La Teste-de-Buch is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is located on the south shore of Arcachon Bay, it is the largest of four communes that comprise the Communauté d'agglomération du Bassin d'Arcachon Sud, a small metropolitan area of 54,204 population. It is the eighth-largest commune in metropolitan France in geographical area. La Teste-de-Buch is famous for the Dune du Pilat, the highest sand dune in Europe, it is the site of a fictional battle during the Napoleonic wars depicted in Sharpe's Siege by Bernard Cornwell. La Teste-de-Buch is located in the department of Gironde, in the middle of the Landes forest, south of Arcachon Bay, it is the capital of the Pays de Buch. Neighbouring communes are Gujan-Mestras to the east, Arcachon to the northwest, Biscarosse and Sanguinet to the south; the Dune of Pilat is a famous landmark on the Atlantic coast, situated in the western corner of the commune. The seaside resort of Pyla-sur-Mer, the village of Cazaux, the bird refuge and sandbank of Arguin are part of the town.
The Étang de Cazaux et de Sanguinet is in the southeast corner, astride the departments of Gironde and Landes. The rest of the commune area consists of old dunes, where the natural forest has changed little over centuries. During World War I, an airfield was created near Cazaux for airplane pilots training. Most of the American volunteers pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille came to the "Camp de Cazaux" to finish their training as war pilots; when the U. S entered the war, the 36th Aero Squadron was based here. La Teste-de-Buch is twinned with Binghamton, New York, United States, since 1987. Schwaigern, since 2004. Arcachon - La Teste-de-Buch Airport Pays de Buch Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Official website
Landes de Gascogne Regional Natural Park
Landes de Gascogne Regional Natural Park is a protected area of pine forest and oceanic coastline located in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The lands comprising the park were unpopulated throughout history; the triangular area of the modern-day park was an inland sea which had receded, leaving a infertile depression which did not attract human habitation. Largescale public works helped drain and reforest the area during the nineteenth century but the transformation was limited. By the mid-twentieth century, government attention had turned to protecting the natural environment. Straddling the departments of Landes and Gironde, Parc naturel régional des Landes de Gascogne comprises the center of the massive forest of Landes; the park encompasses the entire Leyre River. The park was conceived in 1970 with a total area of 206,000 hectares, but has been increased to a modern total area of 315,300 hectares; as of 2011, the park holds 41 small communes with 60,000 inhabitants. The forty-one member communes are: The park maintains a bird sanctuary on Arcachon Bay, the parc ornithologique du Teich.
Throughout the year, over 300,000 migratory birds take refuge in its wetlands. At several sites throughout the park, there are sections of the regional museum, Ḗcomusée de la Grande Lande, which host exhibitions about the history and maintenance of the natural lands; the museum organizes various events focused on Gascon lifestyles and traditions. The local villages organize their own events. Thousands of visitors come every year to the Flower Show at Garein, an annual weekend event which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2010; the park is administered by a joint union of local authorities in the Syndicat Mixte du Parc Naturel Régional des Landes de Gascogne, a deliberative assembly of 45 members. The union includes public and private representatives of Gironde and Aquitaine; the park's unique emblem is derived from a woodcut, still visible today, made on the beam of an old building in Luxey. The scene depicts a leaping fox frustrated in its hunt: a solid horizontal line separates him from the hen who strolls serenely in the sun.
The situation was a familiar one in the Gascony moors where generations of farmers built their livestock shelters on stilts. List of regional natural parks of France Official park site French Ministry of Agriculture: Report on Landes de Gascogne 1998-1999-2000 and effects of the storm of 27/12/1999
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side; the valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. Dunes occur along some coasts; some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds. Dunes can form under the action of water flow, on sand or gravel beds of rivers and the sea-bed; the modern word "dune" came into English from French c.
