World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)
Big Brother is a fictional character and symbol in George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. He is ostensibly the leader of Oceania, a totalitarian state wherein the ruling party Ingsoc wields total power "for its own sake" over the inhabitants. In the society that Orwell describes, every citizen is under constant surveillance by the authorities by telescreens; the people are reminded of this by the slogan "Big Brother is watching you": a maxim, ubiquitously on display. In modern culture, the term "Big Brother" has entered the lexicon as a synonym for abuse of government power in respect to civil liberties specifically related to mass surveillance. In the essay section of his novel 1984, Anthony Burgess states that Orwell got the idea for the name of Big Brother from advertising billboards for educational correspondence courses from a company called Bennett's during World War II; the original posters showed J. M. Bennett himself, a kindly-looking old man offering guidance and support to would-be students with the phrase "Let me be your father."
According to Burgess, after Bennett's death, his son took over the company and the posters were replaced with pictures of the son with the text "Let me be your big brother". Additional speculation from Douglas Kellner of the University of California, Los Angeles argued that Big Brother represents Joseph Stalin. Another theory is that the inspiration for Big Brother was Brendan Bracken, the Minister of Information until 1945. Orwell worked under Bracken on the BBC's Indian Service. Bracken was customarily referred to by his employees by his initials, B. B. the same initials as the character Big Brother. Orwell resented the wartime censorship and need to manipulate information which he felt came from the highest levels of the Minister of Information and from Bracken's office in particular. In the novel, it is never made clear whether Big Brother is or had been a real person, or is a fictional personification of the Party, similar to Britannia and Uncle Sam. Big Brother is described as appearing on telescreens as a man in his mid-40s.
In Party propaganda, Big Brother is presented as one of the founders of the Party, along with Goldstein. At one point, Winston Smith, the protagonist of Orwell's novel, tries "to remember in what year he had first heard mention of Big Brother, he thought it must have been at some time in the sixties. In the Party histories, Big Brother figured as the leader and guardian of the Revolution since its earliest days, his exploits had been pushed backwards in time until they extended into the fabulous world of the forties and the thirties, when the capitalists in their strange cylindrical hats still rode through the streets of London". In the book The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, read by Winston Smith and purportedly written by Goldstein, Big Brother is referred to as infallible and all-powerful. No one has seen him and there is a reasonable certainty that he will never die, he is "the guise in which the Party chooses to exhibit itself to the world" since the emotions of love and reverence are more focused on an individual than an organisation.
When Winston Smith is arrested, O'Brien repeats that Big Brother will never die. When Smith asks if Big Brother exists, O'Brien describes him as "the embodiment of the Party" and says that he will exist as long as the Party exists; when Winston asks "Does Big Brother exist the same way I do?", O'Brien replies "You do not exist". A spontaneous ritual of devotion to Big Brother is illustrated at the end of the "Two Minutes Hate": At this moment the entire group of people broke into a deep, rhythmic chant of'B-B!... B-B!... B-B!'—over and over again slowly, with a long pause between the first'B' and the second—a heavy murmurous sound, somehow curiously savage, in the background of which one seemed to hear the stamps of naked feet and the throbbing of tom-toms. For as much as thirty seconds they kept it up, it was a refrain, heard in moments of overwhelming emotion. It was a sort of hymn to the wisdom and majesty of Big Brother, but still more it was an act of self-hypnosis, a deliberate drowning of consciousness by means of rhythmic noise.
Though Oceania's Ministry of Truth, Ministry of Plenty and Ministry of Peace each have names with meanings deliberately opposite to their real purpose, the Ministry of Love is the most straightforward as "rehabilitated thought criminals" leave the Ministry as loyal subjects who have been brainwashed into adoring Big Brother, hence its name. Like the Nazi salute, Ingsoc has its own salute to Big Brother, which consists of crossing one's arms above the head during Two Minutes Hates and Hate weeks, showing loyalty to Big Brother and the Party. Note that it is only mentioned and shown in the movie adaptation of the novel. Since the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four, the phrase "Big Brother" has come into common use to describe any prying or overly-controlling authority figure and attempts by government to increase surveillance. Big Brother and other Orwellian imagery are referenced in the joke known as the Russian reversal; the magazine Book ranked Big Brother No. 59 on its 100 Best Characters in Fiction Since 1900 list.
