Cavendish is a township in the Shire of Southern Grampians in the Western District of Victoria, Australia on the Wannon River. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 454; the township was settled in the early 1850s, the Post Office opening on 1 April 1853. A railway line linking the town to Hamilton was opened on 2 November 1915; the local pub, The Bunyip Hotel is placed right on the banks of the Wannon River. The Bridge Cafe is a small general store, with gas bottle exchange available, clean and welcoming dine-in facilities. There is a walk along the Wannon River, with views of waterbirds and other birds, as well as sheep, along with cattle, are a major local industry. Four churches service the Community. There is a caravan/camping area, a Police Station, some accommodation if required; the Kindergarten and Primary School are well attended. Cavendish is a little stop between Dunkeld, the Grampians and Halls Gap, as well as being between Horsham and Hamilton and many other rural towns.
The mobile library from Hamilton makes regular visits, there is a Men's Shed. It has a football team playing in the South West District Football League. Media related to Cavendish, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
Byaduk is a township in the Shire of Southern Grampians in the Western District of Victoria, Australia. European settlement began around 1853 by Wendish or Sorbian Lutheran immigrants who gave it the name Neukirch after the town in Saxony; the township was settled in the early 1860s, named Byaduk, an aboriginal word meaning "stone tomahawk". The Post Office opened on 1 August 1863; the Byaduk Caves, lava tubes from the volcanic eruption of Mount Napier, are nearby. You can see extensive views of the lava flow at Harmans Valley and the tumuli lava blisters off Old Crushers Road. Sergeant Simon Fraser, 57th Battalion, is honoured by a 1998 sculpture by Peter Corlett in the Australian Memorial Park in Fromelles, France and a 2008 replica at the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne depicting him rescuing a wounded compatriot from no man's land after the Battle of Fromelles in 1916. Media related to Byaduk at Wikimedia Commons Video of VC Corner and Australian Memorial Park, Fromelles. Jason Fielding
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Nicholas Chevalier was a Russian-born artist who worked in Australia and New Zealand. Chevalier was born in St Petersburg, the son of Louis Chevalier, who came from Vaud and was overseer to the estates of the Prince de Wittgenstein in Russia. Nicholas' mother was Russian. Nicholas left Russia with his father in 1845, studied painting and architecture in Lausanne, Switzerland and at Munich; the materials used in this painting are oil paints on canvas. In 1851 Chevalier worked as an illustrator in lithography and watercolour, he designed a fountain, erected in the royal grounds at Osborne, two of his paintings were hung at the Academy in 1852. Further study in painting followed at Rome. In late 1854 Chevalier sailed from London to Australia on board the'Swallow' to join his father and brother, arrived in Melbourne on 25 December. In August 1855 he obtained work as a cartoonist on the newly established Melbourne Punch, he did illustrative work for the Illustrated Australian News and worked in chromolithography.
He accompanied explorer/meteorologist Georg von Neumayer on trips to remote areas of Victoria, the material gathered on such journeys resulted in some of his most recognised pieces of this period, including his painting of Mount Arapiles in Western Victoria. In 1864, when the National Gallery of Victoria was founded, an exhibition of works by Victorian artists was held; the government agreed to buy the best picture exhibited for £200. Chevalier's oil painting The Buffalo Ranges was selected, was the first picture painted in Australia to be included in the Melbourne collection. In 1865 Chevalier visited New Zealand and doing much work there, exhibited at Melbourne on his return. In 1869 he joined HMS Galatea as an artist with the Duke of Edinburgh, on the voyage to the East and back to London with stops in Tahiti, Japan, China and India; the pictures painted during the voyage were exhibited at South Kensington. In January 1874 Chevalier was commissioned by Queen Victoria to travel to St Petersburg and paint a picture of the marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh.
Chevalier made London his base and was a continual exhibitor at the Academy from 1871 to 1887. He had one picture in the 1895 Academy but had given up painting by then. Chevalier died in London on 15 March 1902. Chevalier married Caroline Wilkie in a relative of Sir David Wilkie, who survived him. Chevalier was a man of much personal charm and spoke fluent French, Russian, German and Portuguese, he was a good amateur musician being second violinist in the Royal Amateur Orchestral Society, started by officers in the Galatea and in which the duke was first violin. The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, the Dunedin Public Art Gallery, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the National Gallery of Victoria, the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, Art Gallery of New South Wales and the National Library of Australia are among the public collections holding works by Nicholas Chevalier. In 2011 Nicholas Chevalier was the subject of a major survey exhibition and publication,'Australian Odyssey', mounted by the Gippsland Art Gallery, subsequently toured to the Geelong Gallery, Victoria.
Melvin Day, Nicholas Chevalier - Artist - His Life and Work with Special Reference to His Career in New Zealand and Australia. Wellington, New Zealand: Millwood Press, 1981. ISBN 0-908582-37-4 Marjorie J. Tipping,'Chevalier, Nicholas', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 3, MUP, 1969, pp 387–388. Forbes, David W. Encounters with Paradise: Views of Hawaii and its People, 1778-1941, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1992, 92 & 162-163. Serle, Percival. "Chevalier, Nicholas". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Neil Roberts, Nicholas Chevalier: an artist’s journey through Canterbury in 1866. Christchurch, New Zealand: Robert McDougall Art Gallery, 1992. Simon Gregg, Nicholas Chevalier: Australian Odyssey. Sale, Australia: Gippsland Art Gallery, 2011. Andrew Sayers, Australian Art. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 2001. Nicholas Chevalier biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography Artworks in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Artworks in the collection of the National Gallery of Australia "Chevalier, Nicolas".