1790, which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne. Dunes are made of sand-sized particles, may consist of quartz, calcium carbonate, gypsum, or other materials; the upwind/upstream/upcurrent side of the dune is called the stoss side. Sand is pushed or bounces up the stoss side, slides down the lee side. A side of a dune that the sand has slid down is called a slip face; the Bagnold formula gives the speed. Five basic dune types are recognized: crescentic, star and parabolic. Dune areas may occur in three forms: simple and complex. Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds which are wider than they are long; the lee-side slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow from one direction, they form separate crescents. When the sand supply is greater, they may merge into barchanoid ridges, transverse dunes; some types of crescentic dunes move more over desert surfaces than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt.
The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in China's Taklamakan Desert. See lunettes and parabolic dues, for dunes similar to crescent-shaped ones. Abundant barchan dunes may merge into barchanoid ridges, which grade into linear transverse dunes, so called because they lie transverse, or across, the wind direction, with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridge crest. Seif dunes are linear dunes with two slip faces; the two slip faces make them sharp-crested. They are called seif dunes after the Arabic word for "sword", they may be more than 160 kilometres long, thus visible in satellite images. Seif dunes are associated with bidirectional winds; the long axes and ridges of these dunes extend along the resultant direction of sand movement. Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes. Formation is debated. Bagnold, in The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves into a bidirectional wind regime, one arm or wing of the crescent elongates.
Others suggest. In the sheltered troughs between developed seif dunes, barchans may be formed, because the wind is constrained to be unidirectional by the dunes. Seif dunes are common in the Sahara, they range up to 300 km in length. In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m. Linear loess hills known; these hills appear to have been formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation. Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the high center of the mound, they tend to accumulate in areas with multidirectional wind regimes. Star dunes grow upward rather than laterally, they dominate the Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara. In other deserts, they occur around the margins of the sand seas near topographic barriers. In the southeast Badain Jaran Desert of China, the star dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth.
Oval or circular mounds that lack a slipface. Dome dunes occur at the far upwind margins of sand seas. Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the direction of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes, source-bordering dunes and clay dunes, they may be composed of clay, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the basin floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune, deposited on the convex side. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long, 1 km wide, up to 50 metres high. They occur in southern and West Africa, in parts of the western United States Texas. U-shaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms are parabolic dunes; these dunes are formed from blowout dunes where the erosion
Arcachon Bay is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean on the southwest coast of France, situated in Pays de Buch between the Côte d'Argent and the Côte des Landes, in the region of Aquitaine. The bay covers an area of 150 km² at high tide and 40 km² at low tide; some of its geological features are natural preservation areas. The general shape of the Bassin d'Arcachon is that of an equilateral triangle pointing north, the southwest corner of, open to the sea, between Cap Ferret and the town of Arcachon, through a 3 km narrow channel. On the north shore is the town of Arès Andernos-les-Bains on the northeast. Just south of the entrance is The Great Dune of Pyla. Nearly in the middle of the bay is a particular island: L'île aux Oiseaux. In the past, similar areas are nowadays filled with fresh water. On the French Atlantic coast, running north-south between the Gironde estuary to the Adour river mouth, are the Lac d'Hourtin-Carcans, the Lac de Lacanau, the Étang de Cazaux et de Sanguinet, the Étang de Biscarrosse et de Parentis, the Étang d'Aureilhan, the Étang de Léon, the Étang de Soustons, the Étang Hardy, the Étang Blanc and the Étang de Garros.
Arcachon Bay is the last water area. The Bassin still has a link to the sea because of the Eyre River that runs from the Landes forest and has its mouth in its southeast corner. Otherwise the Bassin would have become blocked by the sandbanks built up by the tides
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
A foredune is a dune ridge that runs parallel to the shore of an ocean, bay, or estuary. Foredunes consist of sand deposited by wind on a vegetated part of the shore. Foredunes can be classified as incipient or established. Foredunes may begin as shadow dunes. Several shadow dunes may join to form an incipient foredune; when an incipient foredune reaches a height of about 1.5 feet, it has a significant wind shadow of its own. Wind-blown sand will tend to fall on this incipient dune rather than traveling further inland; when a foredune becomes 3 to 5 feet high, it may trap all of the wind-blown sand from the beach. In active dune systems, the foredunes appear closest to the sea or other body of water. However, some dune systems, such as those on eroding coasts, do not have foredunes. In those systems, other kinds of dunes may be closest to the water. A foredune ecosystem begins with the first dune ridge directly behind an active beach; the ridge of a foredune can range in height from a few meters to tens of meters tall.
