Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway
The Duluth and Iron Range Railway, informally known as the Missabe Road, is a railroad operating in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin that hauls iron ore and taconite to the Great Lakes ports of Duluth and Two Harbors, Minnesota. Control of the railway was acquired on May 10, 2004, by the Canadian National Railway when it purchased the assets of Great Lakes Transportation; the DM&IR was formed by the merger in 1937 of the Duluth and Northern Railway and the Spirit Lake Transfer Railway. The following year, the Iron Range Rail Road and Interstate Transfer Railway were added. All of these had been leased by the DM&N since 1930; the D&IR was formed in 1874 by Charlemagne Tower to haul iron ore from the Minnesota Iron Co. in Tower, Minnesota, to the new Lake Superior port of Two Harbors, Minnesota. On July 31, 1884, the D&IR carried its first ore shipment from the Soudan Mine. In 1887, the D&IR was acquired by Illinois Steel Company, which itself became part of the new United States Steel Corporation in 1901.
After high-grade Mesabi iron ore was discovered near Mountain Iron, Minnesota by the Seven Iron Men, the D&IR was asked to build a branch line to serve this area, but declined. So in 1891, the Merritts incorporated the DM&N, which shipped its first load of iron ore to Superior, Wisconsin, in October 1892; the following year, the Merritts expanded the DM&N by laying track to Duluth, where they built an ore dock. But this expansion left the Merritts on shaky financial ground, in 1894, John D. Rockefeller gained control of the railway. In 1901, Rockefeller sold the DM&N to USS. From 1901 to 1938, the two railways were operated separately. Total ore hauled by the two railroads peaked in 1929 at 27.8 million tons and dropped to 1.5 million tons in 1932. By July 1938, the two railways merged to form the DM&IR; the two operating divisions, the Missabe and the Iron Range, were based upon the predecessor roads. As the United States began to prepare for the Second World War, the iron ore tonnage moving over the Missabe Road acclerated from a little over 8 million tons in 1938, past 18 million tons in 1939 to 28 million tons in 1940 and past 37 million tons in 1941.
The first eight of DM&IR's class M 2-8-8-4 Yellowstone locomotives were delivered by Baldwin Locomotive Works in spring 1941. As well as the Yellowstones, the DM&IR had heavy 2-8-8-2 articulated's, 2-8-2 Mikados, 2-10-2 Santa Fe's and 2-10-4 Texas types from B&LE. Ore movement was nearly 45 million tons in 1942 and the War Production Board allowed the Missabe to order ten more Yellowstones, delivered in 1943; the 2-8-8-4's were retired in the latter half of the'50s and the last remaining served until around 1960. After World War II, the DM&IR hauled increasing tonnage to the ore docks along Lake Superior, reaching a record of over 49 million tons in 1953; that year EMD SW9s, arrived on the railway. In 1954, a set of Baldwin DR-4-4-1500 "Sharknose" diesels arrived from the Elgin and Eastern, though they were returned to Baldwin Locomotive Works when the EJ&E contract expired in 1955. Dieselization continued with the purchase of several EMD SD9 road switchers the following year, while the last revenue steam run occurred in 1961.
Passenger service on the Missabe division ended in 1957 and ceased system-wide in 1961. As the supply of high-quality iron ore dwindled and pits were closing across Minnesota's iron ranges; the DM&IR's ore docks in Two Harbors closed in 1963 and did not reopen until 1966. The Missabe Road was saved by the passage on November 3, 1963, of the Taconite Amendment to the Minnesota State Constitution; the passage of the amendment accelerated the creation of the taconite mining industry in Northern Minnesota. The Eveleth Taconite Company was formed in 1964 and on April 8, 1966, the SS Edmund Fitzgerald took on the first load of Eveleth taconite pellets, about 23,000 tons; the taconite era on the Missabe had begun. In 1988, U. S. Steel, now USX, spun off the DM&IR and their other ore railroads and shipping companies into the subsidiary Transtar sold majority control to the Blackstone Group and USX. In 2001, the DM&IR and other holdings were spun off from Transtar into the company Great Lakes Transportation, owned by the Blackstone Group.