Wizard magazine rated him the 75th greatest villain of all time. The worldwide reality television show Big Brother is based on the novel's concept of people being under constant surveillance. In 2000
Weather radar called weather surveillance radar and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, estimate its type. Modern weather radars are pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation. Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of storms and their potential to cause severe weather. During World War II, radar operators discovered that weather was causing echoes on their screen, masking potential enemy targets. Techniques were developed to filter them. Soon after the war, surplus radars were used to detect precipitation. Since weather radar has evolved on its own and is now used by national weather services, research departments in universities, in television stations' weather departments. Raw images are used and specialized software can take radar data to make short term forecasts of future positions and intensities of rain, snow and other weather phenomena.
Radar output is incorporated into numerical weather prediction models to improve analyses and forecasts. During World War II, military radar operators noticed noise in returned echoes due to rain and sleet. After the war, military scientists returned to civilian life or continued in the Armed Forces and pursued their work in developing a use for those echoes. In the United States, David Atlas at first working for the Air Force and for MIT, developed the first operational weather radars. In Canada, J. S. Marshall and R. H. Douglas formed the "Stormy Weather Group" in Montreal. Marshall and his doctoral student Walter Palmer are well known for their work on the drop size distribution in mid-latitude rain that led to understanding of the Z-R relation, which correlates a given radar reflectivity with the rate at which rainwater is falling. In the United Kingdom, research continued to study the radar echo patterns and weather elements such as stratiform rain and convective clouds, experiments were done to evaluate the potential of different wavelengths from 1 to 10 centimeters.
By 1950 the UK company EKCO was demonstrating its airborne'cloud and collision warning search radar equipment'. In 1953 Donald Staggs, an electrical engineer working for the Illinois State Water Survey, made the first recorded radar observation of a "hook echo" associated with a tornadic thunderstorm. Between 1950 and 1980, reflectivity radars, which measure position and intensity of precipitation, were incorporated by weather services around the world; the early meteorologists had to watch a cathode ray tube. During the 1970s, radars began to be organized into networks; the first devices to capture radar images were developed. The number of scanned angles was increased to get a three-dimensional view of the precipitation, so that horizontal cross-sections and vertical cross-sections could be performed. Studies of the organization of thunderstorms were possible for the Alberta Hail Project in Canada and National Severe Storms Laboratory in the US in particular; the NSSL, created in 1964, began experimentation on dual polarization signals and on Doppler effect uses.
In May 1973, a tornado devastated Union City, just west of Oklahoma City. For the first time, a Dopplerized 10 cm wavelength radar from NSSL documented the entire life cycle of the tornado; the researchers discovered a mesoscale rotation in the cloud aloft before the tornado touched the ground – the tornadic vortex signature. NSSL's research helped convince the National Weather Service that Doppler radar was a crucial forecasting tool; the Super Outbreak of tornadoes on 3–4 April 1974 and their devastating destruction might have helped to get funding for further developments. Between 1980 and 2000, weather radar networks became the norm in North America, Europe and other developed countries. Conventional radars were replaced by Doppler radars, which in addition to position and intensity could track the relative velocity of the particles in the air. In the United States, the construction of a network consisting of 10 cm radars, called NEXRAD or WSR-88D, was started in 1988 following NSSL's research.
In Canada, Environment Canada constructed the King City station, with a 5 cm research Doppler radar, by 1985. This led to a complete Canadian Doppler network between 1998 and 2004. France and other European countries had switched to Doppler networks by the early 2000s. Meanwhile, rapid advances in computer technology led to algorithms to detect signs of severe weather, many applications for media outlets and researchers. After 2000, research on dual polarization technology moved into operational use, increasing the amount of information available on precipitation type. "Dual polarization" means that microwave radiation, polarized both horizontally and vertically is emitted. Wide-scale deployment was done by the end of the decade or the beginning of the next in some countries such as the United States and Canada. In April 2013, all United States National Weather Service NEXRADs were dual-polarized. Since 2003, the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been experimenting with phased-array radar as a replacement for conventional parabolic antenna to provide more time resolution in atmospheric sounding.
