Richard Coeur de Lion (statue)
Richard Coeur de Lion is a Grade II listed equestrian statue of the 12th-century English monarch Richard I known as Richard the Lionheart, who reigned from 1189–99. It stands on a granite pedestal in Old Palace Yard outside the Palace of Westminster in London, facing south towards the entrance to the House of Lords, it was created by Baron Carlo Marochetti, an Italian sculptor whose works were popular with European royalty and the nobility, though less well regarded by critics and the artistic establishment. The statue was first produced in clay and displayed at The Great Exhibition in 1851, where it was located outside the west entrance to the Crystal Palace, it was well received at the time and two years Queen Victoria and Prince Albert headed a list of illustrious subscribers to a fund that aimed to raise money for the casting of the statue in bronze. Although the money was duly raised and the bronze cast of the statue was completed in 1856, a lengthy dispute delayed its installation for several years.
The original idea had been to erect the statue as a memorial to the Great Exhibition. This prompted opposition, as did proposals to place it outside Charles Barry's newly completed Palace of Westminster. Various other locations to display the statue were considered before agreement was reached that it would be placed in Old Palace Yard, Marochetti's preferred location, it was installed in October 1860, though it was not until March 1867 that it was completed with the addition of bronze bas-reliefs on either side of the pedestal. The quality of the statue's workmanship caused problems during its first half-century, it narrowly escaped destruction during the Second World War when a German bomb dropped during the Blitz landed a few metres away and peppered it with shrapnel. The pedestal and the horse's tail were damaged and Richard's sword was bent by the blast. In 2009, the Parliamentary authorities undertook a project to restore the statue; the statue was created by Baron Carlo Marochetti and is located in Old Palace Yard outside the Palace of Westminster, opposite Westminster Abbey in London.
With its pedestal, it stands 9 metres high. The king is depicted wearing a crowned helmet and a chainmail shirt with a surcoat, lifting a sword into the air; the horse paws the ground. Marochetti described his work as being inspired by Richard I rather than depicting a 12th-century knight, it stands on a granite pedestal designed by Marochetti and made by Freeman & Co. of Penryn, Cornwall. Bas-relief panels showing Crusaders fighting the Saracens at the Battle of Ascalon and Richard on his deathbed pardoning Bertran de Born, the archer who fatally shot him in 1199, were added to the east and west sides of the pedestal in 1866–67; as the statue cannot be accessed by the general public – the area around it is used as the House of Lords car park – the west-side scene showing Richard and Bertran is the only one visible from the street. According to Marochetti, the two bas-reliefs were designed in the style of Lorenzo Ghiberti's doors at the Florence Baptistry. Bronze letters on the front of the pedestal bear the inscription RICHARD I CŒUR DE LION / 1189–1199.
The great majority of the art in and around the Houses of Parliament is of British origin, due to a policy of acquiring British art for the building. Marochetti's statue thus represents one of the few examples of a non-British artist's work being selected for the Parliamentary estate. Marochetti was born in Italy and was ennobled by the Kingdom of Sardinia but lived and worked in France, creating a number of prestigious works for the royalist French government in the 1830s, he made his name by creating equestrian statues. By the 1840s, his popularity in continental Europe was in decline; the French Revolution of 1848, which saw the final overthrow of the French monarchy, prompted him to resettle in London and seek new patrons among the British elite. Marochetti was not popular with the Victorian artistic establishment, it was true that he benefited from the patronage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. His courtly manners impressed Victoria on their first meeting in 1849, soon afterwards he became involved with the Prince Consort's plans for what became The Great Exhibition of 1851.
Several countries planned to display sculptures of romantic historical figures in their contributions to the exhibition. The genre was common in mainland Europe but rare in England at the time. Marochetti was aware that the Belgian sculptor Eugene Simonis intended to show his statue of Godfrey de Bouillon, the leader of the First Crusade, which King Leopold I of Belgium had commissioned; the two men had a number of connections. The Italian sculptor was motivated by a sense of competition with the Belgian in designing his Richard I. Marochetti's creation of the clay model of the statue involved not only the sculptor himself but the painter Victor Mottez, King Louis Philippe's personal physician Henri Gueneau de Mussy and the singers Mario and Garcia, all of whom contributed manual input. A clay model of the statue was displayed as one of two statu
Statue of Charles II, Royal Hospital Chelsea
The statue of Charles II stands in the Figure, or Middle, Court of the Royal Hospital, London. The sculptor was Grinling Gibbons, the statue was executed around 1680–1682; the king founded the Royal Hospital in 1682 as a home for retired army veterans. The statue is a Grade I listed structure. Charles II founded the Royal Hospital in 1682 to care for "those broken by age or war"; the inspiration was the Hotel des Invalides, in Paris, founded by his fellow monarch Louis XIV of France. The commission was given to Christopher Wren and construction continued from 1682 to 1691; the statue of Charles was commissioned by Tobias Rustat, a member of the king's court and was designed by Grinling Gibbons in about 1682. Gibbon's fee was £500; the statue stood elsewhere and was moved to the Royal Hospital after Charles's death in 1685. Annually, on 29 May, Oak Apple Day, the traditional day for the celebration of the Restoration in 1660, the statue is wreathed with oak leaves; the statue is of brass and was gilded in bronze.