Foredunes are formed when sand accumulates and wind transforms the landscape. This results in sand sheets can consuming in-land ecosystems. United States Fish and Wildlife Service manages Humboldt Bay’s Lanphere Dunes. Active sand sheets at Lanphere Dunes have been measured to be in excess of six hundred meters. Parabolic dunes vegetated deflated plains. Due to variable wind gusts, parabolic dunes are unvegetated in troughs or dune swells where wind tunnels transport currents. Ripple alignment in association with the main dunes can identify parabolic dunes. Ripples minuet accumulations of sand against the main dune swale; the heights of ripples are measured on a millimeter to centimeter scale. In Humboldt Bay, the wind is predominately blowing in from the northwest; as a result, the dune ridges are formed parallel to the wind currents while ripples are formed perpendicular to the wind. Northern California coastal dune environments are subject to high velocity winds at all times throughout the year.
This strong variable causes the morphology of the dune ecosystem to change. Dunes can range in height from a meter to tens of meters tall creating elevation changes and habitat complexities. Invasive species can further armor dune ridges, creating linear dunes, preventing naturalistic parabolic dunes from being created. Sand granules are transported in three ways: suspension and creep. Suspended grains are fine granules that can be picked up by wind and carried for variable distances. Most visitors to coastal beach environments can attest to having sand blown in their face or leaving with a gritty feeling on their skin; this is due to fine sediment suspended in the moisture rich air. When suspended sediment is returned to the ground, granules physically impact the grounded grains. Due to physics principles, the grounded grains are receiving energy from the once suspended sediment; this impact leads to creep of coarser grains. Saltation is the movement of grains being picked up by the wind and dropped in a cycling repetitive motion.
Coastal environments act as drainage outlets for freshwater river systems. As a result, sediment from tributaries and headwaters are deposited at the mouth of the river. Long shore transport is a linear current off the coastline. For Northern California, this current moves sediment in a northern direction; therefore and sediment constructing Humboldt Bay’s thirty-four mile dune ecosystem, is a result of sediment deposition at a southern location. Sediment accumulation can be a result of wave action. Wave currents occur in a backwash motion; this continual wave action allows for the movement of sediment. The angles at which the swash and backwash occur, are associated with the off shore transport current as well as the change in winter and summer ocean currents; the vegetation analyzed at the Mad River County Beach showed an evolutionary change in the ecosystem as a result of several thriving invasive species. Upon arrival to the beach, it became visually apparent just how abundant the Ammophila arenaria species is.
According to Pickart and Sawyer, Ammophila arenaria is described as being foredune engineers. As Ammophila arenaria attaches and begins to grow on a flat dune system, wind currents that push sand inland it allows the plant to accumulate and mound massive amounts of sand creating large foredune ridges; this shift is supporting the invasion of but not limited to, Ammophila arenaria, Tanacetum vulgare and Bromus diandrus. Since introduction of these invasive plants, scientists have recorded a severe displacement in native grasses and dune mat vegetation throughout California. A characteristic of Ammophila arenaria and Bromus diandrus entering an ecosystem, are elevated levels of nitrogen within the soil; the implementation of nitrogen into the soil, limits the growth and livelihood of other species such as Layia carnosa and Erysimum menziesii. Since the early 1900s, Ammophila arenaria has been introduced into the California landscape to perform as a natural re-engineering feature to transform the beach landscape.
In areas without Ammophila arenaria, dune mat vegetation was abundant and thriving. This data shows that with active restoration efforts to combat invasive species, land managers could sustain a healthy native vegetation population and thus transform the landscape back to its native habitat. Understanding how invasive species change and manipulate landscapes and the characteristics of specific invasive species, is the best way to reduce