Dungeons & Dragons
Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc.. The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997, it was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry. D&D departs from traditional wargaming by allowing each player to create their own character to play instead of a military formation; these characters embark upon imaginary adventures within a fantasy setting. A Dungeon Master serves as the game's referee and storyteller, while maintaining the setting in which the adventures occur, playing the role of the inhabitants of the game world; the characters form a party and they interact with the setting's inhabitants and each other. Together they solve dilemmas, engage in battles, gather treasure and knowledge.
In the process, the characters earn experience points in order to rise in levels, become powerful over a series of separate gaming sessions. The early success of D&D led to a proliferation of similar game systems. Despite the competition, D&D has remained as the market leader in the role-playing game industry. In 1977, the game was split into two branches: the rules-light game system of basic Dungeons & Dragons, the more structured, rules-heavy game system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. AD&D 2nd Edition was published in 1989. In 2000, a new system was released as D&D 3rd edition, continuing the edition numbering from AD&D; these 3rd edition rules formed the basis of the d20 System, available under the Open Game License for use by other publishers. D&D 4th edition was released in June 2008; the 5th edition of D&D, the most recent, was released during the second half of 2014. As of 2004, D&D remained the best-known, best-selling, role-playing game, with an estimated 20 million people having played the game, more than US$1 billion in book and equipment sales.
The game has been supplemented by many pre-made adventures, as well as commercial campaign settings suitable for use by regular gaming groups. D&D is known beyond the game itself for other D&D-branded products, references in popular culture, some of the controversies that have surrounded it a moral panic in the 1980s falsely linking it to Satanism and suicide; the game has been translated into many languages. Dungeons & Dragons is a open-ended role-playing game, it is played indoors with the participants seated around a tabletop. Each player controls only a single character, which represents an individual in a fictional setting; when working together as a group, these player characters are described as a "party" of adventurers, with each member having their own area of specialty which contributes to the success of the whole. During the course of play, each player directs the actions of their character and their interactions with other characters in the game; this activity is performed through the verbal impersonation of the characters by the players, while employing a variety of social and other useful cognitive skills, such as logic, basic mathematics and imagination.
A game continues over a series of meetings to complete a single adventure, longer into a series of related gaming adventures, called a "campaign". The results of the party's choices and the overall storyline for the game are determined by the Dungeon Master according to the rules of the game and the DM's interpretation of those rules; the DM selects and describes the various non-player characters that the party encounters, the settings in which these interactions occur, the outcomes of those encounters based on the players' choices and actions. Encounters take the form of battles with "monsters" – a generic term used in D&D to describe hostile beings such as animals, aberrant beings, or mythical creatures; the game's extensive rules – which cover diverse subjects such as social interactions, magic use and the effect of the environment on PCs – help the DM to make these decisions. The DM may choose to deviate from the published rules or make up new ones if they feel it is necessary; the most recent versions of the game's rules are detailed in three core rulebooks: The Player's Handbook, the Dungeon Master's Guide and the Monster Manual.
The only items required to play the game are the rulebooks, a character sheet for each player, a number of polyhedral dice. Many players use miniature figures on a grid map as a visual aid during combat; some editions of the game presume such usage. Many optional accessories are available to enhance the game, such as expansion rulebooks, pre-designed adventures and various campaign settings. Before the game begins, each player creates their player character and records the details on a character sheet. First, a player determines their character's ability scores, which consist of Strength, Dexterity, Intelligence and Charisma; each edition of the game has offered differing methods of determining these statistics. The player chooses a race such as human or elf, a character class such as fighter or wizard, an alignment, other features to round out the character's abilities and backstory, which have varied in nature through differing editions. During the game, players describe their PC's intended actions, such as punching an opponent or pi
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis was the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and the Super Aladdin Boy. Designed by an R&D team supervised by Hideki Sato and Masami Ishikawa, the Genesis was adapted from Sega's System 16 arcade board, centered on a Motorola 68000 processor as the CPU, a Zilog Z80 as a sound controller, a video system supporting hardware sprites and scrolling, it plays a library of more than 900 games created by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers and delivered on ROM-based cartridges. Several add-ons were released, including a Power Base Converter to play Master System games.
