Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Bidsar, or Beedsar is a village in the Laxmangarh administrative region of the Sikar district of Rajasthan state in India. The village lies 6 kilometres from Nawalgarh; the borders villages and towns including Birodi Bari, Mirzwas and Nawalgarh. According to the 2011 census the population of Bidsr is 1,547. Before independence, the village was inhabited by Garhwal Jats, it is considered that a name Bida established Bidsar. The village was dominated by Garhwal Jats. Bidsar falls under Bidasar Panchayat; the title of leader is Sarpanch, The panchayat has 13 ward members chosen by the people through polling. Some 1500 people, about 80% of the population are engaged in farming. Village agriculture is dependent on the monsoon rains although today many farms use artesian wells for irrigation. Bidsar has a hot summer, scanty rainfall, a chilly winter season and a general dryness of the air, except in the brief monsoon season; the average maximum and minimum temperatures are 15 - 16 degrees Celsius, respectively.
Bidsar is connected by a two lane asphalt road to Nawalgarh. Nawalgarh Railway station 8 kilometres from Bidsar, is the nearest railway station, well connected from Jaipur and other cities. Asphalt roads connect the village to Laxmangarh. Camel carts and bullock carts were the chief means of transportation and are being replaced by bicycles and other automobiles. Quite a few villagers walked to Nawalgarh and other surrounding places. In the rainy season, womenfolk bring grass on their heads for buffaloes; the villagers claim to be literate while all children now attend school. However, many women remain illiterate. Many students of the village have obtained admission to pioneering engineering institutes as well as into medical colleges through various competitions run by the IIT, AIEEE etc. as well as into medical colleges through various competitions like AIPMT, Rajasthan Pre Medical Test and other exams. Some village students are studying in institutes including the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Indian Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Management.
Besides these, other careers such as teaching and the defense forces are popular. Village has one Govt. Secondary School and one Government Primary School. Majority of the citizenry practises Hinduism. Jats, Brahmins live in the village. Among the Jats, Khichar, Rad, Sunda, Kasania, Sewda are all subcastes. Village society is governed by Hindu rituals although the younger generation has been affected by western cultural influences. Folk songs are sung by women on other social occasions. Menfolk sing dhamaal. Many villagers own TV's as well as radios and satellite dishes; the sound of popular Hindi music emanating from stereos and other devices is heard from different houses during the afternoon and evening. Most of the children play cricket; some villagers play volleyball and football. Villagers can be seen playing cards in chaupal. Villagers celebrate all major Hindu festivals; some of the major festivals are Holi, Makar Sankranti, Raksha Bandhan, Sawan and Gauga Peer, Gangaur. Hari Baba Ashram, Bidsar Bala Giri Baba Ganesh Ji Mandir Shiv Mandir Sikar District Laxmangarh List of Sarpanch elected in 2010 List of villages and Panchayat Samiti in Rajasthan Official website of Sikar District Location of Bidsar in Google Maps Bidsar
Shekhawati is a semi-arid historical region located in the northeast part of Rajasthan, India. Shahpura Being the Head Seat of the Shekhawati. Shekhawati is located in North Rajasthan comprising districts of Jhunjhunu, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur. History has it that in the 17th to 19th centuries, Marwari merchants constructed these grand havelis in the Shekhawati region. Steeped in wealth and affluence, these merchants got busy outdoing others in building more grand edifices – homes, step wells which were richly decorated both inside and outside with painted murals, it is bounded on the northwest by the Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Haryana, on the east by Mewat, on the southeast by Dhundhar, on the south by Ajmer, on the southwest by the Marwar region. Its area is 13784 square kilometers; the inhabitants of Shekhawati are considered brave and hard working people. Sekhawati was first mentioned in the book Bankidas ki Khyat. Contemporary of Bankidas was Colonel W. S. Gardener, who used the word Shekhawati in 1803.
James Tod wrote the first history of Shekhawati. The term Shekhawati was used in Vamsh Bhaskar; this suggests. Shekhawati is named after Rao Shekha. Shekhawati is in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, has special importance in the history of India; the climate of the desert region is extreme. The temperature ranges from below 0 °C in winter to more than 50 °C in summer; the summer brings. Annual rainfall is at around 450 to 600 mm; the groundwater is as deep as 200 feet, in some places, the groundwater is hard and salty. The people in the region depend on rainwater harvesting; the harvested rainwater from the monsoon season is stored in pucca tanks and used throughout the year for drinking purposes. Shekhawati is a dialect of the Rajasthani language and is spoken by about three million speakers in the Churu and Sikar districts of Rajasthan. Though it is a important dialect from the grammatical and literary points of view little work is carried out on it. In 2001 a descriptive compendium of the grammar of Shekhawati was published.