This could be significant with severe thunderstorms, as their evolution can be better evaluated with more timely data. In 2003, the National Science Foundation established the Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere
Sir Russell John Dumas KBE, CMG was a public servant and engineer who led several large works projects in Western Australia. Dumas was born in Mount Barker, South Australia second of five children of Charles M. R. Dumas, who founded the Mount Barker Courier newspaper. Dumas attended Prince Alfred College and completed a Bachelor of Engineering at the University of Adelaide. Dumas started work as a draughtsman in the Engineer-in-Chief's Department in 1910 became a drainage-works designer at Naracoorte. Dumas enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in 1916, served on the Western Front in France from 1917–1918, he was wounded twice. Dumas returned to his job at Naracoorte, was promoted to resident engineer in 1923. In 1925, Dumas and his family moved to Western Australia where he joined the Metropolitan Water Supply and Drainage Department. There he directed the construction of the Churchman Brook Dam, Drakesbrook/Waroona and Wellington dams. In 1932, he was chair of the Institution of Engineers' Perth division.
In 1934, Dumas became chief engineer at the Metropolitan Water Supply and Drainage Department and led the design and construction of the Canning, Samson Brook and Stirling dams. At 45 metres tall, Stirling Dam was Australia's highest earthen dam. Dumas became the head of engineering at the Public Works Department in 1941, he proposed a water supply scheme for the Wheatbelt region that involved raising Mundaring Weir and Wellington Dam. Dumas obtained funding for the project, he was involved in the Ord River Scheme from early on. Dumas was responsible for extensive land development in the district governed by the Albany Zone Development Committee, negotiated the establishment of an oil refinery, steel rolling mill and cement works at Kwinana. In 1952 he reached normal retirement age, but as the Kwinana development was still being completed, the Government employed Dumas with additional power and status to oversee the completion of the project. Dumas retired in December 1953. After retirement, Dumas joined the Weld Club, became director of several companies and was an advisor to Sir Charles Court.
In the 1960s, Dumas took part in the campaign to save The Barracks Arch, the former home of the Public Works Department, from demolition. Dumas died on 10 August 1975 in Western Australia. Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George, 1950. Knight Bachelor, 1959. Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1964. Honorary Member of the Institution of Engineers, Australia, 1966; the Russell Dumas Medal is awarded to the top engineering student each year at the University of Western Australia. Dumas House, a State government office building, is named in his honour. A bronze plaque with Dumas's name was laid in the footpath of St Georges Terrace, Perth as part of the WAY 1979 celebrations to commemorate 150 notable figures in Western Australia's history. French Australian Dumas, R. J. Sir, The industrial potential of the Perth Metropolitan Region, retrieved 12 May 2017 Dumas, R. J. Sir, Russell Dumas papers, 1916-1956, retrieved 12 May 2017CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Sir David Brand KCMG was an Australian politician. A member of the Liberal Party, he was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia from 1945 to 1975, the 19th and longest-serving Premier of Western Australia, serving four terms from the 1959 to the 1971 elections, he resigned as leader of the Liberal Party in 1973, retired from politics in 1975, dying from heart disease in 1979. Brand was born in Dongara, Western Australia, the eldest of four children of Albert John Brand, a farmer, his wife Hilda, née Mitchell, his maternal grandfather was Samuel Mitchell, a Cornish immigrant, a pioneer of the mining industry in Western Australia and served in both houses of state parliament. Brand's parents farmed at Northampton and moved to a farm near Mullewa in 1924, he left school at 14 to work on the farm, at Mullewa became secretary of the local branch of the Primary Producers' Association, a forerunner of the Farmers Federation. In 1935, Brand moved to Kalgoorlie and worked at the Golden Horseshoe Mine, as a truck driver, treatment hand, filter specialist and shift boss.