It was released in several different versions, some created by third parties. Sega created two network services to support the Genesis: Sega Channel. In Japan, the Mega Drive fared poorly against its two main competitors, Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine, but it achieved considerable success in North America and Europe. Contributing to its success were its library of arcade game ports, the popularity of Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog series, several popular sports franchises, aggressive youth marketing that positioned the system as the cool console for adolescents; the release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System two years after the Genesis resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe, termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.
Controversy surrounding violent games such as Night Trap and Mortal Kombat led Sega to create the Videogame Rating Council, a predecessor to the Entertainment Software Rating Board. 30.75 million first-party Genesis units were sold worldwide. In addition, Tec Toy sold an estimated three million licensed variants in Brazil, Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million licensed variants of the system in the United States, much smaller numbers were sold by Samsung in South Korea. By the mid-2010s, licensed third-party Genesis rereleases were still being sold by AtGames in North America and Europe. Many games have been rereleased in compilations or on online services such as the Nintendo Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, Steam; the Genesis was succeeded in 1994 by the Sega Saturn. In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc. a subsidiary of Gulf & Western, was one of the top five arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, as company revenues surpassed $200 million between July 1981 and June 1982.
A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 hurt the company, leading Gulf & Western to sell its North American arcade manufacturing organization and the licensing rights for its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained Sega's North American R&D operation, as well as its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed with this project, leading to the release of Sega's first home video game system, the SG-1000, in July 1983; the SG-1000 was not successful. Sega estimated; the SG-1000 was replaced by the Sega Mark III within two years. In the meantime, Gulf & Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company.
Nakayama was installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. In 1986, Sega redesigned the Mark III for release in North America as the Sega Master System; this was followed by a European release the next year. Although the Master System was a success in Europe, in Brazil, it failed to ignite significant interest in the Japanese or North American markets, which, by the mid-to-late 1980s, were both dominated by Nintendo. With Sega continuing to have difficulty penetrating the home market, Sega's console R&D team, led by Masami Ishikawa and supervised by Hideki Sato, began work on a successor to the Master System immediately after that console launched. In 1987, Sega faced another threat to its console business when Japanese computer giant NEC released the PC Engine amid great publicity. To remain competitive against the two more established consumer electronics companies and his team decided they needed to incorporate a 16-bit microprocessor into their new system to make an impact in the marketplace and once again turned to Sega's strengths in the arcade industry to adapt the successful Sega System 16 arcade board into architecture for a home console.
The decision to use a Motorola 68000 as the system's main CPU was made late in development, while a Zilog Z80 was used as a secondary CPU to handle the sound due to f
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Frank Klepacki is an American musician, video game composer and sound director, best known for his work on the Command & Conquer series. Having learned to play drums as a child, he joined Westwood Studios as a composer when he was 17 years old, he has scored several games there, including the Lands of Lore series, Westwood Studios' Dune games, The Legend of Kyrandia series, Blade Runner, the Command & Conquer series. His work in Command & Conquer: Red Alert won two awards, he lives in Las Vegas, where he has shaped a solo career and played and produced for several local bands. His personal and band work touches upon several genres, including orchestral, rock music, hip hop music, soul music, funk, he has dubbed the style of music he writes as "Rocktronic". His work has appeared including the Spike TV program The Ultimate Fighter. Klepacki is the audio director of Petroglyph games, where he scored Star Wars: Empire at War. Klepacki was contacted to score Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars, but was too busy with Petroglyph to take the project, declined to mention the offer.
