified crust wells upward; the brittle crust buckles to accommodate the inflating core of the flow, thus creating a central crack along the length of the tumulus. An Ice pressure ridge develops in an ice cover as a result of a stress regime established within the plane of the ice. Tectonic uplift – The portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface, not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading Mountain range – A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains Mountain chain Hill chain Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Volume 69 Universitetsforlaget, 1989 page 40 https://books.google.com/books?id=dXK7AAAAIAAJ Physical Geography: Introduction To Earth page 164 https://books.google.com/books?id=dC7qhGQpBYkC
Berbera is a coastal city and capital of the Sahil region in the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland. It is the former capital of Somaliland. In antiquity, Berbera was part of a chain of commercial port cities along the Somali seaboard. During the early modern period, Berbera was the most important place of trade in the entire Horn of Africa, it served as the capital of the British Somaliland protectorate from 1884 to 1941, when it was replaced by Hargeisa. In 1960, the British Somaliland protectorate gained independence as the State of Somaliland and united five days with the Trust Territory of Somalia to form the Somali Republic. Located strategically on the oil route, the city has a deep seaport, which serves as the region's main commercial harbour. Berbera was part of the classical Somali city-states that engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire.
Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. Berbera preserves the ancient name of the coast along the southern shore of the Gulf of Aden, it is thought to be the city Malao described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, written by a Greek merchant in the first century AD. In the Periplus it is described as an open roadstead, sheltered by a spit running out from the east. Here the natives are more peaceable. There are imported into this place the things mentioned, many tunics, cloaks from Arsinoe and dyed. There are exported from these places myrrh, a little frankincense, the harder cinnamon, Indian copal and macir, which are imported into Arabia. Duan Chengshi, a Chinese Tang dynasty scholar, described in his written work of AD 863 the slave trade, ivory trade, ambergris trade of Bobali, thought to be Berbera; the great city was later mentioned by the Islamic traveller Ibn Sa'id as well as Ibn Battuta in the thirteenth century.
Berbera was a powerful and well built city that served as a major harbor port for various of powerful Somali Kingdoms in the Middle Ages like the early Adal Kingdom, Ifat Sultanate and Adal Sultanate. It made Zeila the regional capital due to the latter's strategic location on the Red Sea. In Abu'l-Fida's, A Sketch of the Countries, the present-day Gulf of Aden was called the Gulf of Berbera, which shows how important Berbera was in both regional and international trade during the medieval period. One certainty about Berbera over the following centuries was that it was the site of an annual fair, held between October and April, which Mordechai Abir describes as "among the most important commercial events of the east coast of Africa." The major Somali clan of Isaaq in Somaliland, caravans from Harar and the interior, Banyan merchants from Porbandar and Mumbai gathered to trade. All of this was kept secret from European merchants. Lieutenant C. J. Cruttenden, who wrote a memoir describing this portion of the Somali coast dated 12 May 1848, provided an account of the Berbera fair and an account of the historic environs of the town: "an aqueduct of stone and chunam, some nine miles in length", which had once emptied into a presently dry reservoir adjacent to the ruins of a mosque.
He explored part of its course from the reservoir past a number of tombs built of stones taken from the aqueduct to reach a spring, above which lay "the remains of a small fort or tower of chunam and stone... on the hill-side over the spring." Cruttenden noted that in "style it was different to any houses now found on the Somali coast", concluded with noting the presence in "the neighbourhood of the fort above mentioned abundance of broken glass and pottery... from which I infer that it was a place of considerable antiquity. For centuries, Berbera had extensive trade relations with several historic ports in the Indian Subcontinent, Arabian Peninsula and beyond. Additionally, the Somali and Ethiopian interiors were dependent on Berbera for trade, where most of the goods for export arrived from. During the 1833 trading season, the port town swelled to over 70,000 people, upwards of 6,000 camels laden with goods arrived from the interior within a single day. Berbera was the main marketplace in the entire Somali seaboard for various goods procured from the interior, such as livestock, frankincense, acacia gum, feathers, hide and ivory.
According to a trade journal published in 1856, Berbera was described as “the freest port in the world, the most important trading place on the whole Arabian Gulf.”: Historically, the port of Berbera was controlled indigenously between the mercantile Reer Ahmed Nur and Reer Yunis Nuh sub-clans of the Habar Awal. In the year 1845, the two brotherly sub-clans had a dissension over the control of the trade of Berbera, which lead to a wider altercation in which each side sought outside support. With the backing of Haji Sharmarke Ali Saleh, the Reer Ahmed Nuh drove out their kinsmen and declared themselves the sole commercial masters of Berbera; the defeated Reer Yunis Nuh moved westwards and established the port of Bulhar, which became a trading rival to BerberaBerbera commanded most of the trade traffic with the Somali and Ethiopian interiors. The t
Dervish or darwish in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fraternity, or more narrowly to a religious mendicant, who chose or accepted material poverty. The latter usage is found in Persian and Turkish, corresponding to the Arabic term faqir, their focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach God, their most common practice is Sama, associated with the 13th-century mystic Rumi. In folklore, dervishes are credited with the ability to perform miracles and described with supernatural powers; the Persian word darvīsh is of ancient origin and descends from a Proto-Iranian word that appears in Avestan as drigu-, "needy, mendicant", via Middle Persian driyosh. Dervishes try to approach God rather by virtues and individual experience, than by religious scholarship. Many dervishes are mendicant ascetics.
