Mdantsane is a South African urban township situated 15 km away from East London and 37 km away from King William's Town in the Eastern Cape province. The name Mdantsane was derived from a stream that ran from the Nahoon River down to the Buffalo River; some believe. Soon after the stream was named, a “white farm”, at the entrance of Mdantsane was named after the stream Dontsane or Umdanzani; the township is part of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The Mdantsane township is a second largest urban settlement in South Africa, by population, it is host to some of the best High Schools that produced some of the famous politicians today such Nosiviwe Mapisa Nqakula Dali Mpofu Mandla Makhuphula and Ntombazana Gertrude Botha. Mdantsane is known as home of boxing with boxing legends such as Happy-Boy Mgxaji Mzimasi MnguniWelcome Ncita and the late light weigh WBC champion Luxolo Galada and promoters such as Siphato Handi In the 1940s, living quarters for black East London workers were hard to find.
The implementation of the Group Areas Act of 1950 further entrenched racial segregation in East London. Unhygienic conditions and riots became matters of concern in Duncan Village, a township, created for the African population in the 1940s; the apartheid government recommended that Amalinde, a white suburb not far from Mdantsane, should be zoned as a black area in 1957. However, the white residents of Amalinde, who wanted the area to be retained as a white zone opposed this recommendation. In same year, the East London municipality received an instruction from the apartheid South African government to submit an application for a new township for its African residents. On February 20, the Minister of the Department of Bantu Administration and Development announced that the entire African population of East London was to be moved to a new site called Mdantsane, within the boundaries of the Xhosa native reserve under the administration of the Ciskei Territorial Authority, set up in 1961; the first houses were built in late 1963 with removals planned for 1964.
However and resettlement began in 1963. Mdantsane was formally established in 1963 on a farm called “ Umdanzani” and the first 300 residents occupied the new houses; the original inhabitants were people who were forcibly removed from what was known as East Bank in East London. In 1964 112 000 people from Duncan Village were forcibly moved to the outskirts of Mdantsane township. Mdantsane was recognised as a homeland town under the bantustan of Ciskei in 1966. Ciskei became self-governing in 1972 and granted nominal independence on 4 December 1981, with Mdantsane becoming one of the homeland's largest townships. To encourage black residents of Duncan Village and East London to relocate to Mdantsane, the apartheid government adopted a number of strategies; the first was to introduce the Regional Decentralisation Programme in the 1960s which saw the establishment of clothing, food and building accessory factories on the border of East London in Wilsonia and at Fort Jackson in Mdantsane. These industries provided employment opportunities to the Mdantsane residents.
To keep these industries operational, the government offered generous industrial subsidies and incentives. By the end of the 1980s, about 30,000 and 7,500 jobs were available in Wilsonia and Fort Jackson. However, low wages, the rise of trade unions and lack of funding in the early 1990s led to the collapse of these factories. To further create the illusion of Mdantsane as an ideal township for blacks, apartheid government added social services and facilities such as Rubusana Training College,and the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, subsidised road and rail transport. On 13 July 1983, the Ciskei Transport Corporation introduced an 11% bus fare increase on the route between East London and Mdantsane. To discuss the issue of the bus fare increment, a meeting with 1000 people was held in a church hall in Duncan Village on 10 July 1983. A committee of ten workers known as the "Committee of Ten" was elected to represent the community's interests to the CTC; the Committee of Ten tried to meet CTC management on Monday 11 July.
The CTC refused on the grounds that they had talked to community leaders two months before the increases were announced. A second mass meeting was held on 12 July in Duncan Village. About 3000 people attended; the CTC responses were rejected and a decision was taken to boycott the CTC buses. On 18 July, the bus boycott began; the commuters walked to work in large groups, from Mdantsane across the Ciskei border to East London, a distance of about twenty kilometres. On its second day, the boycott attracted over 80% of the bus commuters; the number of police soon increased as reinforcements were brought in, they became more brutal. To avoid harassment from the police, the commuters began to use the trains; the railway, which formed Ciskei's border with the rest of South Africa, was run by the South African Transport Services and located on the outskirts of Mdantsane. The train fares were marginally lower than the bus fares and provided a space for commuters to discuss issues affecting the community.