It has been re-gilded subsequently to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002. It depicts the king in the attire of a Roman general, is 7.6ft high, stands on a marble plinth. The statue was designated a Grade I listed structure, the highest grading given to buildings and structures of "exceptional interest", in 1969. Cherry, Bridget. London 3: North West; the Buildings of England. New Haven, US, London, UK: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300096521. Darke, Jo; the Monument Guide to England and Wales: A National Portrait in Bronze and Stone. London: MacDonald and Co. OCLC 1008240876. Media related to Statue of Charles II, Royal Hospital Chelsea at Wikimedia Commons
Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross
The equestrian statue of Charles I at Charing Cross, London, is a work by the French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur cast in 1633. Its location at Charing Cross is on the former site of the most elaborate of the Eleanor crosses erected by Edward I, which had stood for three and a half centuries until 1647. Charing Cross is used to define the centre of London and a plaque by the statue indicates that road signage distances are measured from this point; the statue faces down Whitehall towards Charles I's place of execution at Banqueting House. The first Renaissance-style equestrian statue in England, it was commissioned by Charles's Lord High Treasurer Richard Weston for the garden of his country house in Roehampton, Surrey. Following the English Civil War the statue was sold to a metalsmith to be broken down, but he hid it until the Restoration, it was installed in its current, far more prominent location in the centre of London in 1675, the elaborately carved plinth dates from that time. The statue shows Charles I of England on horseback, with the king wearing a demi-suit of armour but without a helmet.
Across the chest is a scarf tied into a bow on the right shoulder. The king is holding a baton in his right hand, the reins of the horse in his left; the statue was commissioned by Weston in January 1630. The contract, in French with an English translation, is thought to have been drafted by the architect Balthazar Gerbier, building Putney Park, Weston's country house in Roehampton; the statue was to be finished in 18 months but its execution was delayed. After the Parliamentary victory in the English Civil War the statue was sold to a metalsmith in the Holborn area by the name of John Rivet. Rivet received instructions from Parliament to break down the statue, but instead he hid it on his premises, it is said he buried it, he produced some broken pieces of brass as evidence that he had followed his instructions, for some time sold brass-handled cutlery to both Royalists and Parliamentarians, which he claimed was made from the remains of the statue. After the Restoration, the statue was found by Jerome Weston, 2nd Earl of Portland and, following a complaint to the House of Lords, it was decreed "That the said John Rivett shall permit and suffer the Sheriff of London to serve a replevin upon the said Statue and Horse of Brass, that are now in his Custody."
It was purchased in 1675 was placed in its current location. The pedestal itself is made of Portland stone with a carved coat of arms. On 28 October 1844, during the visit of Queen Victoria to open the Royal Exchange, the sword and the badge of the Order of the Garter were stolen. During the Second World War the statue was removed by the Ministry of Works for protection, was stored at Mentmore Park, Leighton Buzzard. Before being returned to its plinth in Whitehall, the Ministry carried out some repairs on the statue, including adding a replacement sword and the badge of the Order of the Garter. Additionally, a bronze tablet was added to the base of the plinth, explaining the addition of the replacement items. In 1977, the plinth was cleaned for the first time in three centuries; the work was conducted by the Department of the Environment and the department of conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum. "As I was going by Charing Cross" BibliographyWard-Jackson, Philip. Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster: Volume 1.
Public Sculpture of Britain. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Media related to Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross at Wikimedia Commons
Statue of Edward VI (Cartwright)
The statue of Edward VI by Thomas Cartwright at St Thomas' Hospital, London is one of two statues of the king at the hospital. Both commemorate Edward's re-founding of the institution in 1551; the statue was designed by Nathaniel Hanwell and carved by Thomas Cartwright in 1682, during the rebuilding undertaken by Sir Robert Clayton when President of the hospital. The statue formed the centrepiece of a group of figures which adorned the gateway on Borough High Street, it was moved to its current location at the north entrance to the North Wing on Lambeth Palace Road in the 20th century. It was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1979. Edward VI was his third queen, Jane Seymour. Born on 12 October 1537, he succeed his father at the age of nine in 1547 but never attained his majority, dying aged 15 in 1553. During the Reformation St Thomas', as a religious foundation, was deprived of its revenues and estates and was closed in 1540. In 1551, Edward granted a charter for the hospital's refounding.