Klepacki composed three songs, including "Hell March 3", for Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 by EA Los Angeles. His solo CD entitled Viratia is packaged with a comic he helped produce. Klepacki was raised by a family of musicians of Polish and Italian descent who played on the Las Vegas strip, he drew art as a hobby. He received his first drumset at age 8 and began performing professionally by age 11. Among his early influences were electronica and heavy metal groups, including Depeche Mode, Afrika Bambaataa, AC/DC, Iron Maiden. Seeking to master guitar and keyboards, he formed local bands and created a demo tape of original material by age 17, his impetus for diversifying his instrumental abilities was "not being able to communicate with other band members on ideas...for original songs." His first piece of audio gear was a TASCAM 4-track cassette recorder, which he used to record demos, band practices, live shows. After learning to program BASIC on a Tandy 1000 and becoming interested in computer and video games, he applied for a job as a game tester at Westwood studios.
He submitted his demo tape—described as "an acoustic guitar song with electric guitar leads and keyboard strings, raining sound effects"—to the company's audio director. The growing company enlisted him as a composer for the NES port of DragonStrike and the computer game Eye of the Beholder II, he composed with MIDI sequencing for several other Dungeons & Dragons games. In 1992, he helmed the audio of Dune II, he noted that he pushed the sequencing program on his Amiga to the limit while scoring the game. While working on Disney's The Lion King in 1994, he and the Westwood team were shown sketches of the unfinished feature film. Film composer Hans Zimmer praised Klepacki for reworking his scores. After finishing the third entry into The Legend of Kyrandia series. In 1994, Klepacki met with Westwood Studios developers to discuss the soundtrack of the company's next project—Command & Conquer. To define the game's style, Klepacki listened to a number of bands, including Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, which would supply the iconic industrial style found in the majority of the songs.
He added his own touch to create a unique sound. With the company's recent shift to 22 kHz audio, Klepacki composed with an ASR-10 sampler, a Roland S760 sampler, a Roland JD 990 synth module, an electric guitar; the first few songs he composed for Command & Conquer contained voice samples—including the notable pieces Act on Instinct and No Mercy. The samples were found to interfere with the game's spoken audio, were replaced with versions lacking the voices, although the original versions can still be found on the DOS C&C and Covert Operations discs. Complete versions of the songs appeared on the game's commercial soundtrack, he would continue to sample clips from film and other media throughout his career, using a quote from The Brain from Planet Arous in the Yuri's Revenge soundtrack Brainfreeze, for example. Klepacki next composed instrumental pieces for Command & Conquer, drawing influences from orchestral, heavy metal, hip hop music. For the credits, Klepacki wrote Airstrike, featuring a hook used in Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun for the Global Defense Initiative.
Conversely, the Brotherhood of Nod ending used the song Destructible Times written by Klepacki's local band, I AM. Developers requested the song because it "reflected the war aspect and bad-ass vibe of Nod's side." The C&C expansion pack The Covert Operations featured seven new ambient pieces, all of which were included on the disc in high quality CD Audio format. Though the soundtrack was not released through retail, Westwood sold it by special order through its website and in game catalogues. While working on Covert Operations, Klepacki composed Hell March from the idea of "a rock tune to marching boots," finishing the song in one day after inventing the guitar riff. Upon listening, director Brett Sperry insisted this song be used as the signature theme of Command & Conquer: Red Alert. Intended for use with the Brotherhood of Nod, it features militaristic samples—including marching, industrial sounds, a commander shouting orders. Klepacki scored Red Alert with sci-fi camp in mind, but early songs were shelved.
He switched gears to write gritty pie
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. Many genres incorporate first-person perspectives, among them adventure games, driving and flight simulators. Most notable is the first-person shooter, in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay. Games with a first-person perspective are avatar-based, wherein the game displays what the player's avatar would see with the avatar's own eyes. Thus, players cannot see the avatar's body, though they may be able to see the avatar's weapons or hands; this viewpoint is frequently used to represent the perspective of a driver within a vehicle, as in flight and racing simulators. Games with a first-person perspective do not require sophisticated animations for the player's avatar, nor do they need to implement a manual or automated camera-control scheme as in third-person perspective.