The train fares increased on 1 August 1983 but the commuters continued to use trains.<Security forces from the Ciskei government set up roadblocks in Mdantsane, there were reports of commuters being hauled out of taxis and ordered onto buses. On 22 July 1983, five people were shot and wounded by Ciskei security forces at the Fort Jackson railway station. On 30 July, a man was killed by vigilantes while walking near the Mdantsane stadium. On 3 August, a state of emergency
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki is a South African politician who served as the second post-Apartheid President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008. On 20 September 2008, with about nine months left in his second term, Mbeki announced his resignation after being recalled by the National Executive Committee of the ANC, following a conclusion by judge C. R. Nicholson of improper interference in the National Prosecuting Authority, including the prosecution of Jacob Zuma for corruption. On 12 January 2009, the Supreme Court of Appeal unanimously overturned judge Nicholson's judgment but the resignation stood. During his tenure in office, the South African economy grew at an average rate of 4.5% per year, creating employment in the middle sectors of the economy. The Black middle-class was expanded with the implementation of Black Economic Empowerment; this growth exacerbated the demand for trained professionals strained by emigration due to violent crime, but failed to address unemployment amongst the unskilled bulk of the population.
He attracted the bulk of Africa's Foreign Direct Investment and made South Africa the focal point of African growth. He was the architect of NEPAD whose aim is to develop an integrated socio-economic development framework for Africa, he oversaw the successful building of economic bridges to BRIC nations with the eventual formation of the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum to "further political consultation and co-ordination as well as strengthening sectoral co-operation, economic relations". Mbeki mediated in issues on the African continent including: Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, some important peace agreements. Mbeki oversaw the transition from the Organisation of African Unity to the African Union, his "quiet diplomacy" in Zimbabwe, however, is blamed for protracting the survival of Robert Mugabe's regime at the cost of thousands of lives and intense economic pressure on Zimbabwe's neighbours. He became a vocal leader of the Non-Aligned Movement in the United Nations, while leveraging South Africa's seat on the Security Council, he agitated for reform of that body.
Mbeki has received worldwide criticism for his stance on AIDS. He questions the link between HIV and AIDS, believes that the correlation between poverty and the AIDS rate in Africa was a challenge to the viral theory of AIDS, his fate was not helped by Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang and the overhaul of the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa. His ban of antiretroviral drugs in public hospitals is estimated to be responsible for the premature deaths of between 330,000 and 365,000 people. Mbeki has been criticised for responding to negative comments made about his government by accusing critics of racism. Born and raised in Mbewuleni, Cape Province, Union of South Africa, Mbeki is one of four children of Epainette and Govan Mbeki; the economist Moeletsi Mbeki is one of his brothers. His father was a stalwart of the South African Communist Party, he is a native Xhosa speaker and his father Govan named him Thabo after his old close friend Thabo Mofutsanyana. His parents were both teachers and activists in a rural area of strength to the African National Congress, Mbeki describes himself as "born into the struggle".
Mbeki attended primary school in Idutywa and Butterworth and acquired a secondary education at Lovedale, Alice. In 1959, he was expelled from school as a result of student strikes and forced to continue his studies at home. In the same year, he sat for matriculation examinations at Umtata. In the ensuing years, he completed A-level examinations in Johannesburg. During this time, the ANC was outlawed and Mbeki was involved in underground activities in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand area, he was involved in mobilising students in support of the ANC call for a stay at home to be held in protest of South Africa becoming a republic. In December 1961, Mbeki was elected secretary of the African Students' Association. In the following year, he left South Africa on instructions of the ANC. Govan Mbeki had come to the rural Eastern Cape as a political activist after earning two university degrees. Mbeki, aged 16, had a child with Olive Mpahlwa named Monwabise Kwanda. Monwabise Kwanda disappeared in 1981 with Thabo's youngest brother Jama.
On 23 November 1974, Mbeki married Zanele at Farnham Castle in the United Kingdom. They have no children. After the banning of the ANC, the organisation decided it would be better for Mbeki to go into exile. In 1962, Mbeki and a group of comrades left South Africa disguised as a football team, they travelled in a minibus to Botswana and flew from there to Tanzania, where Mbeki accompanied Kenneth Kaunda, who became Zambia's post-independence president, to London. Mbeki stayed with Oliver Tambo, who would be elected the longest serving president of the ANC in the absence of the jailed Rivonia trialists. Mbeki worked part-time with Tambo and Yusuf Dadoo while studying economics at Sussex University in the coastal town of Brighton. At one stage, Mbeki shared a flat with Mike Yates and Derek Gunby. Together the trio would become firm friends and frequent a local bar wh
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Port Elizabeth or The Bay is one of the major cities in South Africa. The city shortened to PE and nicknamed "The Windy City", stretches for 16 km along Algoa Bay, is one of the major seaports in South Africa. Port Elizabeth is the southernmost large city on the African continent, just farther south than Cape Town. Port Elizabeth was founded as a town in 1820 to house British settlers as a way of strengthening the border region between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa, it now forms part of the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, which has a population of over 1.3 million. Hunters and gatherers ancestral to the San first settled the area around what is now called Algoa Bay at least 10,000 years ago. Around 2,000 years ago, they were displaced or assimilated by agriculturalist populations ancestral to the Xhosa people, who migrated into the region from the north; the first Europeans to visit the area sailed with the Portuguese explorers Bartholomeu Dias, who landed on St Croix Island in Algoa Bay in 1488, Vasco da Gama, who noted the nearby Bird Island in 1497.