The origin of St Thomas' Hospital was the sick house attached to the Church of St Mary Overie in Southwark, founded in the 12th century. By the late 17th century, the hospital was in a dilapidated state and Sir Robert Clayton employed the architect, St Thomas' governor, Thomas Cartwright to undertake complete rebuilding; the new buildings, of red brick and in a classical style were completed just after Clayton's death, in 1709. Following the complete reconstruction of the hospital in 1872, on a site further up the River Thames at Lambeth, the statue was moved to the new site and has been repositioned subsequently; the statue was commissioned by Robert Clayton, designed by Nathaniel Hanwell and carved by Thomas Cartwright. It formed the centrepiece of a grouping that stood on the gateway to the hospital from Borough High Street; the king was flanked by carvings of two pairs of disabled figures, which are now located inside the North Wing of the hospital. The statue is of Purbeck limestone and the order for "effigies of King Edward the Sixth and fower cripples to be carved in stone" was placed on 11 November 1681.
Cartwright charged £190 for the work. The king is wearing a crown, he holds a sceptre in his right hand and the charter authorising the re-establishment of St Thomas' in his left. The statue stands on a modern plinth; the statue was listed as a Grade II* structure in 1979. Cherry, Bridget.
Christ the King
Christ the King is a title of Jesus in Christianity referring to the idea of the Kingdom of God where the Christ is described as seated at the Right Hand of God. The title "Christ the King" is frequently used as a name for churches, seminaries and religious institutes; the titles of "Christ" and "king" are not used together in the gospel, but "Christ" is in itself a royal title. In the Greek text, the Christ is explicitly identified as king several times, so in Matthew 2:2. In John 18, Pilate refers to the implication that the Christ is a royal title by inquiring explicitly if Jesus claims to be the "king of the Jews". In John 1:49, a follower addresses Jesus as "the king of Israel". Outside of the gospel, the First Epistle to Timothy explicitly applies the phrase of "king of kings and lord of lords", taken from the Pentateuch to Jesus Christ; the concept of Christ as king is not a new idea. Around 314 it was the subject of an address given by Eusebius. Depictions of the imperial Christ arise in the part of the fourth century.
Pope Pius XI's first encyclical was Ubi arcano Dei consilio of December 1922. Writing in the aftermath of World War I, Pius noted that while there had been a cessation of hostilities, there was no true peace, he deplored the rise of class divisions and unbridled nationalism, held that true peace can only be found under the Kingship of Christ as "Prince of Peace". "For Jesus Christ reigns over the minds of individuals by His teachings, in their hearts by His love, in each one's life by the living according to His law and the imitating of His example." Christ's kingship was addressed again in the encyclical Quas primas of Pope Pius XI, published in 1925. Michael D. Greaney called it "possibly one of the most misunderstood and ignored encyclicals of all time." The pontiff's encyclical quotes with approval Cyril of Alexandria, noting that Jesus's kingship was given to him by the Father, was not obtained by violence: "'Christ,' he says,'has dominion over all creatures, a dominion not seized by violence nor usurped, but his by essence and by nature.'"
He referenced Leo XIII's 1899 Annum sacrum wherein Leo relates the Kingship of Christ to devotion to his Sacred Heart. Pope Pius XI instituted the feast of Christ the King in 1925 to remind Christians that their allegiance was to their spiritual ruler in heaven as opposed to earthly supremacy. Pope Benedict XVI remarked that Christ's kingship is not based on "human power" but on loving and serving others; the hymn "To Jesus Christ Our Sovereign King", was written by Msgr. Martin B. Hellrigel in 1941 to the tune "Ich Glaub An Gott"; the Feast of Christ the King was instituted by Pius XI in 1925. In the General Roman Calendar of 1969, its observance in the Roman Rite was moved to the final Sunday of Ordinary Time, the last Sunday of the liturgical year, it is observed in the same position by most Anglicans and some Protestant denominations. Those Catholics who observe the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite with the General Roman Calendar of 1960, the Anglican Catholic Church celebrate it instead on the last Sunday of October, the Sunday before All Saints' Day, the day, assigned in 1925.