A first-person perspective allows for easier aiming, since there is no representation of the avatar to block the player's view. However, the absence of an avatar can make it difficult to master the timing and distances required to jump between platforms, may cause motion sickness in some players. Players have come to expect first-person games to scale objects to appropriate sizes. However, key objects such as dropped items or levers may be exaggerated in order to improve their visibility. While many games featured a side-scrolling or top-down perspective during the 1970s and 80's, several early games attempted to render the game world from the perspective of the player. While light gun shooters have a first-person perspective, they are distinct from first-person shooters, which use conventional input devices for movement, it is not clear when the earliest such first-person shooter video game was created. There are two claimants and Maze War; the uncertainty about, first stems from the lack of any accurate dates for the development of Maze War—even its developer cannot remember exactly.
In contrast, the development of Spasim is the dates more certain. The initial development of Maze War occurred in the summer of 1973. A single player made their way through a simple maze of corridors rendered using fixed perspective. Multiplayer capabilities, with players attempting to shoot each other, were added in 1973 and in the summer of 1974. Spasim was developed in the spring of 1974. Players moved with gameplay resembling the 2D game Empire ire. Graphically, Spasim lacked hidden line removal, but did feature online multiplayer over the worldwide university-based PLATO network. Spasim had a documented debut at the University of Illinois in 1974; the game was a rudimentary space flight simulator. Futurewar by high-school student Erik K. Witz and Nick Boland based on PLATO, is sometimes claimed to be the first true FPS; the game included a vector image of other armaments that pointed at the monsters. Set in A. D. 2020, Futurewar anticipated Doom, although as to Castle Wolfenstein's transition to a futuristic theme, the common PLATO genesis is coincidental.
A further notable PLATO FPS was the tank game Panther, introduced in 1975 acknowledged as a precursor to Battlezone. 1979 saw the release of two first-person space combat games: the Exidy arcade game Star Fire and Doug Neubauer's seminal Star Raiders for the Atari 8-bit family. Star Raiders was followed by a series of similar games, including Starmaster for the Atari 2600, Space Spartans for Intellivision, Shadow Hawk One for the Apple II, went on to influence major first-person games of the 1990s such as Wing Commander and X-Wing. Atari, Inc.'s 1983 Star Wars arcade game leaned on action rather than tactics, but offered 3D color vector renderings of TIE Fighters and the surface of the Death Star. Other shooters with a first-person view from the early 1980s include Taito's Space Seeker in 1981, Horizon V for the Apple II the same year, Imagic's Star Voyager for the Atari 2600 in 1982, Sega's stereoscopic arcade game SubRoc-3D in 1982, Novagen's Encounter in 1983, EA's Skyfox for the Apple II in 1984.
Flight simulators were a first-person staple in the 1980s, including the series from subLOGIC, which became Microsoft Flight Simulator. MicroProse found a niche with first-person aerial combat games: Hellcat Ace, Spitfire Ace, F-15 Strike Eagle. Amidst a flurry of faux-3D first -person maze games where the player was locked into one of four orientations, like Spectre, 3D Monster Maze, Phantom Slayer, Dungeons of Daggorath, came the 1982 release of Paul Edelstein's Wayout from Sirius Software. Not a shooter, it has smooth, arbitrary movement that came from what was labeled a raycasting engine, giving it a visual fluidity seen in future games MIDI Maze and Wolfenstein 3D, it was followed in 1983 by the split-screen Capture the Flag, allowing two players at once, foreshadowing a common gameplay mode for 3D games of the 1990s. The arrival of the Atari ST and Amiga in 1985, the Apple IIGS a year increased the computing power and graphical capabilities available in consumer-level machines, leading to a new wave of innovation.
