Pedagogy refers more broadly to the theory and practice of education, how this influences the growth of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are exchanged in an educational context, it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Pedagogies vary as they reflect the different social, cultural contexts from which they emerge. Pedagogy is the act of teaching. Theories of pedagogy identify the student as an agent, the teacher as a facilitator. Conventional western pedagogies, view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge; the pedagogy adopted by teachers shape their actions and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may include furthering liberal education to the narrower specifics of vocational education. Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher.
One example would be the Socratic method. The teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy; the word is a derivative of the Greek παιδαγωγία, from παιδαγωγός, itself a synthesis of ἄγω, "I lead", παῖς "child": hence, "to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as, or. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, at least from the time of Samuel Pepys in the 1650s; the educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested five steps as crucial components; these five steps include: preparation, association and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.
A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, " which are learned but not intended" such as the transmission of norms and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment. Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur; the term is used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are diverse in use, learning styles, configuration and educational institution, they support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, others. Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed and retained during learning. Cognitive and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted are blended or 100 % distance learning. Massive open online courses, offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms are used synonymously with distance education. Critical pedagogy is both a broader social movement. Critical pedagogy acknowledges that educational practices are contested and shaped by history, schools are not politically neutral spaces and teaching is political. Decisions regarding the curriculum, disciplinary practices, student testing, textbook selection, the language used by the teacher, more can empower or disempower students, it recognises that educational practices favour some students over others and some practices harm all students.
It recognises that educational practices favour some voices and perspectives while marginalising or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the power the teacher holds over the implications of this, its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged citizens, who are able to improve their own lives and their communities. Critical pedagogical practices may include, listening to and including students’ knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings; the goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students. Dialogic learning is learning, it is the result of ega
Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely influential philosopher and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis; the name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the father of Thomism, his influence on Western thought is considerable, much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas in the areas of ethics, natural law and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity, his best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth, the Summa contra Gentiles, the Summa Theologiae. His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.
The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines. Thomas Aquinas is considered philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This Order... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools." The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Thomas to be "one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world". Thomas was most born in the castle of Roccasecca, Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily, c. 1225, According to some authors, he was born in the castle of Landulf of Aquino.
Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles. Thomas's mother, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family. Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers, the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy. At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale established by Frederick in Naples, it was here that Thomas was introduced to Aristotle and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy. It was during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.
There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry and music was Petrus de Ibernia. At the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family. In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Thomas's choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, from Rome, to Paris. However, while on his journey to Rome, per Theodora's instructions, his brothers seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano. Thomas was held prisoner for one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration. Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas's release, which had the effect of extending Thomas's detention. Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order. Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas.
At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend, Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. By 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Thomas was sent first to Naples and to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order. In 1245 Thomas was sent to study at the Faculty of the Arts at the University of Paris, where he most met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus the holder of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris; when Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248, Thomas followed him, declining Pope Innocent
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. The term humanism is contemporary to that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from humanist developments. Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions; this was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, history and moral philosophy. According to one scholar of the movement, Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name, but increased its actual scope and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.
The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history and moral philosophy, but made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group. Humanism was a pervasive cultural mode and not the program of a small elite, a program to revive the cultural legacy, literary legacy, moral philosophy of classical antiquity. There were important centres of humanism in Florence, Rome, Genoa, Mantua and Urbino; some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts, including Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Coluccio Salutati, Poggio Bracciolini. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the mid-15th century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations in addition to traditional scholasticist ones. Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries; such was Cardinal Basilios Bessarion, a convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxy, considered for the papacy, was one of the most learned scholars of his time. There were several 15th-century and early 16th-century humanist Popes one of whom, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, was a prolific author and wrote a treatise on The Education of Boys; these subjects came to be known as the humanities, the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. The migration waves of Byzantine Greek scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 assisted the revival of Greek and Roman literature and science via their greater familiarity with ancient languages and works.
They included Gemistus Pletho, George of Trebizond, Theodorus Gaza, John Argyropoulos. Italian humanism spread northward to France, the Low Countries, England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula, it became associated with the Reformation. In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Budé was a royal absolutist, active in civic life, serving as a diplomat for François I and helping to found the Collège des Lecteurs Royaux. Meanwhile, Marguerite de Navarre, the sister of François I, was a poet and religious mystic who gathered around her and protected a circle of vernacular poets and writers, including Clément Marot, Pierre de Ronsard, François Rabelais. Many humanists were churchmen, most notably Pope Pius II, Sixtus IV, Leo X, there was patronage of humanists by senior church figures. Much humanist effort went into improving the understanding and translations of Biblical and early Christian texts, both before and after the Reformation, influenced by the work of non-Italian, Northern European figures such as Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, Swedish Catholic Archbishop in exile Olaus Magnus.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance. Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, worries, possibilities—was the center of interest, it has been said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full stature. The rediscovery of classical philosophy and science would challenge traditional religious beliefs. In 1417, for example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of Lucretius, De rerum natura, lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrine, though at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax. Only in 1564 did French commentator Denys Lambin an
Pointed hats have been a distinctive item of headgear of a wide range of cultures throughout history. Though suggesting an ancient Indo-European tradition, they were traditionally worn by women of Lapland, the Japanese, the Mi'kmaq people of Atlantic Canada, the Huastecs of Veracruz and Aztec; the Kabiri of New Guinea have a pointed hat glued together. Existence of the conical hat is known as early as the Bronze Age in Central Europe. One example is the golden hat worn by members of the priesthood as a ceremonial accessory. In Ancient Greece, the pilos was a common conical traveling hat. Popular among Burgundian noblewomen in the 15th century was a type of conical headgear now called a hennin. Conical hats were popular in late medieval Vijayanagar, India; the conical golden hats of Bronze Age Central Europe were a ceremonial accessory worn by the priesthood. See horned helmet. Textile analysis of the Tarim Mummies has shown some similarities to the Iron Age civilizations of Europe dating from 800 BC, including woven twill and tartan patterns strikingly similar to tartans from Northern Europe.