For the first time in more than 100 years DM&IR was no longer associated with U. S. Steel. In late 2003, the Blackstone Group agreed to sell GLT to Canadian National Railway and the purchase was completed on May 10, 2004. In December 2011, the Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Railway was merged into Wisconsin Central Ltd., controlled by Canadian National Railway. This merger was intended to increase efficiency. Frank Alexander King; the Missabe Road: The Duluth and Iron Range Railway. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4083-6. Missabe Railroad Historical Society DM&IR History www.missabe.com/cms/catalog/decals DULUTH, MISSABE, AND IRON RANGE RAILWAY: An Inventory of Its Records at the Minnesota Historical Society
Roman Catholic Diocese of Duluth
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Duluth is a Roman Catholic diocese in Minnesota. The episcopal see is in Minnesota; the diocese includes Aitkin, Cass, Crow Wing, Koochiching, Pine and St. Louis Counties; the diocese was established on October 3, 1889 by Pope Leo XIII. Its territory was taken from the Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Minnesota; the Diocese of Duluth filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on December 7, 2015. The list of bishops of the diocese and their terms of service: James McGolrick John Timothy McNicholas, O. P. Appointed Archbishop of Cincinnati Thomas Anthony Welch Francis Joseph Schenk Paul Francis Anderson Robert Henry Brom, appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of San Diego Roger Lawrence Schwietz, O. M. I. Appointed Coadjutor Archbishop and Archbishop of Anchorage Dennis Marion Schnurr, appointed Coadjutor Archbishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Paul Sirba Catholic Church by country Catholic Church in the United States Ecclesiastical Province of Saint Paul and Minneapolis Global organisation of the Catholic Church List of Roman Catholic archdioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses List of Roman Catholic dioceses List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States Roman Catholic Diocese of Duluth Official Site Duluth at Catholic Encyclopedia
USS Duluth (LPD-6)
USS Duluth, an Austin-class amphibious transport dock, is the second ship of the United States Navy named for the city in Minnesota. Duluth was laid down on 18 December 1963 by the New York Naval Shipyard, she was launched on 14 August 1965 and commissioned on 18 December 1965. She was the last ship to be launched from the Brooklyn Navy Yard; the ship left New York Naval Shipyard, Brooklyn, in April 1966 for the US Naval Shipyard Philadelphia for final fitting out and preparation for refresher training and transit to its Home Port of US Naval Station San Diego, California. On 15 June 1966, a Sikorsky H-34 from HC-4 made the first helicopter landing on board. Duluth arrived via the Panama Canal in San Diego in September 1966. In April 1967 ship sailed via Hawaii and Australia to join the Amphibious Ready Group, U. S. 7th Fleet in the Vietnam War. In 1967, from the months of May until November Duluth operated with Amphibious Ready Group, Seventh Fleet, in South China Sea. Conducted amphibious landing operations Bear Claw and Beacon Guide at Huế, Chu Lai, Cửa Việt Base and Phú Lộc.
Took part in Operations Beacon Gate at Song Cua Dai and Chu Lai and Beacon Point off Thừa Thiên Province. The LPD steamed off Quảng Nam and Quảng Tín Provinces during Operation Ballistic Charge. After refitting at U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay, Duluth participated in helicopter-centered Operation Bastion Hill near Cửa Việt. Following vehicle ferry operations from Subic early in the month, the LPD steamed to Hong Kong, arriving there 17 November. Underway for a WestPac cruise on 1 May 1970, Duluth loaded BLT 1st Battalion, 9th Marines at Okinawa for transfer to Subic Bay at the end of the month, she made several cargo lifts to Da Nang or to Yankee Station, delivering an H-3 helicopter to USS America, spare parts, carried YFU-52 back to Subic Bay before steaming to United States Fleet Activities Sasebo, for rest and recreation 3–15 July. Returning to Subic on 19 July, she spent the next three months conducting amphibious training and logistics operations from Subic to Da Nang and Vũng Tàu. In mid-October, Duluth embarked 140 Philippine marines for a joint exercise near Manila, but disaster recovery efforts in the wake of Typhoon Joan forced a cancellation of the operation.