In his spare time, he was active as a scoutmaster. Brand was of Cornish descent, like both his predecessor, Albert Hawke, successor, John Tonkin, as premier. Following the outbreak of World War II, Brand enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 23 November 1939; as a Private, he was assigned to the 2/11th Battalion, part of the 6th Division, which embarked for the Middle East on 20 April 1940. Brand fought in the North African campaign, including the advance on Benghazi, was promoted to Corporal before the 2/11th was sent to the Greek campaign, in which he was wounded on 24 April 1941. Brand was sent back to Australia for further treatment, arriving in August, was discharged as medically unfit in April 1942, he was re-mobilised in September, as an instructor with the 7th Battalion, Volunteer Defence Corps, in Geraldton and was promoted to Warrant Officer in January 1943. With the war effort beginning to wind down, Brand was discharged from the army in January 1945. Brand married Doris Elspeth McNeill at Mingenew Methodist Church on 20 March 1944, with whom he had three children.
After his army discharge, Brand took over the general store at Dongara. The incumbent Labor member for the State seat of Greenough, John Newton, was killed in action with the RAAF in 1945. Brand won the seat for the Liberal Party in a by-election that year, defeating Newton's brother by a narrow margin. Brand was the first person in Australia to win election to an Australian parliament as a candidate of the newly formed Liberal Party. In October 1949, Ross McLarty became Premier and Brand entered the Ministry as Minister for Housing and Local Government. From April 1950 he was Minister for Works, Water Supply and Housing, working to establish the Kwinana Oil Refinery. Brand would describe this as one of his greatest achievements, he was involved in the creation of other major industrial projects. After the Coalition's defeat in 1953, Brand became deputy leader of the Opposition. After McLarty's retirement, Brand was elected party leader on 1 March 1957; the Coalition was returned to power in 1959, Brand was sworn in as Premier on 2 April.
His administration retained office at the elections of 1962, 1965, 1968. This was achieved with the assistance of the West Australian branch of the Democratic Labor Party which split the Labor vote in some metropolitan electorates; the DLP was active in Western Australia between 1959 and 1974. In 1960, the Federal government lifted its embargo on iron exports, in place since 1938, enabling exploitation of large iron deposits in the Pilbara; the mining of large bauxite deposits in the Darling Scarp commenced, along with expansion of mineral processing at Kwinana and the South West. Federal finance for the Ord River Scheme was secured by Brand's government. Substantial oil and gas deposits were discovered in the Pilbara. In 1968, Western Australia ceased to be a net recipient of federal financial assistance. Brand was knighted in June of the following year; the mining-pastoral boom of the 1960s played a big part in ensuring for Brand's government four successive electoral victories over the ALP opposition.
However, the rapid growth of the Perth metropolitan area, the strain this put on essential services, eroded the government's popularity after 1969. In addition, Brand's relations with the federal Liberal Party worsened after the retirement of Sir Robert Menzies in 1966. While Brand's administration suffered from a series of controversies relating to environmental, heritage and housing issues, the impact of production quotas for wheat, imposed by Prime Minister Sir John Gorton led to open conflict with the federal Liberal Party. In the midst of this conflict the Brand government's attempt to demolish the remains of the Colonial Barracks opposite the parliament building led to a parliamentary revolt within the Liberal Party. Brand prevented this by dropping the proposal, agreeing to allow the National Trust to restore the Arch. However, the strains this had caused within the government became evident when Brand collapsed while speaking publicly in 1971, he recovered, but the Coalition lost the election to Labor by one seat, Tonkin became Premier.
Brand led the Liberals in opposition until his resignation in 1973. He died of heart disease in Carnamah, Western Australia in 1979; the federal electoral Division of Brand in Western Australia, created in 1984, is named after him, as is the Brand Highway and the Sir David Brand School in Coolbini
Government of Western Australia
The Government of Western Australia, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government of Western Australia, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Western Australia. It is commonly referred to as the WA Government or the Western Australian Government; the Government of Western Australia, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1890 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Western Australia has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Western Australia ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Western Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Western Australia, which consists of The Queen, represented by the Governor of Western Australia, the two Houses, the Western Australian Legislative Council and the Western Australian Legislative Assembly.
Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers. The Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of Western Australia and the Cabinet; the Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Western Australia and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. Ministries as at 17 March 2017: The following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of Western Australia; the government cabinet and ministers are listed, while the shadow minister are listed against their opposing portfolio, to the best possible match.
All ministers and shadow ministers are members of the Parliament of Western Australia. List of Western Australian government agencies Government of Western Australia website Constitution ACT 1889 The Parliament of Western Australia website The Premier of Western Australia website