One unusual find was a distinctively pointed hat: Yet another female – her skeleton found beside the remains of a man – still wore a terrifically tall, conical hat just like those we depict on witches riding broomsticks at Halloween or on medieval wizards intent at their magical spells. Pointed hats were worn in ancient times by Saka, are shown on Hindu temples and in Hittite reliefs; as described by Herodotus, the name of the Scythian tribe of the tigrakhauda is a bahuvrihi compound translating to "people with pointed hats". Besides the Scythians, the Cabeiri as well as Odysseus are traditionally pictured wearing a Pilos, or woolen conical hat. Ancient conical hats The 13th-century Cumans wore scythian style pointed hats, are reported to have fought wearing them. Originating from the Japanese Heian period, the kazaori eboshi was worn by aristocrats to indicate rank. Still worn today for ceremonial purposes, this black linen hat was used during a samurai's ceremony in attaining manhood; the Papal tiara in the Middle Ages is sometimes shown as more pointed than in more recent centuries, though shown with no point.
Mitra papalis is a type of conch named after the papal mitre for its form. Medieval Jewish men wore distinctive headgear; this included the pointed Jewish hat worn by Jews, a piece of clothing imported from the Islamic world and before that from Persia. Popular among Burgundian noblewomen in the 15th century was a type of conical headgear now called a hennin; the Spitzhut is a traditional kind of headgear in Bavaria. Pointed hoods were used by various orders and Catholic lay confraternities for processions, e.g. the Semana Santa of Sevilla who wore the Capirote. Pointed hats are still worn in the rural Louisiana Mardi Gras celebrations by the Cajuns, the Courir de Mardi Gras, where they are known as capuchons; the Ku Klux Klan has worn this headgear since its first era. Tall conical hats are common to traditional folk ceremonies in many parts of Europe at Carnival time. Examples can still be seen in Italy and Bulgaria; the May Day hobby horses of Padstow and Minehead in southwest England have pointed hats with masks attached.
Classical pointed hats are worn by the dwarfs and wizards of European Folklore. List of hats and headgear Headgear Mitre Gugel Cap Barber, A. W.. The Mummies of Ürümchi. Macmillan, London. Other groups from the Middle ages who wore tall pointed hats
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, known as Lord Byron, was a British poet, peer and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains read and influential. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, he travelled extensively across Europe in Italy, where he lived for seven years in the cities of Venice and Pisa. During his stay in Italy he visited his friend and fellow poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. In life Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire, for which Greeks revere him as a national hero, he died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted in Missolonghi. Described as the most flamboyant and notorious of the major Romantics, Byron was both celebrated and castigated in his life for his aristocratic excesses, which included huge debts, numerous love affairs with both men and women, as well as rumours of a scandalous liaison with his half-sister.
One of his lovers, Lady Caroline Lamb, summed him up in the famous phrase "mad and dangerous to know". His only legitimate child, Ada Lovelace, is regarded as the first computer programmer based on her notes for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Byron's illegitimate children include Allegra Byron, who died in childhood, Elizabeth Medora Leigh. Ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788, in a house on 16 Holles Street in London, his birthplace is now occupied by a branch of the English department store John Lewis. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states. Byron was the son of Captain John "Mad Jack" Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Byron's father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband, he married her, his treatment of her was described as "brutal and vicious", she died after giving birth to two daughters, only one of whom survived, Byron's half-sister, Augusta.