Arriving in Lagoney Gulf on 22 October, Duluth operated as a fuel stop and ready deck ship for helicopters during three days of relief operations in a swath of devastated barrios and villages 80 by 20 miles wide and including the cities of Virac and Naga. Following another month of logistics support out of Subic Bay, Duluth steamed for home, reaching San Diego on 10 December. After a restricted availability to repair a damaged rotor blade in her port turbine, Duluth sailed for another WestPac deployment on 1 October 1971; the ship loaded elements of BLT 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines at Okinawa on 18 October before resuming Da Nang logistics support operations out of Subic Bay. The LPD delivered vehicles and humanitarian supplies to Da Nang and embarked deck cargo and damaged PTFs for return to Subic; the LPD remained there until through the winter, conducting the occasional amphibious exercise in the Philippines and transporting troops and supplies between Subic Bay and Buckner Bay. On 1 April, following the outbreak of the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive, Duluth sailed to a holding station off South Vietnam to await developments.
With the North Vietnamese offensive blunted by the end of the month, the LPD steamed to Subic Bay for rest and relaxation, 8–21 May. Returning to Vietnam, Duluth embarked 300 South Vietnamese marines at Tan My and landed them in Quảng Trị Province on the 24th, during which operation Duluth took desultory enemy fire from a shore battery; the LPD conducted a similar mission in early July, when Marine helicopters deployed South Vietnamese marines during Operation Lam-Son 72, before sailing for home on 14 July and arriving in San Diego on 4 August 1972. On 28 March 1975, Duluth got underway for a WestPac deployment via Pearl Harbor and Subic Bay. Arriving off Vũng Tàu on 21 April, Duluth participated in Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of Saigon, Vietnam. On 29 April, fourteen South Vietnamese and Air America helicopters landed delivering over 900 refugees to Duluth alone, including the Italian ambassador; the refugees were transferred to USNS Sgt. Truman Kimbro; the following day another 1,391 refugees arrived, forcing Duluth's crew to jettison three RVN helicopters over the side to make room for the arriving CH-53 helicopters.
The ship steamed to Subic Bay and disembarked the refugees on 5 May. Over the next four days, working parties of volunteers reported to Grande Island to assist and process refugees; the LPD was reassigned to the task force heading to Cambodia to participate in the rescue operation of the SS Mayaguez. Duluth was approaching her mission when the rescue operation was cancelled before the second wave could strike, they steamed back to Subic Bay to continue with assisting and processing of the South Vietnamese refugees. In March, Duluth participated as one of many amphibious ships in Operation Team Spirit'82; this was a joint training exercise between the U. S. Navy/U. S. Marine Corps and the forces of South Korea, her specific mission was to transport the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines from Okinawa to South Korea and back. There was an training evolution in support of a U. S. Marine Corps AV-8 Harrier unit; this involved refueling some of the jets on the flight deck. During the transit to South Korea, the Duluth was over flown by a Soviet TU-95 Bear while in international waters.