For centuries, the area appeared on European navigation charts marked as "a landing place with fresh water". The Portuguese Crown had as one of its main goals in the Indian Ocean taking over the lucrative trade of Arab and Afro-Arabian merchants who plied routes between the East African coast and India; as they took over that trade, the Portuguese strengthened trading with Goa, their main trading point in India. The name Algoa means "to Goa", just as the port further north in present-day Mozambique, Delagoa means "from Goa" in Portuguese; the area became part of the Cape Colony. This area had a turbulent history between the settlement by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. In 1799, at the time of the first British occupation of the Colony during the Napoleonic Wars, British troops built a stone fort named Fort Frederick after the Duke of York; this fort, aiming to deter a possible landing of French troops, overlooked the site of what became Port Elizabeth.
The fort is now preserved as a monument. From 1814 to 1821 the Strandfontein farm, which became the Summerstrand beach suburb of Port Elizabeth, was owned by Piet Retief, he became a Voortrekker leader and was killed in 1837 by Zulu king Dingane during negotiations about land. An estimated 500 men and children of his party were massacred. Frederik Korsten owned the Strandfontein farm after Retief; the suburb of Korsten was named after Frederick since the 19th Century. In 1820 a party of 4,000 British settlers arrived by sea, encouraged by the government of the Cape Colony to form a settlement to strengthen the border region between the Cape Colony and the Xhosa people. At this time the seaport town was founded by Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, the Acting Governor of the Cape Colony, who named it "Port Elizabeth" after his late wife, Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Port Elizabeth in the early 1830s. Roberts noted that Port Elizabeth in the 1820s had "contained four houses, now it has upward of one hundred houses, its residents are rated at above twelve hundred persons".
The Roman Catholic Church established the Apostolic Vicariate of Cape of Good Hope, Eastern District in the city in 1847, in 1861 Port Elizabeth was granted the status of autonomous municipality. The population increased after 1873 when the railway to Kimberley was built. Cape Colony Prime Minister John Molteno had formed the Cape Government Railways in 1872, the massive expansion of the Cape Colony's railway network over the following years saw the harbour of Port Elizabeth servicing a large area of the Cape's hinterland; the rapid economic development around the port, which followed the railway construction, caused Port Elizabeth to get the nickname "the Liverpool of South Africa". The town expanded as a diverse community comprising Xhosa as well as European, Cape Malay and other immigrants. During the Second Boer War of 1899-1902 the port served as an important transit-point for British soldiers and materials headed to the front by railway. While no armed conflict took place within the city, many refugees from the war moved into the city.
These included Boer children, whom the British interned in a concentration camp. "The unveiling of the monument commemorating the services of the horses which perished during the Anglo Boer War, 1899-1902, took place on Saturday afternoon, February 11, 1905, with His Worship the Mayor, Mr A Fettes, performing the ceremony." Under apartheid, the South African government established legal racial segregation and started programs to separate communities physically as well as by classification and custom. The forced relocation under the auspices of the Group Areas Act of the non-white population from mixed areas began in 1962, causing various townships to be built for their use. Classification was sometimes arbitrary, as in many other localities throughout the country, many citizens appearing to have mixed ancestry were at times subject to re-classification, which had intrusive sociopolitical results; the non-white tenants of South End, land owners in Fairview were forcibly relocated from 1965 through to 1975, as these areas were valued as prime real estate.