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Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Pigeon Ponds is a locality in south west Victoria, Australia. The locality is in the Shire of Southern Grampians, on the Coleraine-Edenhope Road, 353 kilometres west of the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2016 census, Pigeon Ponds had a population of 29. Media related to Pigeon Ponds at Wikimedia Commons
Dunkeld and Birnam
Dunkeld and Birnam is a community council area and UK Census locality in Perth and Kinross, consisting of two villages on opposite banks of the River Tay: the historic cathedral "city" of Dunkeld on the north bank, Birnam on the south bank. The two were first linked by a bridge built in 1809 by Thomas Telford; the two places lie close to the Highland Boundary Fault, which marks the geological boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands, are described as the "Gateway to the Highlands" due to their position on the main road and rail lines north. Dunkeld and Birnam share a railway station, Dunkeld & Birnam, on the Highland Main Line, are about 24 kilometres north of Perth on what is now the A9 road. Dunkeld lies on the eastern side of the A9 on the north bank of the River Tay; the town is the location of Dunkeld Cathedral. Around 20 of the houses within Dunkeld have been restored by the National Trust for Scotland, who run a shop within the town; the Hermitage, on the western side of the A9, is a countryside property, a National Trust for Scotland site.
Birnam lies opposite Dunkeld, on the south bank of the Tay, to which it is linked by the Telford bridge. It is the location of the Birnam Oak, believed to the only remaining tree from the Birnam Wood named in Shakespeare's Macbeth; the Highland games held at Birnam are the location of the World Haggis Eating Championships. The name Dùn Chailleann means Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians. The'fort' is the hill fort on King's Seat north of the town. Both these place-names imply an early importance for the area of the town and bishop's seat, stretching back into the Iron Age. Dunkeld is said to have been'founded' or'built' by Caustantín son of Fergus, king of the Picts; this founding referred to one of an ecclesiastical nature on a site of secular importance, a Pictish monastery is known to have existed on the site. Kenneth I of Scotland is reputed to have brought relics of St Columba from Iona in 849, in order to preserve them from Viking raids, building a new church to replace the existing structures, which may been constructed as a simple group of wattle huts.
The relics were divided in Kenneth's time between Dunkeld and the Columban monastery at Kells, Co. Meath, Ireland, to preserve them from Viking raids. The'Apostles' Stone', an elaborate but badly worn cross-slab preserved in the cathedral museum, may date to this time. A well-preserved bronze'Celtic' hand bell kept in the church of the parish of Little Dunkeld on the south bank of the River Tay opposite Dunkeld, may survive from the early monastery: a replica is kept in the cathedral museum; the dedication of the medieval cathedral was to St Columba. This early church was for a time the chief ecclesiastical site of eastern Scotland. An entry in the Annals of Ulster for 865 refers to the death of Tuathal, son of Artgus, primepscop of Fortriu and Abbot of Dunkeld; the monastery was raided in 903 by Danish Vikings sailing up the River Tay, but continued to flourish into the 11th century. At that time, its abbot, Crínán of Dunkeld, married one of the daughters of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda and became the ancestor of Kings of Scots through their son Donnchad.
The see of Dunkeld was revived by Alexander I. Between 1183 and 1189 the newly formed diocese of Argyll was separated from that of Dunkeld, which extended to the west coast of Scotland. By 1300 the Bishops of Dunkeld administered a diocese comprising sixty parish churches, a number of them oddly scattered within the sees of St Andrews and Dunblane; the much-restored cathedral choir, still in use as the parish church, is unaisled and dates to the 13th and 14th centuries. The aisled nave was erected from the early 15th century; the western tower, south porch and chapter house were added between 1450 and 1475. The cathedral was stripped of its rich furnishings after the mid-16th century Reformation and its iconoclasm; the nave and porch have been roofless since the early 17th century. They and the tower in the 21st century are in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Below the ceiling vault of the tower ground floor are remnants of pre-Reformation murals showing biblical scenes, one of few such survivals in Scotland.
The clearest to survive is a representation of the Judgement of Solomon. This reflects the medieval use of this space as the Bishop's Court. Within the tower are preserved fragments of stonework associated with the cathedral and the surrounding area, including a Pictish carving of a horseman with a spear and drinking-horn, a number of medieval grave-monuments; the cathedral museum is housed in the former chapter house and sacristy, on the north side of the choir. After the Reformation this chamber was used as a burial aisle by the Earls and Dukes of Atholl, contains a number of elaborate monuments of the 17th-early 19th centuries. Preserved within the museum are two early Christian cross-slabs, a number of communion and other items, a display on the history of Dunkeld and the cathedral. In June 2005, there was a major theft from the cathedral museum. Items stolen included a quaich, communion cups, and'a cast-bronze beadle’s bell with a wooden handle, used in the cathedral from the 17th century.'
Most of the original town was destroyed during the Battle of Dunkeld when, in August 1689, the 26th Foot fought the Jacobites shortly after the latter's vic