Shekhawati, like the Bagri dialect of Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts, has a parallel lexicon which makes it rich from the lexicographical point of view. Word order is SOV and there is an existence of implosives; the presence of high tone at suprasegmental level classifies it with other dialects of Rajasthani. It linguistics; some samples in Shekhawati are: Kai Hoyo? कै होयो? = What happened? The Kai kar rieya ho? थे कै कर रिया हो?= What are you doing? Ma Thane ghano samman desyu. मैं थाने घणो सम्मान देस्यु = I will give you great respect. The sidh ja riya ho? थे सिद्ध जा रिया हो?= Where are you going? The ke kha rahiya ho? थे के खा रहिया हो? = What are you eating? Many historians have considered this region included in the Matsya Kingdom. Rigveda provides certain evidences in this matter. Manusmriti has called this land as'brahmrishi desha'. Shekhawati region was included in'marukantar desha' up to Ramayana period. Out of 16 mahajanapadas prior to Buddha, only two janapadas, namely Avanti and the Kingdom of Virata were counted in Rajasthan area.
This region was influenced by Avanti but on Nandas of Magadha defeated Avanti. Historians believe. In ancient times Shekhawati was not limited to the present two districts. During the Mahabharata period it was extended to the Sarasvati River; this was because the first clan ruling this region, in the Mahabharata period, were descendants of fishermen. So the Vedas were supposed to be written and compiled on this land. During ancient times this region was divided into several janapadas; every janapada was a free republic state. The development of janapadas in Rajasthan started with habitation of Aryan; the northern part of Rajasthan was known as Jangladesh during Mahabharata period. And eastern part Jaipur-Alwar were called the Matsya Kingdom. Pandavas had spent one year of their vanishment in this Kingdom of Virata as their abode, to live in anonymity, after the expiry of their twelve-year-long forest life. Dhosi Hill, the revered Hill, bordering Haryana, famous for Chyavana Rishi's Ashram, place where Chyawanprash was formulated for the first time has extensive mentions in the epic Mahabharat in Vanparv.
According to Vimal Charanlal, this Kingdom of Virata extended from Jhunjhunu to Kotkasim 109 km in the north, Jhunjhunu to Ajmer 184 km in the west, Ajmer to Banas and up to confluence of Chambal River 229 km in the south. The capital of this Kingdom of Virata was Bairat. After the collapse of Gupta dynasty, Shekhawati's some parts like Jhunjhunu, Narhar were controlled by the Kaimkhanis, until they were defeated by Shekhawat Rajputs. Kaimkhani is a branch emerged from Chauhans; the first progenitor of Kaimkhanis was Karamchand, born in the family of Moterao of Chauhan clan, the ruler of Dadrewa. Firuz Shah Tughluq named him Kaimkhan, thus his descendants were called Kaimkhani. Shekhawati was ruled by Shekhawat Rajputs until India's independence. Rao Shekha from Dhundhar established his own independent kingdom with the capital at Amarsar, he was the first independent ruler. After him, Rao Raimal, Rao Suja and Rao Lunkaran become the rulers of Amarsar. Rao Manohar succeeded his father Rao Lunkaran and founded Manoharpur renamed Shahpura.
Shekhawats conquered the Jhunjhunu, Narhar of Kaimkhanis and established their rule
Pilani is a small town situated in the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, India. Administratively, it forms a part of Jhunjhunu district; the place became popular since the establishment of BITS Pilani. The city is the home to some of the oldest schools of independent India; as of the 2011 Census of India, Pilani has a population of 29,741 of which 51% are males and 49% females. The average literacy rate is 72%. Male literacy is 80% and female 63%. 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Pilani has typical of North Western India. Summers, which last from late March till the end of June are hot and dry, they are followed by the monsoon months of July and early September, where temperatures drop and the humidity rises sharply. The months from late October to early March see warm days, cool to chilly nights, with dry conditions. Pilani is home to the Birla Institute of Science. Apart from BITS, Pilani has one of the major CSIR labs for advanced research in electronics, the Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, located next to the BITS campus.