Many religious facilities are named in honor of Christ the King: Christ the King Cathedral, India Basilica of Christ the King, Reykjavík, Iceland Christ the King Cathedral, Mullingar - First cathedral in the world to be dedicated under that title The Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King, Liverpool Christ the King Cathedral, Ontario, Canada Cathedral of Christ the King, Georgia Cathedral of Christ the King Cathedral of Christ the King Christ the King Cathedral, Tagum Davao del Norte, Philippines Christus Koningkerk, parish church built for the 1930 World's Fair, Belgium Rīgas Kristus Karaļa draudzes baznīca Riga, Latvia Shrine of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, Illinois Christ the King Church, Sector 19, India Christ the King church, Chennai, India. Christ the King Church, Mymensingh, Bangladesh Christ the King Anglican Church, Libya Christ the King Catholic Church, East London, South Africa Christ the King Catholic Church, Silver Spring, Maryland Christ the King Reformed Episcopal Church, Maryland the Church of Christ the King, London, England Christ the King Presbyterian Church, Texas Christ the King Episcopal Church, Stone Ridge, New York Christ the King Church, Mulavana,Kollam, India Christ the King Baptist Church, Georgia Christ the King Parish, Massachusetts Christ the King Catholic Mission, North Carolina Christ the King Seminary, Diocese of Buffalo, East Aurora, New York Christ the King Roman Catholic Church and School, Colorado Christ the King Catholic School and Church, North Rocks, Australia Christ the King Catholic Church and School, Manitoba, Canada Christ the King Catholic Church and School, Little Rock, Arkansas Christ the King Catholic Church and School, Pleasant Hill, California Christ the King Chapel, St. Ambrose University, Iowa Christus Rex Lutheran Campus Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota Christ the King Catholic High School, Southport, UK Christ the King High School, St. John's, Antigua Christ the King Catholic Secondary School, England Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, A
W. D. Caröe
William Douglas Caröe was a British architect of churches. Caröe was born on 1 September 1857 in Holmsdale, Blundellsands near Liverpool, the youngest son of the Danish Consul in Liverpool, Anders Kruuse Caröe and Jane Kirkpatrick Green, he was educated at Ruabon Grammar School in Denbighshire, Wales before Trinity College, Cambridge, as a senior optime, in the mathematical tripos of 1879 and graduated with a BA in the same year. Caröe was articled to John Loughborough Pearson and wrote the article on Pearson in the Encyclopædia Britannica, he married Grace Desborough, with whom he had a daughter. The couple's elder son was Olaf Kirkpatric Kruuse Caröe. William Douglas Caröe was a major figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement and described as a “Master of spatial painting”; the firm he founded, Caroe & Partners, still specialises in ecclesiastical architecture the restoration of historic churches. Caröe was architect to numerous ecclesiastical buildings including St David's and Durham Cathedrals, Tewkesbury and Romsey Abbeys.
Although Caröe made his name in church architecture, he was the architect for the Main Building of Cardiff University, inspired by his alma mater Trinity College. Caröe designed additions to Vann in Hambledon, Surrey; the house was featured in the TV series The Curious House Guest in 2006. No. 1 Millbank, was built for the Church Commissioners in 1903. Jennifer M. Freeman W. D. Caroe: His Architectural Achievement ISBN 0-7190-2449-8 Caroe & Partners Entry in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London
The statue of Charlie Chaplin in Leicester Square, London, is a work of 1979 by the sculptor John Doubleday. It portrays the actor and filmmaker in his best-known role, as The Tramp. A memorial to Chaplin in the city of his birth was proposed on 25 December 1977, soon after Chaplin's death, by Illtyd Harrington, the leader of the opposition in the Greater London Council. Initial plans for a memorial in the Elephant and Castle, in South London where Chaplin spent his early years, were dropped and instead Leicester Square, at the centre of London's entertainment district, became the preferred location for the work; the bronze statue was first unveiled on 16 April 1981 at its original site, on the south-western corner of the square, by the actor Sir Ralph Richardson. An inscription on the plinth read THE COMIC GENIUS/ WHO GAVE PLEASURE/ TO SO MANY; the following year a modified version was erected in the Swiss town of Vevey, Chaplin's home from 1952 until his death. Following a refurbishment of Leicester Square in 1989–1992, the statue was moved to a site north of the statue of William Shakespeare, the square's centrepiece.
In a refurbishment of 2010–2012 Chaplin's statue was removed altogether, together with busts of William Hogarth, John Hunter, Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The statue was installed in a nearby street, Leicester Place, in 2013; this was. In 2016 it was re-unveiled on Chaplin's birthday. Media related to Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London at Wikimedia Commons