The city-planning was viewed as the prototypical apartheid city. As black South Africans organized to try to achieve civil rights and social justice, government repression increased. In 1977 Steve Biko, the black anti-apartheid activist, was interrogated and tortured by the security police in Port Elizabeth before being transported to Pretoria, where he died. Other notable deaths in the city during this time i
East London, Eastern Cape
East London is a city on the southeast coast of South Africa in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality of the Eastern Cape province. The city lies on the Indian Ocean coast between the Buffalo River and the Nahoon River, hosts the country's only river port; as of 2011, East London had a population of over 267,000 with over 755,000 in the metropolitan area. John Bailie, one of the 1820 Settlers, surveyed the Buffalo River mouth and founded the town in 1836, a memorial on Signal Hill commemorating the event; the city formed around the only river port in South Africa and was known as Port Rex. It was renamed London in honour of the capital city of Great Britain, hence the name East London; this settlement on the West Bank was the nucleus of the town of East London, elevated to city status in 1914. During the early to mid-19th century frontier wars between the British settlers and the local Xhosa inhabitants, East London served as a supply port to service the military headquarters at nearby King William's Town, about 50 kilometres away.
A British fort, Fort Glamorgan, was built on the West Bank in 1847, annexed to the Cape Colony that same year. This fort is one of a series of British-built forts, including Fort Murray, Fort White, Fort Cox, Fort Hare,Fort Jackson and Fort Beaufort, in the border area that became known as British Kaffraria. With development of the port came the settlement of permanent residents, including German settlers, most of whom were bachelors; these settlers were responsible for German names of some towns in the vicinity of East London such as Stutterheim and Berlin. Today, German surnames such as Gehring and Peinke are still common in East London, but the descendants of the settlers became Anglicised; the existing port, in the mouth of the Buffalo River, adjoining the Indian Ocean, began operating in 1870. In 1872, the Cape Colony, under the leadership of its first Prime Minister John Molteno, attained a degree of independence from Britain; the new government merged the three neighbouring settlements of East London, East London East and Panmure in 1873, forming the core of the current municipality, in 1876 it began construction on the region's railway lines, commencing on the river's east bank.
At the same time, it began construction of the East London harbour. This new infrastructure accelerated development of the area, into today's thriving city of East London; the unusual double-decker bridge over the Buffalo River was completed in 1935, to this day, is the only bridge of its type in South Africa. Modern day attractions include the Gately House, City Hall, Cape Railways, Nahoon Museum, East London Museum housing the coelacanth, a prehistoric fish, thought to be extinct, discovered live at the Chalumna River mouth near East London by fishermen in 1938, numerous memorial statues. In 1948 the National Party came to power in South Africa, began to implement the policy of apartheid. Apartheid as a doctrine envisaged the total segregation of races in South Africa, East London was not any different. In 1950, the Group Areas Act was placed upon the statute books making absolute segregation in all urban areas mandatory. In 1951, the Land Tenure Advisory Board, the body created to enforce the act, conducted initial investigations into the reallocation of space along racial lines in East London.
Residential segregration had long been practiced in East London prior to the advent of apartheid. In 1941, the East London Municipality moved residents from East Bank townships to the newly built township of Duncan Village. In 1951, all inter-racial property exchanges were prohibited in East London. In 1955, the Amalinda area was zoned as a White Group Area by Government Gazette Proclamation number 21; this meant that the municipality's plans to extend the area in order to accommodate the black African population were abandoned. In 1953, residents in the East Bank were forcibly moved to the new township of Mdantsane. In February 1966, the apartheid South African government defined Mdantsane as a separate homeland township. In 1956, South African President Henrik Verwoerd, the archarchitect of apartheid, forbade the East London municipality from extending the existing Duncan Village township and sanctioned the building of Mdantsane. In 1961, these plans provided for the allocation of a distinct wedge of the city for Asian and Coloured residence, which "incorporated the areas of North End and the proclaimed Buffalo Flats location.
This plan occasioned tremendous resentment in the city prompting petitions and letters of complaint from numerous organisations including the Black Sash, trade unions and various black community groups. In 1967, the East London Municipality proclaimed the majority of the city an area for white occupancy, with the exception of a broad sector of land encompassing the Parkside and Buffalo Flats areas, zoned for coloured residence. Certain parts of Duncan Village were disestablished and its African residents removed, new coloured and Asian locations were built and proclaimed upon land in 1973. In the same year, the newly-constructed location of Braelynn was proclaimed an Indian area while Buffalo Flats Extension and Pefferville were proclaimed as coloured areas; the construction/ extension of coloured areas and the Duncan Village were suspended in 1983. At the end of apartheid in 1994, East London became part of the province of Eastern Cape. In 2000, East London became part of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality consisting of King William's Town and Mdantsane and is the seat of the Metro.