The GD Birla Memorial Polytechnic Institute, established in 1988 in Pilani, is one of the top ranked diploma colleges in Rajasthan. Other colleges include the BK Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology, an engineering college formed in 2007, the Indermani Mandelia college for girls and the ShaadiLal Kataria Teacher Training college. In 2009, Shridhar University was established under the State Government Act as a private university; the University provides various higher education programs up to doctoral level. Schools include Birla Shishu Vihar, Birla High School, Birla Public School and Birla Balika Vidyapeeth. Birla School Pilani is providing education from 1901. Pilani is not accessible directly by rail. Pilani is 208 kilometres from Jaipur and 193 kilometres from Delhi and has a good bus transport system. Birla Institute of Technology and Science Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute BK Birla Institute of Engineering & Technology
National Highway (India)
The National Highways network of India is a network of trunk roads, owned by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. It is constructed and managed by the National Highway Authority of India, the National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation, the public works departments of state governments. NHAI was established by the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. Section 16 of the Act states that the function of NHAI is to develop and manage the National Highways and any other highways vested in, or entrusted to, it by the Government of India; these highways as of April 2019 measure over 142,126 km. The Indian government has vowed to double the highway length from 96,000 to 2,00,000 km; as of April 2019, the government had promised to build 15,000 km of roads but has been able to lay down around 10,000 km. In India, National Highways are at-grade roads, whereas Expressways are controlled-access highways where entrance and exit is controlled by the use of slip roads that are incorporated into the design of the highway.
The at-grade national highways do not have shoulder lanes. The National Highways Authority of India is the nodal agency responsible for building and maintaining most of the National Highways network, it operates under the Ministry of Highways. The National Highways Development Project is a major effort to expand and upgrade the network of highways. NHAI uses a public-private partnership model for highway development and toll-collection. While National Highways constitute 1.8% of Indian roads, they carry 40% of the traffic. The majority of existing National Highways are two-lane roads, though much of this is being expanded to four-lanes and some to six or more lanes; some sections of the network are toll roads. Bharatmala, a centrally-sponsored and funded road and highways project of the Government of India with a target of constructing 83,677 km of new highways, has been started in 2018. Phase I of the Bharatmala project involves the construction of 34,800 km of highways at an estimated cost of ₹5.35 lakh crore by 2021-22.
India has 131,326 km of National Highways connecting all the major cities and state capitals as of March 2018. National Highways carry about 40 % of road traffic. Most of them have two lanes. About 26,000 km have been widened to four lanes with two lanes in each direction as of May 2016. Only a few National Highways are built with concrete; as of March 2016, 20,703 km of National Highways were still single-laned roads. India has the distinction of having the world's second highest-altitude motor highway: the Leh–Manali Highway connecting Manali, Himachal Pradesh in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Ladakh, Kashmir. National Highways form the economic backbone of the country and have facilitated development along their routes. Many new towns have sprung up along major highways. Highways have large numbers of small inns along their length, they serve as truck stops. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways adopted a new systematic numbering of National Highways in April 2010; the new system indicates the direction of National Highways whether they are east–west or north–south.
It indicates the geographical region where they are with numbers increasing from east to west starting from NH2 and odd numbers increasing from north to south starting from NH1. In 1998 India launched a massive programme of highway upgrades, called the National Highways Development Project, in which the main north–south and east–west corridors and highways connecting the four metropolitan cities have been paved and widened into four-lane highways; some of the busier National Highway sectors in India have been converted to four- or six-lane limited-access highways. The National Highways Act, 1956 provides for private investment in the building and maintenance of the highways; some existing roads have been reclassified as National Highways. Bypasses have been constructed around larger towns and cities to provide uninterrupted passage for highway traffic; the hugely varied climatic, demographic and sometimes political situation in India results in National Highways being single lane in places with low traffic to six lanes in places with heavy traffic.
Many National Highways are under construction. Some National Highways are long while some are short spurs off other National Highways to provide connectivity to nearby ports or harbours; the length of National Highways in the country was 29,023 km in 1980 which expanded to 76,818 km by the end of 2012. The longest National Highway is NH44, which runs between Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu at the southernmost point of the Indian mainland, covering a distance of 2,369 km; the shortest National Highway is NH966B, which spans 6 km, to the Ernakulam–Kochi India–Myanmar–Thailand Trilateral Highway Story of a village by the highways
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go