The main reason they beg is to learn humility, but dervishes are prohibited to beg for their own good. They have to give the collected money to other poor people. Others work in common professions; some classical writers indicate that the poverty of the dervish is not economic. Saadi, for instance, who himself travelled as a dervish, wrote extensively about them, says in his Gulistan: Of what avail is frock, or rosary, Or clouted garment? Keep thyself but free From evil deeds, it will not need for thee To wear the cap of felt: a darwesh be In heart, wear the cap of Tartary. Rumi writes in Book 1 of his Masnavi: Water that's poured inside will sink the boat While water underneath keeps it afloat. Driving wealth from his heart to keep it pure King Solomon preferred the title'Poor': That sealed jar in the stormy sea out there Floats on the waves because it's full of air, When you've the air of dervishood inside You'll float above the world and there abide... The whirling dance or Sufi whirling, proverbially associated with dervishes is best known in the West by the practices of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama.
It is, however practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy; the name Mevlevi comes from the Persian poet Rumi, a dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become a tourist attraction in Turkey. There are various orders of dervishes all of which trace their origins from various Muslim saints and teachers Imam Ali. Various orders and suborders have disappeared over the centuries. Dervishes spread into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Pakistan, India and Tajikistan. Other dervish groups include the Bektashis, who are connected to the janissaries, the Senussi, who are rather orthodox in their beliefs. Other fraternities and subgroups chant verses of the Qur'an, play drums or whirl in groups, all according to their specific traditions, they practice meditation, as is the case with most of the Sufi orders in South Asia, many of whom owe allegiance to, or were influenced by, the Chishti order.
Each fraternity uses its own garb and methods of acceptance and initiation, some of which may be rather severe. The Dervish movement was an early 20th-century Somali Sunni Islamic state, established by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a religious leader who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and united them into a loyal army known as the Dervishes; this Dervish army enabled Hassan to carve out a powerful state through conquest of lands claimed by the Somali Sultans, the Ethiopians and the European powers. The Dervish movement acquired renown in the Islamic and Western worlds due to its resistance against Britain and Italy; the Dervish movement repulsed British-led Somali and Ethiopian forces four times and forced them to retreat to the coastal region. The polity maintained relations with other authorities, receiving support from the Ottoman and German empires; the Turks named Hassan Emir of the Somali nation, the Germans promised to recognize any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.
The Dervish movement was defeated by the British in 1920. Various western historical writers have sometimes used the term dervish rather loosely, linking it to, among other things, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan and other rebellions against colonial powers. In such cases, the term "dervishes" may have been used as a generic term for the opposing Islamic entity and all members of its military and religious institutions, including persons who would not be considered "dervishes" in the strict sense. For example, a contemporary British drawing of the fighting in Sudan was entitled "The defeat of the dervishes at Toski". Derviş, a variant of the spelling Fakir Qalandariyya Warsangeli Daraawiish The Tale of the Four Dervishes Qissa Chahar Dervish Death and the Dervish, a novel by Yugoslav writer Meša Selimović The Journey of the Sufi / The Dervish Bektashi Order of Dervishes Rifai Dervish Order Rifai Dervishes A photo essay on the Sufis and Sufi dervishes of Pakistan Videos of Dervish music and dances of Rumi
Somaliland the Republic of Somaliland, is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia. The government of the de facto state of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which, in the form of the independent State of Somaliland, united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic. Somaliland lies on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden, it is bordered by the remainder of Somalia to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the south and west. Its claimed territory has an area of 176,120 square kilometres, with 4 million residents; the capital and the largest city is Hargeisa, with the population of around 1,500,000 residents. In 1988, the Siad Barre government began a crackdown against the Hargeisa-based Somali National Movement and other militant groups, which were among the events that led to the Somali Civil War; the conflict left the country's economic and military infrastructure damaged.
Following the collapse of Barre's government in early 1991, local authorities, led by the SNM, unilaterally declared independence from Somalia on 18 May of the same year and reinstated the borders of the former short-lived independent State of Somaliland. Since the territory has been governed by democratically elected governments that seek international recognition as the Government of the Republic of Somaliland; the central government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa. Ethiopia maintains a trade office in the region. However, Somaliland's self-proclaimed independence remains unrecognised by any country or international organisation, it is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, an advocacy group whose members consist of indigenous peoples and unrecognised or occupied territories. Somaliland has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here.
The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back around 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE. Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals.
Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati. In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor.
The camel is believed to have been domesticated in the Horn region sometime between the 2nd and 3rd millennium BCE. From there, it spread to the Maghreb. During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Mundus, Malao, Essina and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Parthian Persia, the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, they used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. However, Indian merchants continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, free from Roman interference. For centuries, Indian merchants brought large quantities of cinnamon to Somalia and Arabia from Ceylon and the Spice Islands.
The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said
Harry Francis Prevost Battersby most well known as H. F. P. Battersby was a poet, novelist journalist and psychical researcher, who published under the name Francis Prevost. Battersby was born in the son of a major-general, he graduated with distinction from the Royal Military College at Sandhurst and joined the Royal Irish Rifles before moving into journalism. He served as the Boer War correspondent for the Morning Post. In 1909, he married Frances Muriel Saunders, he saw active service again during the First World War. Melilot Fires of Greenwood Rust of Gold The Avenging Hour False Dawn In The Web of War The Plague of the Heart The Way of War Voice of Duty Tolstoi's Christ's Christianity and What to Do Psychic Certainties Man Outside Himself Prevost, Francis, in The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction Prevost, Francis, in The Stanford Companion to Victorian Fiction A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin, 1849–1910