To claim his second wife's estate in Scotland, Byron's father took the additional surname "Gordon", becoming "John Byron Gordon", he was styled "John Byron Gordon of Gight." Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as "George Byron Gordon." At the age of 10 he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming "Lord Byron", dropped the double surname. Byron's paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John "Foulweather Jack" Byron, Sophia Trevanion. Vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as "the Wicked Lord", he was christened at St Marylebone Parish Church as "George Gordon Byron", after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, who had committed suicide in 1779. "Mad Jack" Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married her fortune. Byron's mother had to sell her land and title to pay her new husband's debts, in the space of two years, the large estate, worth some £23,500, had been squandered, leaving the former heiress with an annual income in trust of only £150.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her profligate husband to France in 1786, but returned to England at the end of 1787 to give birth to her son on English soil. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London. Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, his father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, but the couple separated. Catherine experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be explained by her husband's continuingly borrowing money from her; as a result, she fell further into debt to support his demands. It was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791; when Byron's great-uncle, the "wicked" Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, the 10-year-old boy became the sixth Baron Byron of Rochdale and inherited the ancestral home, Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire. His mother proudly took him to England, but the Abbey was in an embarrassing state of disrepair and, rather than living there, she decided to lease it to Lord Grey de Ruthyn, among others, during Byron's adolescence.
Described as "a woman without judgment or self-command," Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him and he mocked her for being short and corpulent, which made it difficult for her to catch him to discipline him. Byron had been born with a deformed right foot. However, Byron's biographer, Doris Langley-Moore, in her 1974 book, Accounts Rendered, paints a more sympathetic view of Mrs Byron, showing how she was a staunch supporter of her son and sacrificed her own precarious finances to keep him in luxury at Harrow and Cambridge. Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim. Upon the death of Byron's mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon. Lady Milbanke, in 1822, her will required that he change his surname to "Noel" so as to inherit half of her estate, he obtained a Royal Warrant, allowing him to "take and use the surname of Noel only" and to "subscribe the said surname of Noel before all titles of honour". From that point he signed himself "Noel Byron" (the usual signature of a peer being the peerage, in this case "Byron
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Samuel Johnson referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, literary critic, biographer and lexicographer, he was a generous philanthropist. Politically, he was a committed Tory; the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes Johnson as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is the subject of James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, described by Walter Jackson Bate as "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature". Born in Lichfield, Johnson attended Pembroke College, for just over a year, but a lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher, he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentleman's Magazine, his early works include the biography Life of Mr Richard Savage, the poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, the play Irene. After nine years of work, Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755.
It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been acclaimed as "one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship". This work brought success; until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years Johnson's was the pre-eminent British dictionary. His works included essays, an influential annotated edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare, the read tale The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he travelled to Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets. Johnson was a robust man, his odd gestures and tics were disconcerting to some on first meeting him. Boswell's Life, along with other biographies, documented Johnson's behaviour and mannerisms in such detail that they have informed the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not defined or diagnosed in the 18th century.
After a series of illnesses, he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognised as having had a lasting effect on literary criticism, he was claimed by some to be the only great critic of English literature. Samuel Johnson was born on 18 September 1709, to a bookseller; the birth took place in the family home above his father's bookshop in Staffordshire. His mother was 40; this was considered an unusually late pregnancy, so precautions were taken, a "man-midwife" and surgeon of "great reputation" named George Hector was brought in to assist. The infant Johnson did not cry, there were concerns for his health, his aunt exclaimed that "she would not have picked such a poor creature up in the street". The family feared that Johnson would not survive, summoned the vicar of St Mary's to perform a baptism. Two godfathers were chosen, Samuel Swynfen, a physician and graduate of Pembroke College and Richard Wakefield, a lawyer and Lichfield town clerk.
Johnson's health improved and he was put to wet-nurse with Joan Marklew. Some time he contracted scrofula, known at the time as the "King's Evil" because it was thought royalty could cure it. Sir John Floyer, former physician to King Charles II, recommended that the young Johnson should receive the "royal touch", he did so from Queen Anne on 30 March 1712. However, the ritual proved ineffective, an operation was performed that left him with permanent scars across his face and body. With the birth of Johnson's brother, Nathaniel, a few months their father was unable to pay the debts he had accrued over the years, the family was no longer able to maintain its standard of living. Johnson displayed signs of great intelligence as a child, his parents, to his disgust, would show off his "newly acquired accomplishments", his education began at the age of three, was provided by his mother, who had him memorise and recite passages from the Book of Common Prayer. When Samuel turned four, he was sent to a nearby school, and, at the age of six he was sent to a retired shoemaker to continue his education.
A year Johnson went to Lichfield Grammar School, where he excelled in Latin. During this time, Johnson started to exhibit the tics that would influence how people viewed him in his years, which formed the basis for a posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, he was promoted to the upper school at the age of nine. During this time, he befriended Edmund Hector, nephew of his "man-midwife" George Hector, John Taylor, with whom he remained in contact for the rest of his life. At the age of 16 Johnson stayed with the Fords, at Pedmore, Worcestershire. There he became a close friend of Cornelius Ford, who employed his knowledge of the classics to tutor Johnson while he was not attending school. Ford was a successful, well-connected academic, notorious alcoholic whose excesses contributed to his death six years later. After spending six months with his cousins, Johnson returned to Lichfield, but Mr Hunter, the headmaster, "angered by the impertinence of this long absence", refused to allow Johnson to continue at the school.
Unable to return to Lichfield Grammar School, Johnson enrolled at the King Edward VI grammar school at Stourbridge. As the school was located near Pedmore, Johnson was able to spend more time with the Fords, he began to write poems and verse transla