1987 saw the release of an important transitional game for the genre. Unlike its contemporaries, MIDI Maze used raycasting to speedily draw square corridors, it offered a networked multi
All Media Network
RhythmOne is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame, SideReel and Celebified. The company was founded in 1990 by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine. RhythmOne offices are located in San Francisco and Ann Arbor, United States, several other locations across the country. All Music Guide was launched in 1991. In 1994 the All Movie Guide was launched and in 1998 the All Game Guide; the company was founded in Michigan in 1990 by Michael Erlewine. With the All Music Guide the aim was to " discographic information on every artist who's made a record since Enrico Caruso gave the industry its first big boost", which launched in 1991, they expanded with the All Movie Guide in 1994, the All Game Guide in 1998. Moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1999 to take advantage of the "rich talent pool". AMG was a business unit within Alliance Entertainment Corporation from 1996 until early 2005. Alliance was acquired in 1999 by a multibillion-dollar fund based in California. Macrovision announced on November 6, 2007 that it had agreed to purchase All Media Guide for a reported $102 million.
For a time, all of the guides were controlled by Rovi's nameservers and combined access to the All Music and All Movie Guides was provided via AllRovi.com from 2011 until 2013. In 2013, Rovi sold consumer access of the content to the newly established All Media Network, LLC, but retained control of licensing the content to other businesses; the overall website is allmedianetwork.com. Rovi sold the consumer access to them to newly established All Media Network, LLC in 2013, while retaining ownership and maintenance of the content itself; the AllGame section of the site was shut down on December 12, 2014. On April 16, 2015 Blinkx Plc acquired All Media Network and rebranded the website under the new unified RhythmOne Group banner. AllMusic is an online database which provides access to information about songs, musicians and musical styles alongside staff-authored news, biographies and recommendations; the content was published in book form in 1991 as the All Music Guide, is now available to the public for online reference and information as well as available via licensing for point-of-sale systems, media players, online music stores.
RhythmOne produces the AllMusic guide series that includes the All Music Guide to Jazz and the All Music Guide to the Blues. Vladimir Bogdanov is the president of the series. AllMovie, launched in 1994 as the All Movie Guide, provides access to information about actors and filmmakers with staff-authored news, reviews and recommendations, it offers limited information about Television productions, focused on those released on DVD. Like AllMusic, this content is available via licensing to point-of-sale systems, media players, online stores. AllGame was active between 1998–2014 as the All Game Guide, it offered information and reviews about many console, hand held, PC games released in the US; the site started in February 1998 with the goal of becoming the most comprehensive game database available. In a farewell message on their site, the staff noted that they "didn't all know what we were doing in those early days but it was an exciting time to be helping build an online game database before the Internet exploded with numerous websites dedicated to video games."
SideReel, launched in 2007, is a TV community site which provides information about TV shows and episodes. Celebified offers celebrity news and interviews and started in 2012. RhythmOne's database was set up by Vladimir Bogdanov to hold the information of Erlewine's many lists. Information in the database is licensed and used in point-of-sale systems by some music retailers, includes the following: Basic data: names, credits, copyright information, product numbers. Descriptive content: styles, moods, nationalities. Relational content: similar artists and albums, influences. Editorial content: biographies, rankings; the company claims to have the largest digital archive of music, including about six million digital songs, as well as the largest cover art library, with more than half a million cover image scans. The AllMusic database is used by several generations of Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox to identify and organize music collections. Windows Media Player 11 and the integrated MTV Urge music store have expanded the use of AllMusic data to include related artists, reviews and other data.
All Media Network licenses large databases of metadata about movies, video games, audio books, music releases from Rovi Corporation and publishes them online for consumer use. This includes credits, staff-written biographies, reviews and recommendations as well as categories such as theme or mood. Rovi makes this content available for point of sale systems in stores globally, for CD and DVD recognition in software media players such as Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox, for providing content for a variety of websites including iTunes and Spotify. All Media Guide sold print compilations of its information. Stephen Thomas Erlewine, senior editor of AllMusic List of online music databases Official website