East London is the second largest industrial centre in the province. The motor industry is the dominant employer. A major Daimler plant is located next to the harbour, manufacturing Mercedes-Benz and other vehicles for the
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London, it was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing home of the 1820 Settlers; the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people. The Eastern Cape as a South African Province came into existence in 1994 and incorporated areas from the former Xhosa homelands of the Transkei and Ciskei, together with what was part of the Cape Province; this resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to provincial boundaries; the province is made of Mpondo tribe, which primitively descended from Xhosa clan. Some of the Mpondo tribe went to this province. Mpondo people are more related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language.
There are other tribes that erroneously referred to as Xhosa people such as: AmaMpondo, AbaThembu, AmaMpondomise, AmaHlubi, AmaBhaca, AmaXesibe, AmaBomvana and other tribes. The first premier was Raymond Mhlaba and the current premier is Phumulo Masualle, both of the African National Congress This region is the birthplace of many prominent South African politicians, such as Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, Fort Calata, James Calata, Charles Coghlan, Matthew Goniwe, Chris Hani, Bantu Holomisa, Govan Mbeki, his two sons Moeletsi Mbeki and Thabo Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Vuyisile Mini, Wilton Mkwayi, Oscar Mpetha, Griffiths Mxenge, Robert Resha, Walter Rubusana, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe, David Stuurman, Oliver Tambo; the Eastern Cape gets progressively wetter from west to east. The west is semiarid Karoo, except in the far south, temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region; the coast is rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to mountainous between Graaff-Reinet and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge, Stormberge and Drakensberg.
The highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001 m. The east from East London and Queenstown towards the KwaZulu-Natal border – a region known as Transkei – is lush grassland on rolling hills, punctuated by deep gorges with intermittent forest. Eastern Cape has a coast on its east which lines southward, creating shores leading to the south Indian Ocean. In the northeast, it borders the following districts of Lesotho: Mohale's Hoek District – west of Quthing Quthing District – between Mohale and Qacha's Nek Qacha's Nek District – east of QuthingDomestically, it borders the following provinces: Western Cape – west Northern Cape – northwest Free State – north KwaZulu-Natal – far northeast Climate is varied; the west is dry with sparse rain with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma to Grahamstown receives more precipitation, relatively evenly distributed and temperatures are mild. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall.
The interior can become cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes. Port Elizabeth: Jan Max: 25 °C, Min: 18 °C; the western interior is arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered and green. The Eastern Cape offers a wide array of attractions, including 800 km of untouched and pristine coastline along with some splendid beaches, "big-five" viewing in a malaria-free environment; the Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants, 400 Cape buffalo and 21 black rhino of the scarce Kenyan sub-species; the province is the location of South Africa's only Snow skiing resort, situated near the hamlet of Rhodes in the Southern Drakensberg on the slopes of Ben Macdhui, the highest mountain peak in the Eastern Cape. The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africa's largest and most colourful cultural event, offering a choice of the best of both indigenous and imported talent.
Every year for 11 days the town's population doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma National Park is an 80 km long coastal strip between Nature's Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an untouched natural landscape. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge and Bloukrans Bridge Bungy, the world's third highest bungee jump, Jeffreys Bay is an area with some of the country's wildest coastline, backed by some of Africa's most spectacular sub-tropical rainforest. Famous for its "supertubes" South Africa's longest and most good wave, it's charged with a surf vibe as relaxed as it is friendly, this tends to soften the effect of the wealthy set who have made this part of the coast their own. Aliwal North, lying on an agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the country's most popular inland resorts and is known for its hot springs; the rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast is a place of spectacular scenery, a graveyard for many vessels.
Whittlesea, Eastern Cape, situated in the Amatola
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries. While a township may be associated with an urban area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia, Canada and the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; the term refers purely to the settlement. In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as "lots" in Prince Edward Island. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county, or regional municipality, incorporated by statute by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and do not form administrative units; these townships are nominally six miles by six miles.
Townships are designated by their township range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, the numbers increase to the north. In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties and county level cities. In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the City. In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа, посад, местечко. In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island. In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer townships. All land is part of either a "city" or a "district"; the term "municipality" has no legal status. The term "township" is, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area; the expression would equate to that of "village" in England.
In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime; the term was replaced with "municipal district". Most municipal districts would be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President. Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities; the modern and largest townships in the Philippines are Clark Green City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga.
Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport. In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township, in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto is a well-known example. However, the term township has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas. In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines. In England, the term township is no longer in official use. In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish; this use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships, subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right.
This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions, started in the 16th century. Some councils in the north of England, have revived the term. In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the Highlands and Islands, a township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands the term may describe a small agrarian community. For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire. There are two types of townships in the United States. In states that ha