Under the command of Captain Peter F. Hedley USN, USS Duluth sailed on 12 November 1981 for a Westpac/Indian Oc
Duluth is the fourth studio release by Duluth, Minnesota group Trampled by Turtles. All songs written except for where noted. Dave Simonett – guitar, lead vocals, harmonica Tim Saxhaug – bass, backing vocals Dave Carroll – banjo, backing vocals Erik Berry – mandolin Ryan Young – fiddle, backing vocals
Lake Duluth was a proglacial lake that formed in the Lake Superior drainage basin as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated. The oldest existing shorelines were formed after retreat from the Greatlakean advance, sometime around 11,000 years B. P. Lake Duluth formed at the western end of the Lake Superior basin. Lake Duluth overflowed south through outlets in Minnesota and Wisconsin at an elevation of around 331 m above sea level; as the Superior lobe of the Laurentian Ice Sheet melted, water became trapped along the ice margin and formed several independent lakes. The modern water basins in which these lakes stood have been used for their names. Lake Nemadji occupied the headwaters of the Nemadji River, Lake Brule occupied part of the Brule River basin, Lake Ontonagon was in the Ontonagon River basin; these lakes are all west of the Keweenaw Peninsula. To the east, the ice melt drained into Green Bay or Lake Michigan through channels crossing the western part of the upper peninsula of Michigan. Lake Duluth extended a few miles farther east than the Keweenaw Peninsula, to the border of the Huron Mountains, east of Keweenaw Bay.
In the early part of the recession of the ice front Lake Duluth, with an outlet from the Brule River Valley through the St. Croix River Valley, was present in the western part of the Lake Superior Basin. A little the ice border retreated sufficiently to allow the small independent lakes to become a part of Lake Duluth or to be drained by the lowering of the water level, for in general the water level was lowered as these lakes merged with Lake Duluth One of the bordering lakes was present when the Superior ice lobe was at its full extent, it stood in the part of the St. Louis River drainage basin northwest of the border of the Superior lobe An outlet channel led west from the west end of the Lake Superior Basin to Moose Lake, where it joined the outlet of Lake St. Louis. There was a small lake in the Brule River basin south of the copper range, it has its outlet to the St. Croix Valley; this was. Lake Ashland occupied several townships in Wisconsin, it extended west in Bayfield County to the east slope of the Bayfield Peninsula.
Lake Ontonagon occupied much of the Ontonagon basin, south of the copper range. The ice border remained along the copper range for a long period during its existence; as the ice lobe retreated northwards, the independent lakes listed above joined together, forming a single lake at the level of the St. Croix Valley outlet, it is probable that several small glacial lakes. In succession, Lakes Nemadji and Ontonagon, merged at lower levels with that of Lake Brule. Lake Nemadji and Lake Ashland dropped less than 20 feet. Lake Ontonagon dropped nearly 200 feet, its area is now land. Several narrow bays of Lake Duluth, extended up each of the tributaries of Ontonagon River south of the copper range; the ice lobe retreated eastward in the Superior basin, taking a long period of time to leave the basin. During the process, the outlet continued to deepen and the beaches around the lake continued to drop. Thus, the higher beaches in the eastern portion of the basin are extension of middle and lower beaches in the western basin.
The eastern limits of Lake Duluth on the south shore have been found to be at the Huron Mountains, in Marquette County, Michigan. Once the ice receded to the east of the mountains, new outlets opened across the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, carrying the melt water into the Lake Michigan basin. Lake Duluth was lowered; the water level reached that of Lake Algonquin. The body of water occupied the western part of the Lake Superior basin as well as the basins of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron and the eastern part of the Lake Superior basin; the eastern limits of Lake Duluth on the north coast of Lake Superior have not been determined. It is known, that the lake extended at least to the Kaministiquia River basin west of Fort William, Ontario, it is probable that there was a protrusion of the ice into Keweenaw Bay at the time of greatest expansion of Lake Duluth, the east end of the Keweenaw Peninsula may have been beneath the ice down to the time the Lake Duluth waters were drained eastward. Glacial history of Minnesota list of prehistoric lakes Proglacial lakes of MinnesotaGlacial Lakes in the Lake Superior basin Lake Keweenaw Glacial Lake St. Louis Lake Duluth Lake Minong Lake Houghton Nipissing Great Lakes
Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove